Media Society 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Readers Representatives
...
Telegraph?
Samuel Morse; 1840
Risk
Media industries are high risk industries.  Constant product innovation means constant risk.  Risk reduction is one important influence on media content.  Consumer behavior is unpredictable.
delivered the "checkers" speech
Nixon
Soft News
Human Interst
Community Service
Feel-Good Stories
Unacceptable Gossip
Sex scandals, baaaad gossip.
Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak
Apple
filter
receiver factor that impedes communication
Westinghouse
the first commercial radio station
Profanity
When the language is offensive.
The three waves?
Print, telecommunications, high technology
1st newspaper in japan?
-1861
-english language paper
National Geographic
Pioneer magazine in using visuals
Payola
Record promoters paying dejays or programmer to play particular songs
gatekeepers
Media people influencing messages en route
wire service
organization that collects and distributes news and information to media outlets.
T/F: Mass media defines power relationships by telling people what and who counts and why.
True.
The three principal techniques of carrying out television audience research:
MeterInterviewDiaries
Individualism
Valuing individual needs over those of community.
Heinrich Hertz
demonstrated the existence of radio waves
concentration of control of the media industries into small corporations
oligopoly
1789 Postal Act
provided government discounts for mailing newspapers
Ganster Rap
Controversial 90's subgenre of rap seeking to tell the truth of the violence in American urban life
During the Persian Gulf buildup in 1990, the Pentagon decided on a strategy of information dissemination called
overwhelming
Gerald Levin
Used orbiting satellite to relay exclusive programs to local cable systems in 1975
hegemony
influence, power of one group of people, normal, popular, imbalance, less dominant, agreement/willingness, best interest, status quo
*Advertorial
A PR message, taking an editoral position, that appears in paid spaces or time; a term contrived from advertisement and editorial
Egyptian Hieroglyphs
1. Egyptians were infatuated with writing
2. Hieroglyphs were a combinatino of alphabetic and logographic elements
3. Written on papyrus and wood ans tone starting in 4,000BC
Focus group
Group Interviewing, with moderator, to gather info for a research project, develop a questionaire for surveys, Understand a phenomenon.
Provide privilege to journalists to protect confidential sources under certain circumstances; there is no federal shield law
Soft News
Responsible capitalism
Believing that capitalism is, at its heart, altruistic.
blockbuster books
first one Uncle Tom's Cabin; best selling books,
Who created Visicalc spreadsheets?
harvard MBA student- Daniel Bricklin
oligopoly
an industry in which a few companies dominate production, distribution
advertising agents
They buy space in multiple newspapers and a magazines and resold that space to advertisers for one price. as a result companies could reach consumers in different geographic areas.
domain name
an identification label for a website, each with a suffix like .com, .org, .org
united artists company
founded by charlie chaplin, mary pickford, dw griffith
Which method allows researchers to identify cause and effect relationships?
a) Content analysis
b) Experimental design
c) Surveys
d) Textual analysis
e) None of the above
b) Experimental design
What role does the government, business and culture play in shaping the meda we consume and produce?
Governmetn: censor/restrict
Business: goal is to make money
Culture: Elitist/Populist Model
Media Bashing
Pointing to harmful effects caused by the desensitizing of violent, sexual, and hate on our society, due to prolonged media coverage of it.
Subliminal embeds
hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register on the subconcious and fool people into buying products.
Reliable Sameness
When the audience is not challenged by the media's content, and is thus attracted to it
Features & Functions of Theories
Theories provide explanations about what prior conditions bring about what consequences, provide logical predeictions that guide research about what should br found by further careful observation.
Name two differences between Modern (19th century) and postmodern (1960's - current) periods of time.
-Modern: Scientifically Structured, Hierarchical Structure.
-Post-Modern: Embraces technology, focus on more mediums of journalism.
What theory says that if you give free rein to the human ability to think through problems, people will make morally right decisions?
libertarian
Radio Act of 1912
Seeing that amateur radio operators were filling the radio airwaves, Congress passed ---- that required ships to maintain a 24-hour radio watch and required amateur radio operators to obtain licenses.
28) Which concept best describes the following statement? Heavy television viewing leads people to see reality in ways that are consistent with the portrayals they see on television.
a) Selective exposure
b) Selective retention
c) Cultivation effect
d) Re
c) Cultivation effect
Two-Step/Multi-Step Flow Theory
1. Media content (opinions and facts) is picked up by people who use the media frequently
2. These people, in turn, act as opinion leaders when they discuss media content with others, who are influencd at one step removed from media.
 
Mass Media Organizations > Opinion Leaders > Opinion Followers
What theory did Albert Bandura propose
The social cognitive theory
1948 U.S Vs. Paramount Studios
1.divest themselves of their theater chains because it created monopolies. 2. stop blind booking and block booking. 3. stop fixing ticket prices.
public domain
status of a creative work to which no one can claim ownership and this belongs to the public as a whole
Google Print Library
project to put all books in human history online
*Fourth Branch of Government
The press as an informally structured check on the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government
What is postmodernism
a shift in philosophy is taking place from one based on universal laws and rational, scientific truths to one in which local and subjective understandings are significantly more compelling
commercial speech
A key ruling in this came in the case of Central Hudson Gas & Electric v Public Service Commission (1980). Has limited protection.
