Meteorology 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tempus hibernum
through molecular activity
black body
perfect absorber
A low pressure area
Coriolis Force
caused by earth's rotation.
air moves into
low pressure areas
the study of the atmosphere
Balloon-borne weather instrument whose sensors measure air pressure, humidity, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction
infrared radiation
Electromagnetic raiation with wavelengths between about0.7 and 1000 um. This raiaition is longer than visible radiation but shorter than microwave radiation.
Upper boundary of the mesosphere, marked by an increase in temperature
The distance between crests of waves
ultraviolet radiation
harmful radiation that is absorbed/deflected by the ozone layer
_____ air parcels expand and cool.
The boundaries between different air masses are called ____-. Active weather events occurs along these zones.
cold upper atmosphere, warm mid atmosphere, and surface
gas (water vapor) to solid (ice)
23.5 degrees
permanent tilt of earth's axis
which layer is in the middle?
Top layer of earths atmosphere. it warms up with height just like stratosphere
ice crystals or aggregates of ice crystals
a device used to measure the temperature
The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
A COOLING PROCESS. When any substance goes from a liquid to a gas.
Supercell Thunderstorm
-A severe thunderstorm that consists primarily of a single rotating updraft.
-it's organized internal structure allows the storm to maintain itself for several hours.
-can produce large hail and dangerous tornadoes.
Second lowest layer of the atmosphere. increased temperature with height.
an increase in altitude lowers air pressure; water boils faster w/low pressure. Air is colder as altitude increases because there is less atmosphere (insulation) above it.
Very light rain; stronger than mist but less than a shower
Surface Albedo
percentage of insolation (or sunshine) reflected back to space at the surface
a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water
When the wind flows basically from west to east with no real prominent rossby waves indicated on the map, the general flow is though of as:
rising motion. air slows down happens when it flows from water to land
Pressure gradient
is the difference in air pressure between 2 locations. sea breeeze and land breeze
raised from the ground; high in the air
predict a condition or event on the basis of observations
water cycle
the continual movement of water among Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface through evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
the process in which cool air delves down, while warmer air rises to the top. The warm air usually cools in the cooler, higher sections of the atmosphere and again begins to return back down. Local breezes, wind and even thunderstorms are a result of convection
warm front
warm moist tropical air replaces cold dry polar air, precipitation comes ahead of the front
Sea Breeze
-goes from ocean to land
-caused by friction
-thermally direct
Station model
A "cluster" of current weather data for one particular weather reporting station (observation station).
low pressure system
associated with cloudy skies, stormy weather
how a shortwave can change the surface features by "steering" lows and/or intensifying surface lows
altocumulus clouds
white or gray medium altitude clouds that usually occur in layers or patches of wavy rounded masses or rolls, usually bring rain or snow
wave length radiation
λ=1 micron = 1µm = 0.0001cm
saturation point
(chemistry) the stage at which a substance will receive no more of another substance in solution or in a vapor
Cooling degree-day
Based on the assumption that people will begin to use their air conditioners when the mean daily temperature rises above 65F.
Determined by subtracting 65F from the daily average temperature.
hadley cell
assuming that the earth is uniformally covered with water and the sun in directly over the equator with no rotation we would have the single cell model. WARM AIR RISES AT EQUATOR AND SINKS AT POLES
Does snow or forest have the highest albedo?
polar cells
where polar air sinks and flows away from the poles downward meeting the ferrel cells at 60 degrees latitude
the amount of water vapor in the air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount that the air could hold at the given temperature; the ratio of the actual water vapor pressure to the saturation vapor pressure.
Open Wave
in the life of a middle latitude cyclone, a frontal wave's cold front overruns the warm front creating a warm sector between the two fronts
If the amount of water vapor in the air remains the same, but the temperature decreases, the relative humidity _________.
dry and warm
a continental tropical air mass brings what weather
Land Breeze
A coastal breeze that blows from land to sea. During nighttime.
La Niña
The opposite pattern to an El Niño, in which below-normal sea surface temperatures exist in the tropical eastern Pacific.
wind direction
the direction from which the wind is blowing
precipitation of cloud
Nimbo or Nimbus - precipitation is falling from the cloud.
Nimbostratus - stratus with precipitation falling.
Cumulonimbus - comulus with precipitation falling.
The cloud droplets in a cloud are formed by water vapor molecules and
condensation nuclei
Name the variable gases?
water vapor carbon dioxide methane ozone
important dates in history
1843- telegraph, 1920- frontal theory helped forecast, 1960- Tiros I first weather satelite.
frontal wedging
Cool air acts as a barrier over which warmer, less dense air rises, in a process known as ____.
how do hurricanes form?
-high humidity in a deep layer extending up through the troposphere
-surface water temperature is warm, typically 26.5C (80F) or greater over a vast area
Cold front
cold air blows in under warm air and triggers thunderstorms
Accessory Cloud
A cloud that is dependent on a larger cloud system
What are cold snaps
Abrupt cold waves can happen after cold air cools surface and dumps snow.
Dry adiabatic lapse rate
The Rate of Temperature Change of a Dry Air Parcel that is Expanding & Cooling or Compressing & Warming without Exchanging Heat.
Which 2 gases make up a combined total of 99% of clean, dry air in the homosphere?
nitrogen and oxygen
Name 3 factors for seasonality.
sun angle, depth of atmosphere, time of insulation
Clouds and precipitation form in the air primarily due to
air being cooled as it rises
Name the different ways to lift an air parcel.
Orographic lift, frontal lift, convection, convergence
what is the daily temperature variation?
begins at sunrise, max at noon, ends at sunset
How do mP air masses form in North America?
starts over Asia as cP, then moves over ocean and becomes mP because of moisture
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