Medieval Music Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ritornello
Refrain
Calixtinus Codex
12th century manuscript
Lydian mode
F Lydian Flydian
Rhythmic Modes
rhythmic patterns governing performance of measured sections of Notre Dame organum, motets, conductus. All patterns employ triple meter
Perotin
Organa writer from Notre Dame
lyre
Instrument with strings running parallel to the resonating soundboard and attach to a cross bar supported by two arms. Found in a discovery in the royal tombs at Ur.
Caccia
14th century canonic piece with Italian text. Often dealing with hunting or nature. Hunting style. Voices performed in strict canon with an underlying third part, followed by a ritornello. Often with "animated" additions: horn calls, bird calls, dialogue.
Hildegard of Bingen
wrote para-liturgical music (monophonic music on sacred themes but not part of the liturgy)
conductus
Monophonic or polyphonic vocal works of freely composed poetry.
tetrachord
Comprised four notes spanning a perfect fourth. There were three genera (sing. genus), diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic. while the outer notes span a perfect fourth, the inner two notes could move to form different intervals within to create differetn genera.
bas
Low instruments. or soft instruments. Low instruments would include harps, vielles, lutes, psalteries, portative organs, transverse flutes and recorders.
Magnus Liber Organi
collection of 2-voice plainchant setting for liturgical use. Notre Dame. Attributed to Leonin and revised by Perotin. The most important surviving work of the period.
Musica Enchiriadis
9th century treatise by Hucbald. Earliest surviving source of polyphony.
Cantilena Style
Predominant vocal top line supported by less complex and usually instrumental tenor and countertenor lines.
Musica Ficta
"Fixing" the music by adding accidentals in performance
Francesco Landini
Leading Italian composer of Ballate. Hof his 140 ballate, 89 are for two voices and 42 are for three voices. Nine survived in both tow and three part versions.
Organist at the monastery of Santa Trinita.
psaltery
played by plucking strings attached to a frame over a wooden sonding board: it is a remote ancestor of the harpsichord and piano.
Solmazation
Attributed to Guido of Arezzo. a system of assigning syllables to tones and semitones: ut re mi fa sol la.
formes fixes
(fiexed forms). Name for three poplular genres the virelai, ballade and rondeau. The three genres tend to differ somewhat i subject matter as well as in form. The ballades were the most serious, appropriate for phlosophical or historical thems. These were all derived from genres associated with dancing and evidentby their use of refrains. Machaut set his monophonic songs and polyphonic chasons set to poems to these forms.
minims
The smallest note value discribed in Murs treatise allowing for much greater rhythmic flexiblilty as well as syncopation. This was a result of ars nova.
ethos
Refers to one's ethical character or way of being and behaving. Greek writers believed music had this effect. Pythagorean view of music as a system of pitch and rhythm were the same mathmatical laws that operated in the visible and the invisible world.
pastourelle
song between knight and country maid that is unsuccessfully seductive.
Psalm
type of sacred song dating back to antiquity.
Neumes
Signs placed above the words in early notation to indicate the number of notes per syllable and whether the note ascends or descends or repeats the pitch. Because the exactness of the pitch is not notated these only served as reminders for the singer. The melody still had to be known or learned by ear.
sequence
A genre popular from the late nith through the twelfth centuries. Set syllabically to a text that is mostly in couplets and are sung after the Alleluia at Mass. Consists of a single sentence; a series of paired sentences or phrases; and a final unpaired sentence. A BB, CC....
Isorhythm
the melody is changed but the rhythm stays the same.
Antiphon
section of chant sung as a REFRAIN to the verses of a psalm. Served as a frame to psalm verse (intro and end).
melismatic organum
Organum in which multiple notes in the added voice(s) run against individual notes of the plainchant melody
Musica enchiriadis and Scolica enchiriadis
Ninth century anonymous treatises discribing ways to enrich melody by doubling it in parallel consonant intervals. The treatises uses the term organum for two or more voices singing different notes in agreeable combinations. Also discribes the scale system which contained augmented fourths (tritones) such as Bb-e and f-b and the adjustments necessary to avoid them produced in organum.
Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361)
Frenfch compser, poet, church canon, administrator for the duke of Bourbon and the king of France and later bishp of Meaux is named by one writer as the inventor of a new art (ars nova). Several version of a treatise from 1320 representing Vitry's teaching, though perhaps not written by him, end with the words " this completes the Ars nova of Magister Philippe de Vitry".
Ars Antiqua
a term used to refer to the "old style" typical of 12th century Notre Dame organum and of the 13th century motet and conductus. Characteristized by predominance of triple meter and limited rhythmic vocabulary rhythmic modes, mostly 3-part, "Perfect" rhythm.
14th century Italian Madrigal
(not to be confued with the better-known sixteenth-century version) is a song for two or three voices without instrumental accompaniment. All the voices sing the same text, usually an idyllic, pastoral, satirical, or love poem. Consist of two or more three-line stanzas, each set to the same music, followed by a closing par of lines, called retornello (Italian for refrain) set to different music with a different meter.
Species of fifth and fourth
Described by Cleonides that each mode is devided into two spans, a fifth rising from the final and a fourth that is above the fifth in the authentic modes and below the final in the plagal modes. The arragement of whole tones and semitones above each of the four finals is unique.
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