AP Chemistry Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
NH4OH=
NH3+H2O
nitrite
NO₂-
Cr
Chromium
Sulfate
SO₄²⁻
Cobalt
Co
Se
Selenium
Te
Tellurium
ate
ic acid
Nano
10^-9 (n)
Thiosulfate
S2O3 [[-2]]
Compounds Containing Hydroxides
Insoluble
bronstead acid
H+ donor
James Chadwick
discovered neutron
Compounds containing Acetate, C2H3O2-
Soluble
pure substances
elements or compounds
neutralization reaction
an acid-base reaction
color of solution with co2+
pink
Molality (m)
moles solute/ kilograms solvent
volume
it is the length cubed
renewable energy
sources that are essentially inexhaustible
entropy
a thermodynamic function that measures randomness or disorder
Keq with ΔG
log k = ΔG/rt(-2.303)
[-l, l]
Range of quantum number "m(1)"
molecular structure
the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
isotopic notation
shorthand notation for a nucleus that
shows the mass #, atomic # and the
symbol. U-238 would be ?
238
U 92
atomic mass is weighed average of isotopes
valence orbitals
electrons in an element's outer-shell orbitals
property
any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and distinguish it from other types
isotopes
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
Electron Capture
nucleus captures low energy electron combining it w/a proton to form a neutron; same mass #, subtract 1 from atomic #
amorphous solid
a solid whose molecular arrangement lacks a regular, long-range pattern.
enthalpy
the amount of heat
FORMULA: change in heat = H(products) - H(reactants)
______ in an atom hold everything together
Neutrons
Physical Properties
Properties that can be measured without changing identity and composition of the substance.
strong acids
HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4, HNO3, HIO4, H2SO4, HClO3
NO CLOthes Is BRitish HI CLothes 2SO4
standard enthalpy
the enthalpy change when all reactants and products are in their standard states (1 atm at 298 degrees K (25 degreesC)), deltaHdegrees, degrees to indicate standard-state conditions
surface tension
imbalance of attractive forces at the surface of a liquid that causes the surface to behave as if it had a thin film across it; resistance of a liquid to an increase in the surface area
Catalyst
a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed
Alpha-particle production
a common mode of decay for radio-active nuclides in which the mass number changes
allotrope
different forms of an element in the same state
solvent
is the component of the solution that is present in the greatest amount.
density
the mass per unit volume of a substance
FORMULA: D = (mass) divided by (volume)
Physical properties...
don't change what the substance is (color)
Theoretical Yield
the amount of product that is calculated to form when all of the limiting reagent reacts, the amount actually produced is referred to as actual yield.
Binary compounds
2 elements per compond: all binary compounds end in -ide except H2O, NH3(ammonia) and CH4(methane)
Planck's constant
constant h, value of 6.63 x 10^-34 joule-second (J-s)
graduated cylinder
is used to measure volumes of liquids. They come in various sizes.
Aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
Entropy (ΔS)
measure of how the disorder of a system is changing
systematic error
an error that always occurs in the same direction.
Bronsted-Lowry model
proposes that an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor
Double Replacement Reactions
Two compounds react and the cation in one compound replaced the cation in the second compound and vice versa
the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction
chemical equilibrium
Henderson Hassleback (Buffer solutions)
Weak acid and a base.
pH=pKa + log(base/acid)
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed.
long term E storage thermal insulationfilling spacesbinding organs/tissues togetherprotection & cushioning
Main component of cell membranes
If the moles of gas stays the same
disorder stays practically constant
What did Neils Bohr do ?
-predicited that electrons orbit the nucleus at specific fixed radii
speed of light
= 3.00 x 10^8 m/sec
speed of light = λf
Oxidation Rule #6: In _______ compounds containing elements other than those listed in RULES 3, 4, & 5, the second element will have a negative oxidation number equal to the _______________.
- binary
- charge it would have as a monatomic ion
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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