Media Society Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Motion Picture Camera?
first web browser
SENDERSENDERMANY RECIEVERS...(Instead of: SENDERMANY RECIEVERS)...In this theory, content movies from the mass media to an opinion leader who then pass it onto others who they influence. This theory concludes that the two-step flow of information between people also included the flow in influence.
-This was an unexpected finding that came from the "People's Choice Study." Researchers realized that in addition to mass the mass mediaradio, newspapers, magazines @the time), another major source of INFLUENCE for voters was the other peopleOPINION LEADERS).
Mixing Genres
Advertising and Entertainment
(product placement in film and tv)
Education and Entertainment
(Sesame Street regularly parodies popular entertainment formats)
News and Entertainment
(The Colbert Report and The Daily Show)
Gossip Exchange
Taking pleasure in gossip.
technologies begin performing similar tasks
Frederick Ives
invented halftone in 1876
messages on the twitter platform
Selective Process
Dissonance is being created
the characteristics of an audience such as age, gender, level of education, level of income, etc.
Arithmetic Machines
1st calculation machines mechanized basic operations of arithmetic
Henry Luce
Magazine innovaor whose Life(magazine) exploited photographs for their visual impact
Electronic Media
Electromagnetic waves, ingrediants of broadcasting over the air communication from one to many (telegraph was 1st)
behavioral targeting
using personal information and patterns in activites to match advertisements with potential customers
Elizabeth Glover
1st newsleteer "The freeman's Oath"
Movies that are independently produced but have good reactions from the masses.
Political campaign coverage treated like a sport event is called:
Horse race
The study of a person's neurological reactions while being exposed to marketing messages.
slurring and other impediments to the communication process before a message reaches the audience. There are semantic noises: mass communicators themselves can interfere with the success of their own messages by being sloppy,
channel noises: something interferes with message transmission
environmental noises: and intrusion that occurs on the reception site
network in 1980 that began broadcasting nationally against Italian law
Canale 5
Ruport Murdoch
a leading and stereotypical media mogul
In 1883, Hungarian immigrant Joseph Pulitzer bought the troubled New York World. His readership was "the common man", and he succeeded in reaching readers with light, sensationalistic news coverage, extensive use of illustrations, and circulation building
Yellow Journalism
What does the Greek word 'deon' mean?
The Jazz Singer
the first feature sound movie
horizontal integration
mcchesney, when a producer/owner owns different media types (ex: a movie company and a book company)
*Attack Ads
A subspecies of negative ads, especially savage in criticizing an opponent, many playing loosely with context and facts
Quantitative Research
Research in which the researcher collects and reports data in numerical form (data, large numbers, surveys)
Ex. A study using a survey designed to determine what age group and gender spends the most time online.
Digital Divide
Gaps that remain between income, racial, and education groups due to internet access limits over a prolonged period.
Arkansas recording artist who originally records \"Fever\" and later died in prison:
Little Willy John
Herbert Gans
This sociologist went beyond the study of bias and investigated some of journalists' subjective beliefs.
Pat Weaver
NBC program innovator, 1950s: was an American radio advertising executive, who became president of NBC between 1953 and 1955. He has been credited with reshaping broadcasting's format and philosophy as radio gave way to television as America's dominant home entertainment
members of Home Brew Computer club?
Gates, Wozniak, Jobs
William Tweed
corrupt politician exposed by new york times
product responsibility and advertising
government assumes some responsibility for accurate labeling of products. 1906: congress passed the pure food and drug act. 1914:it established the federal trade commission
integrated marketing communication (IMC)
comprehensive program that links public relations and advertising
philo t. farnsworth
inventor of tv at age 14
For a large population, surveys need to have at least how many accurate responses to be within 5 percentage points of being correct (95 percent confidence level)?
a) 234
b) 334
c) 384
d) 484
e) 1,000
c) 384
Conceptual Reserach
Scholars focus on the perspectives we should use when we thin about the media
What is Media Convergence?
