AP Chemistry Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cr
Chromium
hypoiodite
IO⁻
Mn
Manganese
m
mass
Silicon
Si
Ra
Radium
Nb
Niobium
Mega
10^6
SO2
SO3 2-
Sulfate
SO4 [[-2]]
beta rays
electrons
Compounds Containing S2-
Insoluble
Hydrogen carbonate
HCO3 [[-1]]
Arrhenius Equation
K = Ae^Ea/RT
hydride
binary compound containing hydrogen
gamma (stopping sheild)
Pb (Lead)
22.4
L per mole at STP
nonmetals
-vary greatly in appearance
-dull, brittle substances that are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
-tend to gain electrons in reactions with metals to acquire a noble gas configuration.
-Substances containing only nonmetals are molecular compounds.
-Most nonmetal oxides are acidic.
Dalton
English schoolteacher who reintroduced the theory of matter consisting of atoms, and eventually led to the Atomic Theory (matter composed of atoms, atoms of same elements and vice versa, atoms of an element cannot be changed into different types and neither created nor destroyed, compounds are formed from atoms of 2+ elements combine).
standard solution
reagent solution of known concentration
dessicator
stores solids in a moisture-free environment
Quantum theory
Formulated by Planck, electromagnetic energy is quantized
heterogeneous equilibria
an equilibrium system involving reactants and/or products in more than one phase
Most nitrate salts are soluble
Solubility 1
Noble Gases
The last column on the table.
nuclear energy
energy released in either the splitting or fusion of the nuclei of atoms
solute
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution
corrosion
process by which metals are oxidized in the atmosphere
Gamma Rays
electromagnetic radiation, no mass, no charge; most penetrating of nuclear decay products
Nonelectrolyte
a substance that, when dissolved in water, gives a non-conducting solution
mass
the quantity of matter in an object.
Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass; the physical material of the universe.
Reactants
Starting material, left side of the equation.
Decomposition Reactions
A large molecule decomposes into a elements or into smaller molecules
concentration
the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent or solution
aqueous solution
solution in which the solvent is water
Incomplete octet
molecules in which atoms can have complete outer shell with less than 8 electrons (e.g. Be in BeH2)
Cathode
the electrode in a galvanic cell at which reduction occurs
Water bonds
once made they are hard to break
Molality
the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent in a solution
structural formula
the representation of a molecule in which the relative positions of the atoms are shown and the bonds are indicated by lines.
Empirical Formula
A chemical formula that shows the kinds of atoms and their relative numbers in a substance in the smallest possible whole-number ratios.
Chemical Properties
Properties that describe the way a substnace may change or react to form other substances.
reducing agent
a reactant that donates electrons to another substance to reduce the oxidation state of one of its atoms
heat capacity
amoutn of heat required by an object to raise its temperature by 1 degree K (or 1 degree C)
The sum of all oxidation numbers in a neutral compound is
0
ion- product (dissociation) constant (Kw)
equilibrium constant for the auto-ionization of water; Kw= [H+][OH-]. at 25°C, Kw equals 1.0x10^-14
Spontaneous
-Delta G < 0
-E > 0
- Keq > 1
A general reaction written as 2A + 2B => C + 2D is studied and yields the following data:
[A]o
.100 M, .200 M, .100M
[B]o
.100 M
.100 M
.200 M
Initial delta[C]/delta t
.000040 mol/L s
.000160 mol/L s
.000040 mol/L s
What is the overall order of
...
pi molecular orbital
a molecular orbital in which the electron density is concentrated above and below the line joining the two nuclei of the bonding atoms
law of combining volumes
at a given pressure and temperature, the volumes of gases that react with one another are in the ratios of small whole numbers
Octet Rule
Elements want to be in the most stable set -> complete octet in valence shell, full orbitals
How do we find the partial pressure constant using atmospheres as units?
Kp = Kc(RT)^Δn
Relationship between Kp and Kc
Derived from ideal gas law; equation given -> Kp = Kc x (RT)^delta n
The relationship of spontaneity, enthalpy and entropy?
ΔG= ΔH - TΔS (T in K)
Who discovered the electron cloud and how?
