Medical Bacteriology M442 Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Corynebacterium minutissimum
tribe VII
Lactose negative
Neisseria meningitidis causes
Gram Negative RodsE.ColiSalmonellaShigellaYersiniaKlebsiella Proteus
Inhibits eukaryotic peptidyltransferase
Hektoen Enteric L-
initial symptoms
common cold
What causes diptheria...
Corynebacterium diptheriae
Gram Positive RodsAnaerobicSpore Formers
the study of microbes
Vibrio cholera agar....
TCBS agar
Stool specimen
Hektoen Enteric Agar
treatment for blastomycosis
amphotericin B
sinusitis virus
rhinovirus, parainfluenza, influenza
Sole reservoir for B.pertussis
Chlamydia psittaci (contracted from parrots) causes....
          (parrot fever and pneumonia in humans)
Gram Negative RodsCommon, Practically normal flora (Pasteurella = animals)
Inihibits bacterial protein sythesis by blocking peptidyltransferase
Macrolides (protein synthesis inhibitor)
(erythromycin) Prevent transpeptidation; bound to 50Sblocking macromolecule synthesis; gram pos Resist tetracyline by
Neisseria meningitides
Neg;Metastatic lesions, petechiae, purpura hemorrhage.
Kovac's reagent
p-dimethylaminobenxaldehyde, used in the detection of indole (red = +)
Shigella treatment
fluids and electrolytes,, anti-diarrheal contraindicated
Permits growth of anaerobes
Thioglycollate broth
transformation was discovered by
Frederick Griffith
a disease or morbid process
a site stands for
acceptor site
rapid, edema causing airway obstruction
Nosocomial Infections (catheters) are derived from?
Staphylococcus epidermis
Function of Yersiniabactin?
siderophore; iron chelating agent.
How to resist penicilins
penicillinase, beta-lactamase hydrolyze beta-lactam ring to acid to inactivate most common and semisynthetic beta-lactams; constitutive or inducible altered penicillin-binding proteins; efflux
Streptococcus agalactia
gram Pos;Neonatal meningitis and septicemia;Mastitis in bovines Not known; Fulminating sepsis;CNS involvement
Voges Proskauer Test
tests for butanediol fermentation
Severe deficits in reciprocal social interactions, which become progressively noticeable around age 3, are characteristic of this disorder:
Bacteria are usually involved in which?
3 salmonella manifestations
Enteritis, Septicemia, enteric fever
Salmonella (good growth); Shigella (partial or complete inhibition)
Selenite broth
fungi includes:
molds, yeasts, mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs
Bacteriaphage integrates into host cells and become lysogen
lysogenic cycle
any inanimate material commonly used by humans that can transmit infectious agents. (ex: food, blood, water)
T/F when insertion sequence elements jump from 1 location to another, it does not capture drug resistance
T/F Vancomycin binds to the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of pentapeptide that is linked to NAM. this sterically interferes with elongation of the peptidoglycan
T/F resident flora stimulates the development of the immune system
gram + ;obligate anaerobe; bacterial vaginosis
Review absorption of carbohydrates
-Brush border disaccharidases
epiglottis diagnosis
chocolate agar, capnophile 5-10% CO2
EIEC characteristics
similar pathogenesis to Shigella (shiga toxin kills cells, lives intracellularly) watery diarrhea
another name for Bordetella pertussis
whooping cough
what does MCV4 stand for....
Meninggeococcal Conjugate Vaccine
names 2 types of systemic infections
histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycoses
superficial mycoses is a type of mycoses caused by
Pathogenesis of EIEC?
Enteroinvasive E. coli

attacks large bowel --> watery diarrhea progresses to bloody diarrhea
invades, multiplies within, and spreads through intestinal epithelium
Structure of cholera toxin?