The intergration of Mass Media
This president used radio including \"fireside chats\" to communicate effectively:
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Information Subsidy
The way that publicists and other PR types provide access, photos, free tape - instead of money.
Magic Bullet Theory Summary
The earliest theory about the influences of mass communication. This theory assumed that a media message reached every eye and ear in the same way (like a bullet), bringing about the same changed in thought & behavior in the entire audience. Influenced by charles darwins evolutionary ideas because Darwin thought that since humans are born with a uniform set of instincts that guide their ways of responding to the world around them, they respond to media messages in the same way as well.
publishing house
A company with a brand name identity that produces books.
What is the principle that argues that the virtue of moral decisions should be judged by their results?
Pragmatic ethics
George Eastman
The founder of Kodak, the man who brought photography to the public. His company -named kodak because it sounds like a camera shutter- first sold cameras loaded with film. When customers sent the cameras back to the company the photos were developed and a new roll of film was loaded into the camera.
Which of the following is not a component of the circuit of culture?
a) Production
b) Consumption
c) Interpretation
d) Regulation
e) Representation
c) Interpretation
Google's Cloud
The larger reality is that more and more businesses and individuals are trusting their mission-critical data to Google's could (including the US Government, now).  The problem with that: Google's cloud has the potential to blanket us - smother us - in way much more systematic and potentially apocalyptic than Microsoft's desktop software monopoly ever did.
What is vertical integration
the domination of numerous related aspects of the media conglomerate by one company.
First newspaper ad
..seeking a buyer for a Long Island estate, was published in 1704 in the Boston News-Letter.
Google Print Library
project to put all books in human history online
search engine
too to identity and rank web sites by key terms
*Ambivalence in Media Relations
Despite the advantage of open media relations, not all companies embrace the approach.
What is Selective retention
It proposes that people's best and most enduring memories are those of messages that coincide with their prexisting attitudes and beliefs
commercial speech
A key ruling in this came in the case of Central Hudson Gas & Electric v Public Service Commission (1980). Has limited protection.
How can the media influence people's opinions?
Printing and Literacy Lead to Spirit of nationalism
1. Printing standardized languages
2. Broke the Feudal system of Kings and Barons (spread free thinking, etc)
What is selective exposure
watching only what we agree with or caters to us
One Market Under God 1990 Economic Thought
Sensibilities that made possible the 96 Communication Act (deregulation), government stay out of market
*Who has least protection from media criticism (fair comment and criticism)
Fair comment and criticism:
Doctrine that permits criticism of performers, performances
However, it does not make it open season on performers in aspect of their lives that do not relate to public performance.
What is the difference bw absolutist ethics and situational ethics?
absolutist ethics suggests that a moral society has laws and codes, including honesty, that everyone must live by. Sit ethics promotes ethical decisons on a case to case basis.
52) Thomas Hobbes associated ethical egoism with what?
a) The Qur'an
b) The Golden Rule (treat others how you want to be treated)
c) The ethics of conscience
d) Hogwash
e) None of the above
b) The Golden Rule (treat others how you want to be treated)
How was Gap and its publicized efforts to oversee overseas labor practices and ex of corporate social responsibility?
They openly shared report of conditions in their factories overseas. They felt it was their responsibility to inform their consumers of this information.
WHY didn't research on the effects of Mass Media start for another 70 years?1900's-1830's=70 years)
Because there was no academic records avaliable to pursue how media was effecting people. People drew from the already existing sciences of psychologystudy of indivduals minds) and sociologystudy groups and individuals in cultures) to make possible the study of mass media possible
How do the competitive pressures of news lead to a pack mentality among journalists? What is the connection to homogenized news?
Reporting on the same stories. Trying to push you to their standardproduct. Homogenized-consultants tell them to use certain graphics, certain news anchors etc to recieve increased ratings.