J.J. Thomson discovered electrons (e-) by using a cathode ray tube
Metal Hydroxide and Hydrogen gas
IA and II A metals react with water to form ________
SO4-2
sulfate
chlorite
ClO₂-
Co
Cobalt
Nitrate
NO₃⁻
Beryllium
Be
Db
Dubnium
N
Nitrogen
rate law
...
Giga
10^9 (G)
Hydroxide
OH [[-1]]
Perchlorate
ClO4. Charge: -
oxidizing agent
gains e-s
Branch
Yl --> Methyl
Compounds Containing Ammonium ion
Soluble
filtration
separates solid from liquid
Lithium Flame Test Color
Crimson Red
flame test of li+
dark red
Planck's constant
6.63 X 10^-34 JS
n
l
ml
ms
- shell
- subshell
- orbital
- spin
surrounding
everything besides the system (portion singled out for study)
equilibrium constant
value obtained when equilibrium concentrations of the chemical species are substituted in the equilibrium expression
True
Potential energy of electrons increase with more distance from nucleus - True or False?
ionic bonding
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
soluble with Cl- Br- I-
Ag+ Pb+ Hg2^2+
compounds
substances composed of two or more elements
line spectrum
spectrum showing only certain discrete wavelengths
Alpha decay
least penetrating of products; emits particle with same constituency as a helium nucleus (2 protons & neutrons); subtract 4 from mass number, subtract 2 from atomic number
adsorption
the binding of molecules to a surface
molecule
smallest naturally occurring unit of a compound
Basic
Metal Oxides are generally (acidic or basic?)
Mixtures
Combinations of 2+ substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity and hence properties. Don't have fixed composition (e.g. you could lightly sweeten coffee with sugar or dump in a lot.)
malleability
the ability to pound substance into a sheet
exothermic
system evolves heat, heat flows OUT of the system and into its surroundings, exo = exit
alloy
solid solution in which the atoms of two or more metals are uniformly mixed
Acidic oxide
a covalent oxide that dissolves in water to give an acidic solution
physical properties
can be measure without changing the identity and composition of the substance; for e.g. color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, and hardness
Alkaline earth metals
-have higher densities and melting points than alkali metals.
-Their ionization energies are low, but not as low as those of alkali metals.
-Beryllium does not react with water and magnesium reacts only with steam, but the others react readily with water.
monotomic ions
have oxidation states equal to their given charge
accuracy
how close a measurement is to its known or accepted value
________ electrons to get the mass of one proton
2,000
Coordination Compounds
contains a complex (denoted by [] brackets): A coordination compound may contain more than one complex ion/material that is not part of the comlex, but it has to be neutral overall
transition elements (transition metals)
ten elements from scandium to zinc
evaporating dish
is used for the heating of stable solid compounds and elements.
covalent bonding
type of bonding in which electrons are shared by atoms
pH from a Buffer solution
Henderson Hasselbalch
pH= pKa + log(base/acid)
Avogadro's hypothesis
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
Arrhenius concept
the concept that 1. an acid produces H+ ions when dissolved in water 2. a base produces OH- ions when dissolved in water
Single Replacement Reactions
An element may react with a compound to produce a different element and new compound
I.E. _____ as you go across a period and ______ as you go down a group
increases, decreases
Catalysts and Kp
speeds up reaction but does not affect Kp
physical change
this change alters some aspect of t he physical properties of matter, but the composition remains constant
ex. cutting wood
Four main kinds of biological polymers (macromolecules)
carbs,lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
When Henderson Hassleback doesn't apply (I can't think of an official term)
pH= -log(moles of acid-moles of base/ Total volume)
what do the Quantum numbers describe?
the position of electron
- each electron has four quantum numbers
* 1 glycerol & 3 fatty acids* 95% of food fats are triglycerides* Solid at RT = fats* Liquid at RT = oils* FUNCTIONS - long term E storage, thermal insulation, filling spaces, binding organs/tissues together, protection & cushioning
Functions of Triglycerides
Find the oxidation numbers of Mn(HSO₄)₃
Mn = +3
H = +1
S = +6
O = -2
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