Medical Terminology - cardiovascular system Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pericardi/o
pericardium
vasculo
vessel
SK
steptokinase
-ule
small
aort/o
aorta
valv/o
valve
angi/o
Vessel
AV
Atrioventricular
AV, A-V
atrioventricular
CP
chest pain
MR
mitral regurgitation
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPK
creating phosphokinase
valvul/o, valv/o
Valve
my/o
pertaining to muscle
MVP
mitral valve prolapse
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
BBB
bundle branch block
PAC
Premature Atrial Contraction
SOB
Shortness of Breath
ventricul/o
pertaining to the ventricle
polyrteritis
inflammation of several arteries
-ar (ventricular)
pertaining to ventricles
CTA
Computed Tomography Angiography; three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computerized tomography.
PCI
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are then put in place to open clogged arteries.
PVC
Premature Ventricular Contraction; contraction of the cardiac ventricle prior to the normal time; caused by an electrical impulse arising from a site other than the SA Node; three or more PVCs in a row constitute ventricular tachycardia.
aneurysm
dilation of an arterial wall
-stenosis (angiostenosis)
narrowing of a vessel
-ic (aortic)
pertaining to the aorta
-ary (coronary)
pertaining to the heart
stress testing
evaluates cardiovascular fitness; patient exercises on treadmill or bicycle with a steadily increasing work load; EKG and oxygen levels are monitored throughout the test
antiarrhythmic
reduces or prevents cardiac arrhythmias
Endocardium
Inner lining of the heart.
HTN
Hypertension; high blood pressure; 140/90 Hg or greater is considered high in adults.
LAD
Left Anterior Descending (coronary artery)
Systole
Contraction phase of the heartbeat.
CABG
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; replacement of clogged coronary arteries.
cTnI
Troponin-I; protein released into blood by damaged heart muscle (but not skeletal muscle); highly sensitive and specific indicator of recent MI.
lipoprotein electrophoresis
lipoproteins physically separated and measured in a blood sample.
sphygmomanometer
blood pressure cuff; measures blood pressure
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of vein resulting in blood clots within a vein
diuretic
increase urine production to reduce plasma volume to lower blood pressure
Arteries
Large thick walled vessels that contain smooth muscle and can dilate or constrict and they travel through the body they branch into progressively smaller vessels called arterioles. They carry blood away from heart towards either lungs or cells and tissues of body, the pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to lungs, aorta carries oxygenated blood to body. Coronary arteries supply myocardium.
cardiac scan
nuclear medicine scan using radioactive thallium; especially useful in determining myocardial damage
-ar (vascular)
pertaining to a blood vessel
MI
Myocardial Infarction; loss of living heart muscle as a result of coronary artery occlusion.
CK
Creatin Kinase; enzyme found in cardiac muscle (CK-MB), skeletal muscle (CK-MM), and brain (CK-BB); serum levels of CK-MB may dramatically increase in the first 10 to 14 hours after an MI.
Bruit
Abnormal swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ.
Palpitations
Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as PVCs.
Cardioversion
Brief discharge of electricity applied across the chest to stop arrythmias; AKA - Defibrillation.
Myxoma
Benign tumor composed of mucous connective tissue; most often occurs in the left atrium.
Secondary Hypertention
Hypertention caused by another associated lesion, such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or a disease of the adrental glands.
Duplex Ultrasound
Combines Doppler and conventional ultrasound; measures speed of blood flow and gives an image of the vessel.
Aortic Stenosis (AS)
Narrowing of the aorta.
Arteriography
X-ray imaging of arteries after injection of contrast via a catheter into the aorta or an artery.
patent ductus arteriosus
Passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open after birth. Congenital.
angina pectoris
severe pain and sensation of constriction around heart; caused by myocardial ischemia
angiography
X=ray taken after injection of opaque dye into blood vessel
ACE inhibitor
produce vasodilation to decrease blood pressue
-spasm (angiospasm)
involuntary muscle contraction in a vessel
Heart
Located in the mediastinum which is more to left side of chest and directly behind sternum, it is about size of a fist, shaped like upside-down pear and tip at lower edge called apex
brady- -ia (bradycardia)
state of slow heart
inter- -ar (interventricular)
pertaining to between ventricles
Heart valves
Four in heart: tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic; act as restraining gates to control direction of blood flow, found at entrance and exit to ventricles, and allows blood to flow only in forward direction by blocking it from returning to previous chamber
Pericardiocentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pericardial space surrounding the heart.
