Media and Society Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
price control
...
Google
dominant search engine
SEM
Search Engine Marketing
Philo Fransworth
Transmitted movie images
1844
Development of the Telegraph
Virtually instant communication
Frist time communication was electrified and sepaated from physical transportaiton
One to one form of communication
Checkbook Journalism
Paying for your stories.
Enclosure
enclosing something inside something else
William Dickson
Developed first movie camera
bricoleurs
newcomb/hirsch, seeking and creating new meaning in the combination of cultural elements with embedded significance
FCC
Controls radio frequencies and television
Two categories of books?
trade and text
______ of population uses television as a way of communication in Italy?
80%
demassification
media focus on narrower audience segments
Broadcasting vs. Narrowcasting
Broadcasting (the agriculture metephor)- spreading of seeds vs. Narrowcasting- targeted buyer behavior
upfront
advance advertiser commitments to buy network advertising time
conglomerates
large company formed by consolidation two or mor
Propoganda
Messages designed to change that attitudes and behavior of huge numbers of otherwise disconnected individuals on controversial social issues
The characteristics of an audience such as age, sex, race, level of income, etc. -
Demographics
Pseudo Event
anything created to attract media coverage, like photo ops, press conferences, etc.
scarcity model
The station licensing system created in 1927 was based on a scarcity model. The shortage of available frequencies necessitated regulation if the young radio industry were to realize its potential for tha common good of the American people.
inverted pyramid style is associated with
objective journalism
fireside chats
fanciful term for president franklin roosevelt's radio addresses
Covergance
Magazines about other media (ex. T.V. Guide a way to provide information and promote tv and tabloids are promotional materical for celebraties)
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger had no political experience but became popular by attacking existing institutions. He can best be described as a
populist candidate
studio system
when major studios controlled all aspects of the movie industry
Lotz
lotz examines changes in the U.S. television industry over the past twenty years, relating these changes to distribution and industry practices, digitization and technology, the viewing experience, governmental policies, and textual formations. She explains network and post network era developments related to media ownership, on demand technologies, and audience expectations, to name a few developments. EXAMPLE: fear factor
*Libel
A written defamation
When the mass media carry disparaging descriptions and comments, they risk being sued for libel. The media have a strong defense if the libel was accurate. If not, there can be big trouble. Libel is a SERIOUS matter. Not only are reputations at stake when defamation occurs, but also losing a suit can be so costly that it can put a publication or broadcast organization out of business.
Catharsis Hypothesis
Assumption that we all have innate aggressive, violent and sexual impulses.  The media allows us to channel and release those impulses in a healthy, non-violent way.
Content analysis
Computing the proportion of certain words or context as a whole in TV programming to to discover what the content is perceived as.Ex. 1994 four TV networks a 1.5 million dollar research project to analyze TV content, 10 network shows were found to be highly violent. Cable was found to have much greater levels of violence.
Copyright
The exclusive right to use, publish, and distribute a work such as a piece of writing, music, film, or video; ownership of a piece of intellectual property
Ivy Ledbetter Lee
In 1906, he established the "Declaration of Principles," which included the concept that PR practitioners have a public responsibility. most famous clients were the Pennsylvania Railroad and John D. Rockefeller
phases of mass media evolution
Invention:
 Something is created
Entrepreneurship:
 Someone comes along and says the invention is useful for something to make money
An industry:
 When you start making money an industry shows up
 Oligopolies or monopolies occur
Maturation:
 Then trade groups sprout
• An organization created by related endeavors, sometimes competi-tors, to pursue mutual goals
• Groups inside the industry trying to control the flow of the industry
About William Shockley
-won nobel prize
-hard to work with
capitalism
an economic system with profit as the incentive for producing goods and services
In which case did the government attempt prior restraint against the New York Times?
Pentagon Papers
Sergey Bin, Larry Page
creators of google search engine
ancillary/secondary markets
movie revenue sources other than the domestic box office (foreign, video rights, as well as tie-ins and product placements)
True or false: Listening to a politician through a filter of what we think of him or her is an example of symbolic interactionism.
a) True
b) False
a) True
Johannes Gutenberg
1. Printing Press
2. Impact of this is perhpas the greate impact in media technology of all time
3. Lead to the spread of literacy, art and the enlightenment (Renaissance: art, architecture, music, literature, etc.)
Agencies of socialization
Groups that contribute to an individual's behaviors, values, and roles.Ex. Parents, School, Friends, Siblings, Mass Media, Personal Experience.
