AP Chemistry 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
NO2 1-
2, 3
Quantum Theory
CN. Charge: -
hydrogen sulfate
HSO4 -1
positron (stopping sheild)
Conjugate base + water
A positively charged ion.
moles of solute/kg of solvent
Base decomposition
Water and metal oxide
Metal Hydroxide
Metaloxide + Water -->
insoluble with SO4^2-
Ca+2 Ba+2 Sr+2 Ag+
hydrogen bond
strong intermoleuclar force between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and a highly electronegative atom of another molecule
nonmetal oxides
tend to form acidic solutions
element with different numbers of neutrons.
Write the name(s) for: NaHSO₄
sodium bisulfate
Glucose + Fructose = table sugar
actual yield
the amount of product actually obtained in reaction
flow of solvent particles from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution
concentration cell
galvanic cell in which both compartments contain the same components, but at different concentrations
Hund's rule
Electrons always occupy an empty orbital if available (order of filling)
Group 6A
-Oxygen, sulfur, and selenium are nonmetals.
-Tellurium is a metalloid.
-The radioactive polonium is a metal.
-Oxygen is a colorless, gas seen as O2 and O3 (ozone). they are alloptopes
-Sulfur is a weaker oxidizer than oxygen.
The most stable allotrope is S8, a ringed molecule.
ionic compound
1 non metal + 1 metal
attractive forces are negligible
kinetic molecular theory 4
Celsius Scale
Centigrade Scale- temperature scale in general scientific use
Protein w/ 15+ amino acid groups
Conjugated Proteins
organic chemistry
sudy of compounds of carbon, compounds are often in combination with oxygen, nitrogen, or other elements
when pi bonds cannot be described as individual electron-pair bonds between neighboring atoms
capillary tubes
very small tubes used for experiments with very small amounts of liquid or solids
Ball-and-stick model
a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly
atoms of the same atomic number, but with different mass numbers
a technique in which one solution is used to analyze another
molecular compound
a compound held together by covalent bonds
Matter that has a distinct volume but no specific shape.
the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity
* Structural role in plant cell walls* Tough & insoluble* Non digestable by humans, provides dietary fiber or roughage* 1 of the main polysaccharides
polyatomic ions
ions that consist of atoms joined as in a molecule, but have a net positive or negative charge
equilibrium vapor pressure
pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid; point at which the number of molecules in the vapor state remains solid
heat capacity
amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an object by one degree Celsius
Colored Solution Dichromate ion (Cr2O72-)
str oxidizing agent - orange
Enthalpy (heat) of solution
the enthalpy change associated with the formation of the solution which is the ΔH is: ΔHsoln = ΔH1 + ΔH2 + ΔH3
A measure of the amount of material in an object. It measures the resistance of an object to being moved. In SI units, mass is measured in kilograms.
a form of matter that has a definite or contstant compostiion
fuel value
energy released when 1 g of a material is combusted, represents the heat released in a combustion, and are positive numbers
Antibonding molecular orbital
an orbiting higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed
Mass percent
the percent by mass of a component of a mixture or of a given element in a compound
percent dissociation
the ratio of the amount of a substance that is dissociated at equilibrium to the initial concentration of the substance in a solution, multiplied by 100
Activated complex (transition state)
the arrangement of atoms found at the tope of the potential energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products
Law of Multiple Proportions
A scientific law stating that when two elements can combine to form more than one compound the amounts of one of them that combines with a fixed amount of the other will exhibit a simple multiple relation.
The principle reason for the extremely low solubility of NaCl in benzene (I'm not sure what else this answer applies to)
The great weakness of solute-solvent interaction
How do we observe the decrease in vapor pressure when solute is added to a solution?
P =XP°
P=vapor pressure of the solution
P°= vapor pressure of the pure solvent
X = the mole fraction of the solvent
Van der Waals Equation for Nonideal conditions
nRT = (P + n^2a/v^2)(v − nb)
R = 0.0821 L-atm/mol-K
sulfuric acid
Core Electrons
C2H3O2. Charge: -
All common chlorates
Main Group Elements
equal to 10^5 Pascals
covalent compound
2 non metals
[quantized electron energy levels]
the electrons have only certain allowed energy levels
Ernest Rutherford
gold-foil experiment, discovered nucleus, protons. and three types of radioactivity
A negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the atomic nucleus; it is a part of all atoms and has 1/1836 the mass of a proton.
a thermodynamic function that measures randomness or disorder
description of a solution that contains as much dissolved solute as it can under existing conditions
process that involves forcing a current through a cell to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur
addition polymerization
polymerization that occurs through coupling monomers with one another, with no other products formed in the reaction.
Write the name(s) for: BaO₂
barium peroxide
1 less oxygen atom than -ate ion
Abfau principle
electrons are placed in orbitals, subshells, and shells in order of increasing energy
Homogeneous equilibrium
reactions in which all reacting species are in the same phase
Reactivity____ as you go down a group
larger than neutral atom because more electrons are available for shielding (but same Z)
the orbitals of s subshells are what
well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
- elements with unpaired e-
- affected by magnetic fields
Anion Nomenclature 2 (oxyanions)
polyatomic anions containing oxygen have names ending in -ate or -ite (ClO4 - perchlorate ion, ClO3 - chlorate ion, ClO2 - chlorite ion, ClO- hypochlorite ion)
linear, linear
2 electron domains: 2 bonding, 0 nonbonding; s,p atomic orbital set, two sp hybrid orbital set, 180-degrees (CO2)
extensive properties
depend on the amount of the sample
ionic solid (salt)
solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to conduct electrical current
Vapor pressure
pressure exerted by molecules as they escape from the surface
Strong base
a metal hydroxide salt that completely dissociates into its ions in water
Atomic Size
the size(volume) of an atom is determined by the size of electron cloud, going down the table the "n"value of the outer shell increases, going across the table, the n value stays the same but the Zeff increases causing the electron cloud to contract towards the nucleus.
so2, no2, CS2, NO3, CO3-2
molecules containing double bonds
diprotic acid
an acid capable of producing two hydrogen ions
what did de Broglie discover?
matter has wave charcateristics
Scientific Notation
- For +/- in scientific notation, each numbers must be represented in the same powers of 10
- For x, multiply the N values and also add m values
- For ÷, divide the N values and also subtract m values
- When raising exponents to a power, raise the N value to that power and multiply the m value by the power
Avogadro's law
the volume of a gas maintained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas, so V = constant x n
Atomic weight
the weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occuring element
Basic anhydride
combines with water to form a base; generally metal oxides
alkali metals
members of group 1A in the periodic table.
SI Units
The preferred metric units for use in science: kilogram, meter, second, kelvin, mole, ampere, candela.
What is entropy?
The measure of the randomness of system
net ionic equations
what is left in an equation when spectator ions are omitted
equivalence point (stoichiometric point)
point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution being titrated
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction
a reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred
wire loop
A thin wire that can be dipped into a liquid solution containing metal ions. The wire is then inserted in a flame to see the color of the flame produced by the metal ion.
Ca2+, S2-, Cr6+ Ti4+
the configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s 3p6 represents
Le Chateliers Principle: if more reactants
reaction will shift in the forward direction
False (they occur in small specific steps because electromagnetic energy is quantized)
Energy changes occur smoothly - True or False?
Hwo do you find the boiling point elecation when a solute is added to a solution?
ΔT = ikbm
i= Van't Hoff factor
kb the boiling point constant for the solvent
m- molality
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