meteorology exam one Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cumulus
billowy, low-altitude
anemometer
measures wind speed
Inversion
warmer with height
low pressure
hot air rises
The fastest moving front:
Cold
greenhouse effect
heating of the atmosphere
Bad/stormy
Low pressure (particularly dropping pressure) is associated with ___________ weather
Diurnal
daily; occurring during the daytime
Barometer
any instrument that measures atmospheric pressure.
rain
precipitation that reaches the ground in the liquid state
convection
method of transferring heat in fluids.
Maritime air masses
humid, indicated by "m"
The collision- coalescence process is more likely to occur when __________ warm clouds are present.
Thick
Severe
A _________ thunderstorm is usually long lasting and has hail and strong winds associated with it.
Forming Dew
Radiational Cooling Of The Surface:
-outgoing longwave radiation emitted to space
-surfaces (grass, trees, cars) cool to right around dew point
-air is cooled by conduction and reaches its dew point (air becomes saturated)
-condensation of liquid fluid droplets on surfaces
-more likely to form on nights with clear sky and calm winds
-objects near the ground will emit infrared radiation (clear nights)
-coldest air is located near the ground (calm winds)
fallstreaks
small ice crystals sublimate before they reach the ground, causing white streaks below clouds
hail
precipitation of ice pellets when there are strong rising air currents
Define radiation.
radiation- transfer of energy propagated through an electromagnetic wave.
Humidity
amount of water vapor in the air
clouds
made of millions of minute water droplets or tiny crystals of ice
asfd
colleen we should really get our homework done...seriously
valley breeze
wind that blows up the mountain
doldrums
area near equator that experiences low pressures and light shifting winds
jet stream
upper atmosphere wind that separates cold air masses from warm air masses
Storm Warning
Storm has actually been observed either visually or on a radar screen. Issued when formation is imminent.
Black Body Object
a perfect absorber/emitter. Example: sun and Earth
Monsoon
A seasonally driven change in wind direction.
lenticular clouds
(lens shaped) generally formed in mountanious regions and form an oval
Atmospheric Infrared Sounder
advanced sounding instrument designed to retrieve vertical temperature and moisture profiles in the troposphere and stratosphere achieving a temperature retrieval accuracy of 1 degree C with a 1 km vertical resolution. It has been selected to be onboard the EOS-PM1 a remote sensing satellite to take orbit in the year 2000
air pressure
the pressure exerted by the atmosphere
A situation in which the temperature increases with altitude is called ____
Inversion
Does the number of air molecules increase or decrease with elevation?
decrease
Sublimation
conversion of a solid directly to a gas
What process requires that water release 80 cal/gm?
Freezing or solidification
thermosphere
the region of the upper atmosphere in which temperature increases continuously with altitude, encompassing essentially all of the atmosphere above the mesosphere.
temperature difference
the cause for layers of the atmosphere
glaze
a coating of ice on objects formed when supercooled rain freezes on contact
What are the three ways to transfer heat? (3 points)
Conduction
convection
radiation.
counterclockwise
Wind (air) moving around an area of low pressure in a ______ direction.
Model Output Statistics (MOS)
Text version of numerical modeling
Nor'easter
A large storm whose winds rotate from the northeast.
Doppler effect
Change in the wave frequency that occurs in energy when that energy moves toward or away from an observer
condensation nuclei
tiny bits of particulate matter that serve as surfaces on which water vapor condenses
Back Scattered Energy
energy scattered in the opposite direction of the original beam
The process by which a solid changes directly to a gas.
sublimation
Fahrenheit scale
A temperature scale where 32 is assigned to the temperature at which water freezes and 212 to the temperature which water boils
occluded front
cold air catches up with warm air.
Does pressure increase or decrease with elevation?
pressure always decreases
What type of air mass would have a high temperature? (polar or tropical)
tropical
Rate of change
describes how a quantity is changing over time
cold front
a cool air mass that overtakes a warmer air mass
Highest air pressures
Associated with warmer air and weaker winds
Adiabatic
Temp. changes in an air mass not due to the addition or subtraction of heat, but to the expansion or contraction of the air mass itself is called adiabatic hearing or cooling.
Weighing Type Rain Gauge
A form of precipitation measurement that weighs rainfall and empties it.
Relative humidity
amount of moisture held in the air compared to what the air can hold at that specific temperature
Radial velocity
rate of change in position toward or away from the doppler tower.
The first day of summer in the southern hemisphere is ?
dec 21
What gas is considered to be "the greenhouse gas"?
carbon dioxide
sea breeze
wind blowing from the ocean to land at the coast, due to the cool air replacing the warmer air that has moved up on the coastline
What processes are involved in the hydrologic cycle?
Condensation, Precipitation, Runoff, Evaporation, Transpiration/Evapotranspiration
phases of water: liquid (water)
-molecules are close together, bumping and vibrating, moving at slightly different speeds
-At the surface, some have to acquire enough energy to break away
Coriolis Effect
Air will appear to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere or to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Will happen on all free-moving objects that are not attached to the Earth such as atmosphere and ocean currents. Nonexistent at the equator and becomes stronger towards the poles.
seasons are possible due to..
the tilt of the earths axis
the greenhouse effect
The heating of the lower layer of the atmosphere from radiation absorbed by certain heat-absorbing gases is called _____.
stationary front
when a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet and no movement occurs
What is Katabatic flow?
cold air runs down and fills up valley, creates thermal belts. farmers plant crops in a thermal belt
SPC Storm Prediction Center
Part of the NWS, will send out a tornado watch alerting the public of the possibility of a tornado in a given area within a specific time. "high probability of imminent danger" to a specific location. The warning for that particular location may last 30-60 minutes.
More greenhouse gases have always been correlated to warmer global climates in Earth's past history. Why is there debate about the uncertainties in climate change due to increased greenhouse gasses in today's climate? (2 points)
Reliability of the data record for temperatures.
Is it natural variability or human-induced?
Feedbacks are relatively unknown.
what is the daily temperature variation?
begins at sunrise, max at noon, ends at sunset
about 50 % of the sun's energy that enters the atmosphere
gets absorbed by the earth's surface/ land and water
/ 70
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