Carnegie Commission on Educational Television
Recommended ETV be converted to the public television concept
Some argue that mass media uses its power to reflect and shape culture through: (2)
Stereotypes
Political and economic manipulation
What is the cultivation analysis theory
The cultivation tradition was ignited by the findings of the cultural indicators project, a media violence research project directed by university of pennsylvania communications scholar George gerbner.Heavy television viewing is assumed to increase a person's likelihood to coincide with what it broadcast.
Video News Release (VNR)
is a video segment created by a PR firm, and provided to television news stations for the purpose of informing, shaping public opinion, or to promote and publicize individuals, commercial products and services, or other interests
*Difference between PR and Advertising
Unlike PR, advertising seeks to sell a product or service
What are the 3 basic ways that sources can obtain publicity coverage in the media?
Produce materials(news releases, articles, press kits, photos, graphics), Provide spokespersons, and Stage Events (invite media)
6) What is advance money?
a) An upfront payment that is subtracted from royalties later earned from book sales
b) An upfront payment that is a bonus to the royalties later earned from book sales
c) A name that means the same thing as royalties
d) A paymen
a) An upfront payment that is subtracted from royalties later earned from book sales
What special role did a colorado event play in the emergence of the new field?
The ludlow massacre caused the rockefellers t hire ivy lee, and he was able to turn around public opinion
What is the best description of the pragmatic theory?
encourages people to look at human experience to determine probable consequences
Explain 4 types of PR programs or key functions that PR canperform for clent orgs?
Promotion, Crisis Mngt, Issues Mngt, and relationship building
What belief does the spiral of silence theory reflect?
a) There is a spiral effect in society in which issues that people were once silent about get media exposure as generations change
b) The media can create the impression that most people think a certa
b) The media can create the impression that most people think a certain way;
people are likely to keep their views to themselves when they believe that they think differently from others due to fear of social isolation
2) What did the shift from oral to written communication result in?
Hint: This is not the shift to mass-produced writing via the printing press. We're talking about the invention of writing in pre-modern society, long before the printing press.
a) An educ
d) A wide gap between classes in terms of education and wealth
Rejection Retreat
Negotiations
Nellie Bly
Stunt reporter
Media functions?
information, entertainment, persuasian, binding
Writer John Rawls advocated
egalitarianism
VNR
Video News Releases Considered unethical for TV stations to broadcast them without telling the public
Some stations do use them without identification
Shah Rukh Khan
superstar bollywood actor
Internet
high-capacity global telephone network that links computers
Michael Moore
Producer-director of point-of-view documentaries
1970's
Cable TV:
Rise of narrowcasting/niche marketing
An era of demassification and fragementation
 
VALS
Values and Lifestyles Strategy uses the results of questionnaires to categorize consumers into groups such as thinkers, achievers and experiencers. You can determine your own VALS type by going to the VALS web site.
FCC
sided with its licensed over-air stations to prevent satellite-delivery systems from carrying local television stations; Federal Communications Commission
Napster
Napster paid 36million? For copyright infringement to Metallica. Filed for bankruptcy the next year.
Shawn Fanning
Pioneered music file-swapping through original Napster.
bloggers
people who post commentary on personal-opinion Web sites—had become a key element in news.
Marconi
Italian engineer who developed a method to send signals wirelessly through the air. his invention was patented in England in 1897. In 1901 he sent a signal across the atlantic ocean.
*William Randolph Hearst
Built circulation with sensationalism
What concept is Neil Postman responsible for
Technopoly
Postmodernism
1950s to present. Opposes hierarchy, structure (challenging authority). Recycles past and present, questions scientific logic, life is not always linear, good guy doesn't always win, questions scientific reasoning. Exs Jurassic park(challenging science),
Persona Shopping
Going through various "styles" in order to find a successful one for the public.
Definition of Mass communication
is the technology-assisted transmission of messages to mass audiences. Sending of a message to a great number of people at widely separated points.
business model
a design operating a business, identifying revenue sources, customer base,products, financing
American Public Media
Program provider for noncommercial stations.
Which U.S. Supreme Court case said that promoting the illegal copying of intellectual property is infringement on copyright?
Grokster
walled garden
early business model for online portals with access limited mostly to proprietary content
Mass media transmits values among communities and societies, sometimes causing changes that otherwise would not occur. This is an example of what type of communication?
Contemporary transmission
Newspaper Peak 1890-1920
 
1967 dalies
Over 500 competitive markets
Paternalism Principle
Morally offensive content should be controlled to prevent harm to self.
Moss Kendrix
After serving in the U.S. Army, Kendrix in 1944 became director of public relations for the Republic of Liberia's Centennial Celebration. Kendrix helped make corporations aware of the buying power of African-Americans, and he worked to erase many of the stereotypes that companies had about African-American consumers.
Coca cola was a client. Jackie robinson campaign.