7) What is populism?
a) An appeal to ordinary people by setting up a conflict between "the people" and the elite
b) An appeal based on which ideas are most popular according to media polls
c) A belief championed by Walter Lippmann about the masses being t
a) An appeal to ordinary people by setting up a conflict between "the people" and the elite
10) Which of the following was not a reason why certain books have been suppressed:
a) Political grounds
b) Religious grounds
c) Sexual grounds
d) Social grounds
e) All of the above are reasons why certain books have been suppressed
e) All of the above are reasons why certain books have been suppressed
Inflated claims
First communication satellite
Proximity, Impact, Timeliness, Conflict, and Human Interest
Philo Farnsworth
Inventor of television
Video News Releases Considered unethical for TV stations to broadcast them without telling the public
Some stations do use them without identification
one company dominates the industry
Joan Kroc
Singlehandedly sextupled NPR's endowment.
Convergance of TV
TV on Hulu
Middlebrow tastes recognize some artistic merit but don't have a high level of sophistication There is more interest in action than abstractions.
Middlebrow appeals to people who take comfort in media portrayals that support their status-quo orientation and values.
Relationship building
ongoing visibility, information, problem resolution to reinforce reputation and trust.
high capacity global telephone network that links computers
online magazines are refered to as
obtain services from an external supplier rather than internally
Recalling a phrase from subliminal memory can result in
Publick Occurrences
first colonial newspaper, boston, 1690
*Multimedia Mesures
Recognizing that television viewers were increasingly mobile and less set-bound, Nielsen began remaking its ratings sys. in 2006 to measure the use of personal computers, video game players, iPods, cell phones and other mobile devices. Nielsen said the program called ANYTIME ANYWHERE MEDIA MEASUREMENT, OR A2/M2, represented a commitment to "follow the video" with an "all-electronic measurement sys. that will deliver integrated ratings for television viewing regardless of the platform."
Classical Conditioning
Responses are conditioned by experiences, and related stimuli create similar responses.Ex. Dangers and injuries, distortions of natural forms
News aggregators
such as google and yahoo
Gossip: Useful ambiguity
The pleasure associated with exchanging gossip that doesn't have all of the details filled in.
dot-com burst
economic collapse of most investments in the Internet commerce in 2000
two innovations associated with magainze journalism
photojournalism, personality profile
Steve Jobs
cofounder of Apple computer; became media, technological visionary
rational thinking abilities
the cognitive processing of information by considering options based on conscious comparison of influencing factors.
a journal like website with continuing narrative, generally personal in nature, on a narrow subject. Short for web log
When dealing with questions of copyright infringement, it doesn't matter how much of a copyrighted material is used.
a) True
b) False
b) False
Hardly any sophistication is needed to recognize the machismo of Rambo, the valley of Darth Vader, the heroism of Superman or the sexiness of Lara Croft.
Is the material sexual or excretory activities. Did material air during a time when chlidren are watching?
Crisis Management
in public relations, the strategic response to uncontrolled negative publicity about an individual, client, or company.
Media Literacy
redefine literacy as understanding how the various media work and how to process information. Process of acessing, analyzing, evalutaing and creating our own messages.
A procedure used to test the validity of an hypothesis.
harold ross
new york editor who pioneered the personality profile
According to Dr. G, bipolar terms such as liberal and conservative or high or low culture no longer accurately describe reality in today's postmodern world.
When was the first code of ethics adopted by the American Society of Newspaper Editors?
Carl Berstein
Washington Post reporter who dug up Watergate
4) When Google engaged in its book-scanning project, did it violate copyright rights?
a) Yes
b) No
a) Yes
*Nature of the News
(2) concepts
Newsworthiness: A RANKING of news that helps decide what makes it into news packages
-Requires judgement
News: A report on CHANGE
-Contains a verb; the vehicle in a language to denote change
Target Audience
Audience to which media is directed, demogrphics
Media Convergence
The blending of overlap in media functions as technologies evolve; melding of print, electronic, and photographic media into digitized form; also refers to the multimedia ownership by large conglomerates.
