Medical School Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
glossa
the tongue.
insoluble
incapable of being dissolved:
superior
situated above another structure
epidermis
the outer, nonvascular, nonsensitive layer of the skin, covering the true skin or corium
auri
A combining form meaning ear:
starch
A white, tasteless, solid carbohydrate, C6H10O5n, occurring in the form of minute granules in the seeds, tubers, and other parts of plants, and forming an important constituent of rice, corn, wheat, beans, potatoes, and many other vegetable foods.
extrinsic
originating outside the anatomical limits of certain muscles or nerves
mandible
the bone of the lower jaw.
glucose
a sugar, C6H12O6, having several optically different forms, the common dextrorotatory form
diaphragm
a muscular, membranous or ligamentous wall separating the thoracic or chest cavity from the abdominal cavity in mammals
nares
the nostrils or the nasal passages.
larynx
a muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans, where the vocal cords are located
pupil
the expanding and contracting opening in the iris of the eye, through which light passes to the retina
adrenal glands
ductless glands above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex producing steroidal hormones, and a medulla producing epinephrine and norepinephrine
gastrointestinal
of, pertaining to, or affecting the stomach and intestines
medial
situated in or pertaining to the middle; median; intermediate.
femur
the thighbone of the human leg, extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body
jugular
pertaining to any of certain large veins of the neck collecting blood from the superficial parts of the head or collecting blood from within the skull
scapula
either of two flat, triangular bones, each forming the back part of a shoulder; a shoulder blade
pollex
the innermost digit of the forelimb; thumb.
cornea
the transparent anterior part of the external coat of the eye covering the iris and the pupil and continuous with the sclera
contralateral
of the body pertaining to, situated on, or coordinated with the opposite side.
calcanei
the largest tarsal bone, forming the prominence of the heel.
pulmonary valve
a semilunar valve between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle of the heart that prevents the blood from flowing back into the right ventricle
sagittal plane
Longitudinal plane that divides the body of a bilaterally symmetrical animal into rightleft parts
steroid
any of a large group of fat-soluble organic compounds, as the sterols, bile acids, and sex hormones, most of which have specific physiological action.
carbohydrate
any of a class of organic compounds that are polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones, or change to such substances on simple chemical transformations, as hydrolysis, oxidation, or reduction, and that form the supporting tissues of plants and are impo
sublingual
situated under the tongue, or on the underside of the tongue
cavity
a hollow space within the body, an organ or a bone
sweat gland
one of the minute, coiled, tubular glands of the skin that secrete sweat
sinus
one of the hollow cavities in the skull connecting with the nasal cavities
fissure
a natural division or groove in an organ, as in the brain
proximal
situated toward the point of origin or attachment, as of a limb or bone.
artery
a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body
marrow
a soft, fatty, vascular tissue in the interior cavities of bones that is a major site of blood cell production
iris
the colored portion of the eye that contains a circular opening, the pupil, in its center
hallux
the first or innermost digit of the foot of humans and other primates or of the hind foot of other mammals; great toe; big toe.
immune system
a network of cells and cell-forming tissue that protects the body from pathogens, destroys infected, malignant cells, and removes cellular debris
lateral
of or pertaining to the side; situated at, proceeding from, or directed to a side:
hair follicle
a small cavity in the epidermis and corium of the skin, from which a hair develops
gray matter
nerve tissue of the brain and spinal cord that contains fibers and nerve cell bodies and is a dark reddish-gray color
patella
the flat, movable bone at the front of the knee; the kneecap
nerve root
a nerve fiber bundle that emerges from of the spinal cord and joins with another bundle to form each spinal nerve in the series of spinal nerves
nucleic acid
any of a group of long, linear macromolecules, either DNA or various types of RNA, that carry genetic information directing all cellular functions: composed of linked nucleotides.
tongue
the movable organ in the floor of the mouth functioning in eating, tasting, and in speaking
umbilical cord
a cord connecting the embryo or fetus with the placenta of the mother and transporting nourishment from the mother and wastes from the fetus
transverse plane
plane dividing the body into an upper and lower section
gland
a group of cells or organ producing a secretion or selectively removing, altering or concentrating materials from blood for elimination from the body
palate
the roof of the mouth, consisting of a hard palate and a soft palate that separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity
forearm
the part of the arm between the elbow and the wrist
thorax
the part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen, enclosed by the ribs, sternum, and vertebrae, which contains the heart and lungs; the chest
ventral cavity
body cavity situated near front of the body, consists of thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
respiratory system
the system by which oxygen is taken into the body; in mammals the system includes the nasal passages, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
adbominopelvic cavity
body cavity made up of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
optic nerve
either one of the second pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the retina to the brain
appendicular region
refers to the limbs, the arms and the legs
adenosine triphosphate
full name of ATP. The Molecule that give most cellular processes energy
floating rib
one member of the two lowest pairs of ribs, which are attached neither to the sternum nor to the cartilages of other ribs.
chest
the trunk of the body from the neck to the abdomen; thorax
vocal cords
either of the two pairs of folds of mucous membrane projecting into the cavity of the larynx
kidney
one of the two organs in the back of the abdominal cavity that excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolytes, and act as endocrine glands
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