CtxA1 catalytic subunit
CtxA bound to CtxA1 by disulfide bond
5 CtxB binding subunits
Inactivated by heating 100 degrees C for 10 minutes of 85 degrees C for 30 minutes. Polyvalent antitoxin is available.
MacConkey Agar
differential media for selection and recovery of Enterobacteriaceae
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include all the following EXCEPT
A patient experiences chills, fever, and loss of appetite, with edema. Urinalysis reveals casts, albuminuria, and hematuria. What urinary disease is most suspect?
Acute glomerulonephritis
Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome is made by what test that measures the velocity of nerve impulses?
Which usually is NOT first diagnosed in childhood?
Enriched with hemoglobin, hemin (X factor), and coenzyme nicotine adenine dinucleotide (V factor)
Choco agar
EMB Lactose negative color
No dark purple center
suspensions of fine dust or moisture particles in the air that contain live pathogens.
A microorganism that grows best, or exclusively, in the absence of O2.
toxic in high doses (endo or exotoxin)?
pathogenesis in BV: these bacterial products may play a role in BV
endotoxin,collagenases,proteases, malic acid production (Mobiluncus spp.)
bacterial pharyngitis collection
swab tonsillar area/posterior pharynx. avoid tongue + other surfaces. get exudate,
EAggEC characteristics
*** persistent diarrhea*** 3 stages (1. adhere to mucous, 2. enhance mucous formation, 3. cytotoxin damages cell)
What bacterium is considered normal flora and is a common source for food borne illness?
E. coli
what is ringworm of the scalp cause
Tinea capitis
lyme disease causes
Borrelia burgdoferi (flea bite that spreads into large red spot)
Name the 2 types of Bacilli
Sporeforming bacilli
Non-sporeforming bacilli
Function of Mycobacterial PknG protein?
serine-threonine kinase prevents vacuole acidification after phagocytosis by macrophage.
Treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome?
no cure
plasmaphoresis to remove anti-GM1 ab's
self-limiting, no sequelae in 90% of cases
Chatacteristics of lepromatous leprosy?
chronic granulomatous disease of peripheral nerves and nasal mucosa.

few granulomas
many bacteria
leonine facies
highly invasive, more severe form of disease.
Penicillin (beta lactam)
Blocks cross-linking of pentaglycyl bridge; leads to weakened mucopeptide and cellular lysis, spheroblast protoplast cytolysis; more effective in gram +, Requires growing cells; do not use with bacteriostatic drugs;
Control variable
factors that can change but are prevented from changing
ONPG-galactose test
tests for beta galactosidase and beta galactoside permease, (+ = yellow, - = colorless)
The hormone that reduces the loss of sodium and water by the kidneys is
Salmonella Typhi clinical characteristics
typhoid fever... fever, non-productive cough, skin develops rose spots
Grows on blood agar and choco agar
N. gonorrhaeae
ormally do not reside in high-salt environment, but are highly resistant to high salt.
facultative halophiles
examples of virulence factors:
(i). Extracellular enzymes (mucinase, keratinase, collagenase, and hyaluronidase) (ii). Bacterial toxin (iii). Antiphagocytic factors
conjugation occurs primarily in which bacteria?
gram negative bacteria
another name for blastomycosis
gilchrist's diseases or chicago disease
source: a few gram positive and gram negative (endo or exotoxin)?
Define the current energy recommendations of all the macronutrients
Carbohydrates: 45%-65%
Fat: 20%-35% (saturated fat should be < than 10%)
Protein: 10-35% (0.8 g/kg/day)
bacterial pharyngitis symptoms
fever, pain, swollen glands, exudate on tonsils/pharynx. diff swallowing, no cough
What do damaged viruses use to replicate?
helper viruses
What are the sexual spores called that form in zygomycetes?
a malignant pustule on the skin (boil like lesion that forms an ulcer w/black center without any pain
cutaneous anthrax
Define Therapeutic Index.
TI = lethal dose ÷ therapeutic dose

the higher the better.
What is the difference (disease) between non-typhoidal and typhoidal Salmonella strains?
non-typhoidal: cause enteritis, occasional systemic infections. Usually isolated to GI tract