Publicity vs. PR
PR builds and establishes good relationships with key constituents. Publicity is a tool for PR people.
Access for Exposure
In which the publication offers the publicist exposure, provided they get access to the stories they want.
Mass Media Communication
(talking to everyone through a medium such as a TV) Least accurate form of communitcating b/c of whisper down the lane aspect. Because there is a medium between the sender and the reciever, there is a higher chance that the intended messages of the reciever will be altered or misunderstood by the recieving party (because there is no feedback, no role taking, and non verbaal and visual cues are not there)=> American Idol was created to try to make Mass Media Communication more interactive
The idea that the audience for mass media is increasingly less mass refers to:
Audience Fragmentation
Publisher Charlie Gay of the Shelton, Washington, Journal, prints the names of rape victims and details the crime. He says that this is
"good basic journalism"
Eric Salomon
He avoided using flash in the early 1900's in many indoor photos thereby allowing him to shoot candid photos of groups.
8) "Modern Times" is a critique of what concept?
a) Hypodermic needle model
b) Modernism
c) Postmodernism
d) Symbolic interactionism
e) The spiral of silence
b) Modernism



Genre Forms Practitioners Ask about their Audiences
Setting, Typical Characters, Patterns of Action
What is gatekeeping
Control over the flow of news information by media professionals
1930's film
people went to the theater to get away from the drudgery of the great depression.
1927 Federal Radio Act
created a government agency to license radio stations
Camera Obscura
Latin for room, dark. A small hole in the wall of a dark room will result in a reflection of the outside scene on the opposite wall. This term was first used by Johannes Kepler. Chinese philosopher Mo-Ti referred to this phenomenon in the 5th century BC when he called a darkened room a collecting place or the locked treasure room.
*Gan's categories of journalists' values: Ethnocentrism (1)
1.)Ethnocentrism: Seeing things on a basis of personal experience; values
What is horizontal integration
is demonstrated when a company owns many outlets of the same type of medum
Postmodern Fandom As A Class Marker
Tearing apart celebrities shows that you have culture and taste.
John D.Rockefeller Jr.
Ivy Lee client who had been the target of public hatred
Book from 1455-1994
1 Still based on ink and paper
2. Had to go the book store/libarry to get a book
3. Goal of the library was the same in Egyptian times as it is today: to find one place where all knowledge is shared.
Agenda-setting (agenda-setting function)
the role and influence of the media in bringing topic and issues to public attention; the media helps define what people think about
Roles of Technology in Sampling (Shocklee Bros)
Technitions like those in Public Enemy mess with communication technology to reconstruct music
*Influences in catalytic theory of violence
1.) Whether violence portrayed in the media are rewarded:
-In 1984, David Philips of the University of Cali at San Diego founded that the murder rate increases after publicized prizefights, in which the victor is rewarded, and decreases after publicized murder trials and executions, in which, violence is punished.
2.) Whether media exposure is heavy:
-Researcher Monroe Lefkowitz studied upstate New York third-graders who watched a lot of media-depicted violence. Ten years later, Lefkowitz found that these individuals were rated by their peers as violent. This suggests cumulative, long-term media effects.
3.) Whether a violent person fits other profiles:
- Studies have found correlations between aggressive behavior and many variables besides violent viewing. these include income, education, intelligence and parental childrearing practices. This is not to say that any of these third variables cause violent behavior. The suggestion, rather, is that violence is far too complex to be explained by a single factor.
How does corporate conflict of interest threaten public interest of "need to know" journalism?
Out of fear of offending advertisers or parent corporate owners they censor themselves. Also there is no law against censoring or falsifying news in the US.
The Motion Picture Production Code stipulated that...
a) All studios must only hire union actors
b) The sympathy of the audience shall never be thrown to the side of crime or evil
c) None of the above
b) The sympathy of the audience shall never be thrown to the side of crime or evil
What are the creative challenges in producing an effective ad? What must advertiser do to connect and engage an audience?
Get peoples attention, relate brand to a need, and repeat purchase
How do the ethics decisions of an individual mass media practitioner relate to the law?
