Memory 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Change Blindness
Episodic memory
loss of memory
study of the solid earth
confusing the source of information
banish bad thoughts from consciousness
Elizabeth Loftus
experimentally implanted false memories of childhood traumas. Repressed memories, why do traumatic experiences sometime produces good memories and sometimes no memory stored information in the brain.
Recencey effect
short term memory effect
long-term potentiation
LTP; proLONGed strengthening of POTENTIAL neuron firing; by stimulating certain neural connections repeated, they become more efficient at releasing neurotransmitters; neural basis for learning and memory
working memory
processing of briefly stored info
Long-term memory
Relatively long-lasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new info is believed to be unlimited
absense-mindedness, transience (storage decay), blocking (can't access stored info)
3 sins of forgetting
process of combining and substituting memories from events other than the one you're trying to remember.
*Frontal Lobes* are associated with:
Short-term memory
PEMDAS example. Verse, where things rhyme, and method of loci (visualization)
Informed consent
particiapnts must be given comprehensive information concerning the nature and purpose of the research and their role, in order for them to make a decision regarding whether to participate.
What is the duration of STM?
a memory measure that assess the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading info into our memory of an event
a retrieval cue; the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
forgetting curve
memory for novel information fades quickly, then levels out (Ebbinghaus)
sensory memory
immediate, very brief recording of sensory information into memory
Deep processing
semantic encoding involves forming an association of attaching meaning to a sensory impression and results in longer-lasting memories.
Information-Processing Model
(Atkinson & Shiffrin); includes 3 stages; sensory memory registers the image, STM focuses on 1 thing that sticks out in the image, LTM determines whether its important or not; some info skips 1st and 2nd stage
for us stress is no longer distinctive, stress can make your neurons die
Interference Theory
One memory competes or replaces another.
An unpleasant emotional state where we fear that something bad is abput to happen. People often get anxious when they are in a stressful situation.Much research in this area is focused on the effects of arousal on EWT
What did Spiers find about amnesia patients?
What evidence shows the capacity of STM?
antereograde amnesia
when someone cannot recall what happened after a traumatic event occurred.
proactive interference
disrupts prior learning on recall of new info
Flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
memory retrieval
the process of accessing and bringing the consciousness info stored in memory
Mnemonic Decices
acronyms, create a story, method of loci, acrostics
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
rosy retrospection
ppl tend to recall events more positively than what it seemed at the time
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined
the ability to retrieve info not in conscious awareness from previously being learned
Ex: fill in the blank
childhood infantile amnesia
inability to remmeber events and experiences that occurred during the first two or three years of life
An example of a basic level category is:-liquid-hedge-plant-tree-oak tree
- process of keeping info in memory- properly shelving book in collectionschema: organized knowledge structureScript: type of schema specifying set order of expected events (getting ready for day--shower, dress, breakfast, brush teeth, leave for work)
Auditory Encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Phonoligical Loop
Part of the Working Memory Model. Subdivided into the 'inner voice' and 'inner ear'
What four areas of LTM were proposed by Schachter?
long-term memory (LTM)
the memory system involved in the long-term storage of info; unlimited
George Miller
average is about 7 things in short term
Procedural LTM
our knowledge about how to do things/ how to perform physical tasks
three years
A person with long term retrograde has the poorest memory for
Recency effect
the most recent words you hear when being told a list are better remembered because these words will be in your STM when you start recalling the list.
Episodic Buffer
Binds together the various parts of a meaningful experience
levels of processing model
model of memory storage which suggests that we better remember information that we spend more time and cognitive effort processing (e.g. deep v. shallow processing)
Encoding: The Modal Model
Iconic memory -> short term -> long termFrom short term to long term with rehearsal
reconstruction of memories
Part of what people recall about an event is the details of that particular event and part is a reconstruction of the event based on their schemas.
How does the case of KF go against the MSM?
both temporal and frontal lobes
What will you remember most accurately of your college life 25 years from now?