Ventricular Fibrillation (VF)
Electrical impulses move randomly throughout the ventricles causing them to quiver, rather than contract rhythmically; can be interrupted by cardioversion.
Valvuloplasty
Surgical repair of a valve, especially a cardiac valve.
Endocarditis
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria (bacterial endocarditis).
rheumatic heart disease
heart disease caused by rheumatic fever
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
device implanted into the heart to deliver an electric shock to restore normal heart rhythm; especially helpful for ventricular fibrillation
myocardial infarction (MI)
occlusion of coronary artery; results in a myocardial infarct; a heart attack
pacemaker implantation
device implanted into the heart to substitute for the natural pacemaker; especially helpful for bradycardia
varicose veins
swollen and distended veins; often in the legs
Bicuspid Valve
Valve between left atrium and left ventricle; AKA - Mitral Valve.
Sinoatrial Node
Specialized nerve tissue in the right atrium that starts the heartbeat; AKA - SA Node.
Atrioventricular Node
Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria; transmits electrical impulses from the SA Node toward the ventricles; AKA - AV Node.
Hypertension (HTN)
High blood pressure; 140/90 Hg or greater is considered high in adults.
Angiogram
X-ray record of the size, shape, and location of the heart and blood vessels after introduction of radiopaque contrast.
Troponin-I (cTnI)
Protein released into blood by damaged heart muscle (but not skeletal muscle); highly sensitive and specific indicator of recent MI.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Congenital malformation of the heart involving four distinct defects: (1) pulmonary artery stenosis, (2) ventricular septal defect, (3) shift of the aorta to the right, and (4) hypertrophy of the right ventricle; infants with this condition are called "blue babies" because of extreme cyanosis.
Thrombolytic Therapy
Drugs injected into the bloodstream to dissolve clots in patients with coronary thrombosis; examples include tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and streptokinase.
Berry Aneurysms
Aneurysms of small vessels of the brain.
Pulmonary Artery Stenosis
Narrowing or obstruction of the pulmonary artery.
Carotid Endarterectomy
Surgical removal of plaque from the carotid arteries.
Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation (RFA)
Minimally invasive treatment for arrhythmias; destroys tissue causing arrhythmias.
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart. Usually the result of atherosclerosis.
infarct
area of necrotic tissue due to loss of blood supply
intracoronary artery stent
placing a stent within a coronary artery; treats coronary ischemia due to atherosclerosis
bundle branch block (BBB)
electrical impulse is blocked from traveling down bundle branches; results in ventricles beating at different rate than atria; also called heart block
Cardiac MRI
Images of the heart are produced with magnetic waves; show aneurysms, cardiac output, and patency of peripheral and coronary arteries.
Pericardial Friction Rub
Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; it is suggestive of pericarditis.
Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)
Three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computerized tomography.
Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)
Contraction of the cardiac ventricle prior to the normal time; caused by an electrical impulse arising from a site other than the SA Node; three or more PVCs in a row constitute ventricular tachycardia.
Congenital Heart Disease
Abnormalities in the heart at birth; includes coarctation of the aorta, patent ductus arteriosus, septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot.
Intra-Aortic Ballon Pump (IABP)
Used to support patients in cardiogenic shock.
technetium tc 99m sestamibi scan
technitium tc 99m sestamibi injected IV and taken up in cardiac tissue where it is detected by scanning
Path of the conduction system-Step 3
The atrioventricular node (AV) transfers stimulation wave to bundle of His
Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
X-ray images of blood vessels produced by video equipment; an initial x-ray is taken, then contrast is injected and a second x-ray is taken.
Normal Sinus Rhytum (NSR)
Heart rhythm originating in the SA node, with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
Holter Monitoring
ECG device worn fro 24 hours to detect cardiac arrhythmias.
heart valve prolapse
cusps are too loose and fail to shut tight; allowing regurgitation
congestive heart failure (CHF)
left ventricle muscle is too weak to efficiently pump blood; results in weakness, breathlessness, & edema
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Blood clot (thromus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb.
Position Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive substances.
Path of the conduction system-Step 4
Electrical wave travels down bundle of His branches within interventricular septum
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