They are usually more limiting than the law
What do studies indicate about news consumers' perception of bias in news coverage and how our own politaical ideologies play a role in how we interpret a bias slant in the news?
The more partisan we are in our political beliefs, the more we'll see the opposite bias. Bias (usually) within us and not news piece
29) Why was the "7th Heaven" episode we discussed notable?
a) It used trademarks without blurring them out and was subsequently sued
b) It was the first show that could be downloaded from Hulu
c) It was the first show that had an interactive website
d) Wr
d) Writers were required to make Oreo cookies a focal part of the episode
Do you have more leeway to use a copyrighted factual work or a copyrighted fictional work?
a) You have more leeway to use a copyrighted factual work
b) You have more leeway to use a copyrighted fictional work
c) Whether a work is fact or fiction is irrel
a) You have more leeway to use a copyrighted factual work
Online books sales?
Amazon
synergy
mcchesney, ask mira
ARPAnet
advanced research projects agency
*Piracy
Theft of copyright-protected material
World Wide Web?
1991 Time-Berners Lee
utilized newly developed time-sharing computer systems as opposed to old batch processing systems where users had to input to a computer center which then processed info. into "batches"
BASIC
environmental noise
interference at reception site
DirecTV
Larger of U.S. satellite-direct companies
Media Determinism
Media influences the culture
WWII films
market expanded dramatically to satisfy the general public, movies were made about the war to send subliminal messages. to help the war cause.
Adolph Zuckor
pioneered Studio System; innovative creater of Paramount as a major movie studio
Joesph Maxfield
Introduced electrcial sound recording in 1920's
CNN Revolution
24 Hour TV News Station
two-tier system
original U.S. broadcast infrastructure had two tiers, one of locally licensed stations, the other of national networks
Glutenberg
15th century,movable type made of metal, printed bible
Demographics
The characteristics of an audience such as age, sex, race, level of education, level of income, etc.
Psychographics
The description of consumers on the basis of psychological characteristics determined by standardized tests. They may include information about your: personality, values, attitudes, interests, lifestyles
National Public Radio
network for noncommercial stations; Congress aimed to use radio and television for educational purposes by creating the first non commercial radio and television networks, this is the name of the radio network, ran lengthy news stories called news packages NPR most visiable component of US noncommericial radio; "All Things Considered" radio segment; Jon Kruc donated $200 million to NPR endowment
1st Penny paper was the
New York Sun
cable television
a television transmission system using cable rather than over-air broadcast signal
Lasswell's model of communication is expressed as "Who Says What in Which Channel ________ with What Effect".
to Whom
The application of wisdom in a practical situation is known as
prudence
media relations
component of public relations that deals with press and other media
pseudoevent
boorstin, it is not spontaneous but planned, it costs money to create, it is constructed for the immediate purpose of being reported or reproduced, it has some ambiguity, it is intended to be a self fulfilling prophecy, it is dramatic, it can (and should) be repeated at will
*Media Relations
For communication with large groups, organizations rely largely on mass media. It is media relations people who respond to news reporters' queries, arrange news conferences, issue statements to the news media and often serve as an organization's spokespersons.
Demographic Indicators Practitioners Ask about their Audiences
Age, Gender, Race, Income
Dessensitization
Becoming more accepting of violence in our mist by being exposed to it often. Less trusting of nieghborsEx. video game violence
CNN is part of what media conglomerate?
Time-Warner
ABC
1 of the big three; established in 1948 and ran a distant third to other networks; merged with United Paramount Theaters; Didn't go into live TV like NBC and CBS. Grew because of Disneyland in 1954 and The Mickey Mouse Club in 1955; started Wide World Sports and created Monday Night Football; American Broadcasting Company
What made IBM famous
650 series calculator (Model T)
graphical user interface
on-screen icons and visual indicators to instruct a computer
advertising affects prices
whether advertising raises or lowers the prices of goods.economies of scale allow producers,in response to demand created by advertising, to manufacture larger quantities at a lower price.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
the sweeping update of telecommunications law that led to a wave of media consolidation.
gone with the wind
largest audience 100 million tickets
10) True or false: Hyper-reality is associated with the modern period.
a) True
b) False
b) False
Al Jazeera is
a Qatar-based satellite news channel for Arab audiences, now available globally
What is Media Convergence?