typhoidal: serogroup TYPHI, no enteritis! &quot;Typhoid Fever&quot; with chills, malaise, constipation, fever, myalgias. Invades blood and lymph through GI tract.
Function of Cag pathogenicity island?
-encodes Type IV secretion system
-inject CagA into host --&gt; change cell shape, motility via growth receptor signaling pathways
-induce inflammatory CK's --&gt; ulceration, cancer
Virulence factors of Neisseria menigitides
Immunoglobulin degrading enzymes, IgA proteases;Pili- allows adherence.Disseminated by direct contact and droplet infection
Hektoen Agar: bright orange, pink
rapid lactose fermenters (E. coli)
Which can be transmitted from mother to newborn via the birth canal?
all the above
Vibrio cholera characteristics...
curved gram neg rod w/ single FLAGELLA,
a characteristic route that a microbe enters the tissues of the body.
portal of entry
treatment of vaginitis
orally absorbed and vaginal tablets of triazoles and imidazoles, creams, lotions and powders
the individual or object from which an infection is actually acquired
infection source
Review digestion of Carbohydrates
-Salivary amylase produced in the mouth initiates the breakdown of polysaccharides
-Pancreatic amylase continues digestion in the proximal small intestine
What ectoparasite has larva (aka. Maggots) that can dwell in a breast, eye, or leg?
Flies that cause myiasis
Name all of the anerobic gram positive bacteria
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium tetani
Clostridium perfringes
Clostridium difficile
What stains are used to detect Mycobacterial stains in sputum smears?
auramine fluorescent stain
acid-fast stain with Kinyoun Ziehl-Neelson carbol-fuschin + methylene blue
What pattern of inflammation is associated with gastric carcinomas? With ulcers?
corpus inflammation --&gt; IL-1Beta --&gt; increased pH (less acid) --&gt; gastric cancer

antrum inflammation --&gt; gastrin --&gt; decreased pH (more acid) --&gt; ulceration
What is concentration-dependent killing and which abx exhibit it?
efficacy depends on how high the concentration of the antibiotic is relative to the MIC of the organism

(aminoglycosides, quinolones)
Which age group is most at risk for gout?
middle-aged man
Dyes that inhibit gram positive bacteria on EMB
Eosin Y & methylene blue
The classic stages of clinical infections
four distinct phases: Incubation period, prodromal stage, period of invasion, convalescent period.
good gram stain
more than 25 polys, less than 10 epis
What is meant by alpha hemolytic?
is the partial breakdown of RBC's
What factors predispose a patient to reactivation of a latent Mtb infection?
old age (&lt;50y/o males)
HIV/AIDS increases probability of reactivation 200-300X.
Chloroamphenicol (protein synthesis inhibitor)
Binds to 50S to prevent translation by blocking protein bond formation, also effects mammalian ribosomes; gram pos and neg; nonspecific
Salmonella serotypes... (3)
O ag- somatic, H ag- flagella, Vi ag- capsular polysaccharide
immunity to fungal infections consists of:
- nonspecific barriers - inflammation - cell mediated defenses
property of normal flora of stomach
must survive at low pH. Helicobacter,Lactobacillus and Strep are known to colonize
Review absorption & metabolism of proteins
-Amino acids are absorbed through multiple mechanisms and ultimately transported to the liver
-Proteins=4 kcal/gram
what bacteria can you obtain from eating infected meat from
Brucella -agent , brucellosis - disease
Most common route of spread of Shigella in USA?
person to person fecal-oral route after contact with contaminated feces.
eosin methylene Blue Agar: purple to black colonies
sucrose fermenters and non lactose fermenters (ex. Yersinia enterocolitica)
T/F rifampin is widely used in treating a number of gram positive and gram negative infections because it has very good selective toxicity
FALSE, used to treat mycobacterial infections
-vaginal fluid with a pH greater than 4.5; fishy odor on addition of 10% potassium hydroxide to discharge ;"clue cells" on a saline wet mount
clinical diagnosis of BV--Tx: metronidazole
What type of host was typhoid Mary?
A carrier (she carried salmonella typheses)
KIA: acid slant (yellow)/ acid butt (yellow)
glucose and lactose fermented (ex. E. coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobactor)
Define and explain the difference between energy density and nutrient density
-Energy density is a measure of the energy (kcal) a type of food provides compared to the amount of food consumed (grams)
-Nutrient Density is the amount of a nutrient compared to the amount of energy obtained from that nutrient
how do you form an Hfr strain (high frequency of recombination)?
F factor integrates into a chromosome
translocation occurs from ___ site to ___ site
from A site to P site (in left direction)
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