Bobo doll study
conducted by Albert Bandura. Concluded experiments demonstrate a link bw violent media programs and agressive behavior.
Railroads impact on advertising
facilitated the emergence of national advertising
Alan Freed and Wolfman Jack
Rock' N' Roll AM DJs
Internet and New Media
Unlike other media technology the internet is not confined to growth, either informational or use, not a scarce resource like radio channels
John Peter Zenger
defied authorities with his New York Journal
consumer market
the mass media can be described as operating in a market that sells the attention of readers, viewers, and listeners
*Two Step Flow Theory
This theory asserts that information from the media moves in two distinct stages. First, individuals (opinion leaders) who pay close attention to the mass media and its messages RECEIVE the information. Opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content. The term 'personal influence' was coined to refer to the process intervening between the media's direct message and the audience's ultimate reaction to that message. Opinion leaders are quite influential in getting people to change their attitudes and behaviors and are quite similar to those they influence. The two-step flow theory has improved our understanding of how the mass media influence decision making. The theory refined the ability to predict the influence of media messages on audience behavior, and it helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to alter audience attitudes an behavior. The two-step flow theory gave way to the multi-step flow theory of mass communication or diffusion of innovation theory.
Situation Ethics
Morals are adhered to but can change according to the specific situations
Journalism periods and their tradition
colonial period: from the founding colonies to the American Revolution
partisan period: intense partisanship characterized newspapers; expressed intense support for specific political views
penny press period: started by Benjamin Day with his creation of the SUN which sold for a penny a copy
yellow period: there was a quest to sell more copies which led to the excesses that are illustrated by the Pulitzer-Hearst circulation war.
economies of scale
the number of units produced at a plant increases, the average cost per unit decreases. this comes about because the company has to invest large amounts of money just to produce the first unit.
Is there a federal shield law in the United States?
a) Yes
b) No
b) No
What is Perceptual Contrast?
Comparisons can greatly effect how an item is viewed.
The Idaho farm boy who came up with a concept that led to the development of television:
The first "talkie" film and what studio was it issued by
"The Jazz Singer" by Warner
What first inspired propaganda analysis and the first media effects study?
a) Concerns about the techniques of persuasion that were used during World War I
b) Concerns about the War of the Worlds radio broadcast
c) The desire to improve how other countrie
a) Concerns about the techniques of persuasion that were used during World War I
what is rejection retreat
asking for more than is really desired so one can settle for less
What conditions in society are necessary for advertising to flourish?
Competitive economy (monopoly no need to advertise), literacty, and democracy (free choice), and prosperity, discretionary income.
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
the act by the U.S. Congress that established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which oversees the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR).
Define The Two Step Flow Theory.
Opinion leaders are people who stay very well informed about all topics through the media and end up influencing opinion followers who are less exposed to media
How did the "Why We Fight" films disprove the Magic Bullet Theory?
This experiment disproved the Magic Bullet theory because every soldier, depending on their level of education and intelligence, did not react to the films in a uniform way. The variations in education modified the effects contradicted the old notion that communications were magic bullets penetrating every eye and ear in the same way (creating similar effects in EVERY receiver).
What is the liking technique?
We are more eager to please people we like
What do studies show regarding the public's consumption of newspaper and tv news contents when it comes to political.election coverage?
they remain key channels for political info, tv especially prominent in national vote, more local the election more important coverage becomes as source of information. Also coverage can be superficial; too often focuses on conflict and controversy.
Legendary actor Orson Welles is remembered for his famous version of the War of the Worlds. What was it?
It was a 1930s radio show; the naive audience actually thought New York was being attacked, with many actually panicking
What are 4-5 ways that "new media" differ from traditional media?
New forms of content, forms of competition, channels for advertising, craigslist, portal sites
Under what 2 circumstances is it legal for the U.S gov to engage in prior restraint of noncommercial speech in American media?
a statute may require that a person submit the speech that he wishes to disseminate to a governmental body for a lisence to disseminate or court may issue a temporary restraining order. Constitutional validity.
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