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Person based / interview based evidence vs. statistics and chart.
viral advertising
media consumers pass on the message, like a contagious disease, usually on the Internet
Emile Berliner
Inventor of the process for mass production of recorded music
papyrus
Rolls of sliced strips of reed pressed together form the writing surface known as
What is the technical term for a staged event that is aimed at gaining media attention?
photo-op
Joseph Henry
One of the first to discover electromagnetic induction and in the 1830's this allowed him to use electricity through a mile-length wire. He was later named the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
11) True or false: Fahrenheit 451 depicts an oppressive society in which all books are forbidden objects and firemen are required to burn all books they encounter.
a) True
b) False
a) True
*Trial Balloons
A deliberate leak of a potential policy, usually from a diversionary source, to test public response.
Hypodermic Needle
Bullet Thoery - direct and immediate impact
Partisan PressInvestigative Journalism (Muckraking)News as entertainment
The first \"talkie\" film was...
victor palmer
Started the first ad agency that only covered newspaper publishers
who are gatekeepers?
people who filter out what information gets sent through
1879 Postal Act
allowed periodicals and books to be mailed at a penny a pound
1st Radio Advertisment
WEAF, New York, broadcasts 1st ad supported program, a 10 minute long message promoting the sale of apartments in Jackson Heights
social media news release
internet based news releases with links to related material an interactive opportunities for news reporters
True or false: The press functions as the Fourth Estate. This means that when issues cannot be decided at the legislative, judicial or executive branch levels, they are debated by the media.
a) True
b) False
b) False
Who was the Union secretary of state who organized Civil War censorship of sensitive military news?
Edwin Stanton
Define Mutual Determinism
Technology is neither good nor bad, its how we use it
What is cultural imperialism?
Phenomenom of americal media, fashion, and food dominating the global market and shaping the culture and identies of other nations.
Urbanization goes from what kind of life to another kind of life?
rural to city life
What psychological conditions and circumstances led people to believe that the invasion was real?
CRITICAL ABILITY, EDCATION LEVELS, AND RELIGION factors.
 People with LOW critical ability tended accept that the invasion was real and failed to make reliable checks with the broadcast and other mediums/were highly religious.
People with HIGH credibility tended not to believe the broadcast was real, even if they tuned in late/more educated
- AMOUNT OF EDUCATION was the single best factor in predicting whether people would check the broadcast against other sources of information
9) Identify example(s) of hyper-reality.
a) The Hills (a reality TV show)
b) The army video game we saw an advertisement for in class in which players step into the role of army soldiers and fight enemies while learning about what it is like to fight in t
e) Answers A, B and C
What are the obligations of Media Practitioners?
Individual Conscience, Financial Supporters, Institution, Professional Collegues, and Society
6 models of journalism. What is the predominant model for mainstream journalism today?
inverted pyramid
Name two contributions of Penny Press.
-Helped illiterate people learn to read because of the surplus of pictures and it was very cheap.
-Penny Press helped companies advertise more because that is how the Penny Press made money.
In 1986, UCLA researcher William McQuire evaluated the field of studies related to violence in the media and discovered that
most media research related to violence is statistically unreliable.
What is cultural proximity?
The desire of the audience to see programming from cultures that are similar to theirs
Why was internet created originally? How did its design reflect its purpose?
multiple paths linked one computer site to another, communications "traffic" wold be less likely to get clogged at a single point.
24) What is earned media?
a) Media that is funded by advertising
b) Media that is funded by donations
c) Favorable publicity gained entirely through promotional efforts rather than paid advertising
d) Favorable publicity gained entirely through paid adver
c) Favorable publicity gained entirely through promotional efforts rather than paid advertising
The era of the scientific perspective
Different factors lead some people to be influenced while others are impervious
Illustrate the linear model of communication. Who are gatekeepers?How does feedback fit into the model?
Sender -> Message -> Mass Media -> Channel -> Gatekeeper -> Receiver.
Gatekeepers: decides what messages actually get through to the receiver.
Feedback: Responds to what the message is. For example if a person writes a letter to an editor it would be "feedback" and "feedback" helps the messages for later.
What is the concept of convergence and who was it first categorized by
The integration of mass media, computers, and telecommuications.--Nicholas Negroponte
Ways that audiences/citizens can make a difference in shaping media content
Become a watchdog, with the news media increasingly compromised by their complex relations to their corporations, its up to us to take a civic rold. Challenge our journalists and our leaders as well as ourselves.
During the American Civil War, the union army created a system to work with the 500 journalists covering the conflict. It included
creating a censor board to limit the coverage of the war.
% of Americans who buy books
Less than 10% of people buy 80% of the books.
What are the Cardinal rules of Mass Media?
1) Media is all about EYES AND EARS 24/7 (an advertising message will only be effective if it is shown & heard by the right people at the right time--this is why news at 6:00 pm is millions of dollars more than at 4:30 am time slot). 2) The MORE you buy the LESS you pay (cost for each goes down when you buy in bulk). 3) You ADAPT or you DIE (just like newspapers who have been slow to adapt)
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