When immediate recognition of from one to six digits is tested the reaction time (RT) is a linear function of set size for responses to:
both targets and distracters (response times as a function of study-set size are shown for targets and distracters are shown...response time is a linear function of set size.)
What is the role of thehippocampus?
critical for many types of long term memory, damage to it causes severe memory impairment.
Central executive
Articulatory process
STM duration
LTM duration
helps process explicit memories
stores implicit emotional memories; damage to this brain area prevents one from learning to fear
in psychoanalytic theory the selective involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting info into the unconcious
echoic memory
momentary sensory of auditory stimuli
Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture IMAGES
Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of SOUND
Semantic Encoding: the encoding of MEANING
Implicit Memory
Recalls or recognizes information without consciously being aware of it
episodic memories
memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred
Keyword Method:

 language learning, reminder words; thinking of another word similiar to what you are trying to remember and using an image that combines the two words to help you remember
Miller (1956) suggested that the capacity of STM can be enhanced by grouping sets of digits or letters into meaningful units or 'CHUNKS'
What evidence doesn't support the central executive as a unitary component of memory?
Effortful Processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
deja vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Cocktail Party Phenomenon
The observation that (basically) debunked the Early Selection Theory, because your name always has salience to you.
Von Restorff effect
tendency to remember distinctive stimuli better than less distinctive stimuli; also sometimes called sematic distinctiveness
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, esp. when combined with semantic encoding
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Semantic Encoding
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
Korsakoff's Syndrome
a condition caused by prolonged deficiency of vitamin B1 usually as a result of chronic alcoholism
Imagination Inflation
Vividly imagining an event increases confidence that the event occurred
Semantic coding
Involves coding information on its meaning
Explain how counting the windows in your house silently and from memory utilises parts of the WMM
how our memory changes information to store it(can be stored in various forms such as acoustic, semantic, visual)
lack of social grace, sensitivity, or acuteness; awkwardness; crudeness; tactlessness.
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. Working memory is a similar concept that focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information.
Example: When listening to the same song for the first time, some words of the refrain will be stored in our short-term memory.
Retroactive Interference
A type of memory disruption that occurs when interfering information is presented after, rather than before, the information that is to be remembered
After a trip to the natural history museum on sunday, Tony tried to remember all of the more than 50 dinosaurs he saw there for the next five days. on which day did he remember the most dinosaurs
How did Bunge use brain scanning to support the existence of the central executive?
what part of the brain is associated with emotionally charged memories?
George Sperling
Flashed the words and saw if people remembered it
Echoic: 3-4 Seconds
Iconic: .5 Seconds
Hermann Ebbinhaus' Research
Found that, slowly, we forget the information but it never fully goes away
What is *Consolidation*?
The process by which a long-term memory becomes durable and stable.
Anterograde amnesia
in which you are incapable of retaining any new information
Miller proposed that the capacity of STM can be enhanced by grouping sets of letters or digits together into meaningful units or chunks.
STM encodingLTM encoding
Serial Position Effect
our tendency to recall best the first and last items in a list
Indian Removal Act
law passed forcing all Indians to move west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory
Organizing info for encoding
Breaking down of complex info into broad concepts- further subdevide them into categories + subcategories1. chunking 2. heirarchies
schema (pl: schemata)
a set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience
Isaiah 58:13 & 14
-New Life in the Spirit-
If you turn back your foot from the Sabbath, from doing your pleasure on my holy day...then you shall take delight in the Lord...
parallel distributed processing models
They make sense based on research from neurophysiological research.It requires the execution of operations in a sequence.It explains the blazing speed of human's cognitive functioning better then other models do.They provide a plausible account for how me
Increase false alarms. Hypnosis appears to be a particulary powerful technique for implanting false memories.
Suppose you are asked to report all the girl names you can think of in ten minutes. You will report the most names during
A typical category member of a perceptually-defined category
looks like a lot of other category members
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