The intergration of Mass Media
Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging:
First Amendment
Tabloid Truth
The fact that the standard of truth that tabloids hold to is a standard, but a particular one.
book bought for this class is an example of
higher education
Sullivan decision
landmark libel case in which New York Times argued for unfettered reporting of public officials
What writer called for the new media to emphasize its social responsibility, not only its freedom?
Robert Hutchins
Mathew Brady
This man and his crew took pictures during the civil war. He was not classified as a photo journalist and most of his pictures were not taken by him. They also took portraits of many famous people. He died virtually peniless in the 1800's but his photos are now worth a lot.
Referring to people as "the mentally ill" versus saying "people with a mental illness" produces different meanings. This is reflected by which concept?
a) Agenda setting theory
b) Selective exposure
c) Selective retention
d) Social learning theory
e) Symb
e) Symbolic interactionism
Media Industries: The Six Primary Activities
1. Production
2. Distribution
3. Exhibition
4. Audience Research
5. Finance
6. Government Regulation
What is Media Convergance
the integration of mass media, computers, and telecommunications
First newspaper ad
..seeking a buyer for a Long Island estate, was published in 1704 in the Boston News-Letter.
3 most currently popular radio formats
country, news/talk radio, adult contemporary
Federal Communications Act of 1934
the far-reaching act that established the FCC and the federal regulatory structure for U.S. broadcasting.
*PR and respectability
Public relations is a tool of leaders in business, government, and other institutes to create beneficial relationships with other institutions and groups. Used well, public relations facilitates discussion that otherwise might not occur on issues of importance to constituent groups within society. A kind of honest advocacy; this all puts PR in an important role in the functioning of a democratic society. Key in PR is the crafting of messages for mass audiences. The messages are delivered largely by mass media.
What is message pluralism
Our genuine diversity of options from which we learn, evaluate, and embrace
What are the three principal explanations for the effects of media violence on behavior?
Aggression stumulation (people watch and repeat actions) Catharsis( reduces effect by releasing tensions) and Catalyst (triggering effect must combine with other factors)a
STEPS OF THE MODELING THEORY
A reciever first encounters a media presentation of the model depicting the behavior. If the person identifies with the model, he or she may reproduce the form of action portrayed by the model. But, before permanently adopting it, it must have a positive benefit for the observer. If so, the behavior may be tried out, and if adopting it solves some problem for the person, it may be used again and again in similar circumstances.
In 1598, Scotland's King James VII claimed God anointed royalty, making them right and those who disagreed wrong. This argument has been called
the divine right of kings.
What is Joseph Klapper responsible for
The effects of mass Communication written in 1960
Name two main features of yellow journalism.
-Yellow Journalism has lots of pictures and controversial articles. They focused on scandals and other eccentric news to get the "common man" to read it. Most yellow journalism could be considered low culture.
*Watchdog role of the Press
Concept of the press as a skeptical and critical monitor of government
What were the findings of the independent panel hired by CBS to determine what went wrong with the 60 minutes segment? (3 things)
failed to follow basic journalistic principals, news team had "myopic zeal" to break the story first, error compounded by "rigid and blind" defense of report
50) What does "prior restraint" mean in the context of censorship?
a) Authors who have a history of being censored must submit any future publications to a court for initial review
b) Authors who have a history of being censored must submit any future pu
c) Courts and governments cannot block any publication or speech before it actually occurs
How does the association principal work?
ad add associates a product with some cultural value or image that has a positive connotation but may have little connection to the actual product.
When does the Supreme Court say that public figures may sue for libel?
when there has been a reckless disregard for the truth
How does advertising differ from other forms of media content?
They are 3 different forms of media content and people use different cognitive rules to process each one
14) What is peer review?
a) Panels of experts are convened to pass judgment on the work of other researchers
b) The practice of testing results from studies in the field
c) The practice of reviewing published works to learn about reliable, valid instrumen
a) Panels of experts are convened to pass judgment on the work of other researchers
Why did it take 70 years (1920) for large scale studies on the effects of Mass communication to begin?
The reason for the delay was that the necessary statistical tests and research information were not avaliable/ there was no acadamic material for people to pursue. So already existing sciences such as PSYCHOLOGY and SOCIOLOGY were used for the investigations of the effects of mass communication. These sciences already existed because cities began forming and people wanted to study the dynamics of the groups changing-these sciences mad epossible the study of the effects of mass communication.
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