Meteorology Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
capacity
temperature dependent
land
heats more rapidly
black body
perfect absorber
cold front
DRAW cross section
Mesosphere
coldest, between thermosphere and stratosphere.
Radiosonde
instrument used for gathering upper-level data; a balloon-borne package of sensors
deadliest part of a hurricane
drowning?
air masses and their labels
m:maritime
c:continental
P:polar
T:tropical
cP: cold, dry, stable cT:hot, dry, stable air aloft, unstable surface air
mP:cool, moist, unstable; cP air originating over asia is carried eastward and southward over the pacific ocean
cT:warm, moist, usually unstable
The Thermosphere
The Outer layer
gets warmer
IONOSPHERE
Lower region of the thermosphere, important for radio wave transmission
seasons result of
changing length of daylight
Evaporation
Energetic H2O molecule leaves the liquid water on your skin after a shower, takes up latent heat of vaporization, cooling your skin.
Altocumulus
Middle altitude clouds that consists of gray puffy masses
supercell thunderstorm
severe thunderstorm that consists primarily of a single rotation updraft
Precipiattion
to fall out; release of liquid
frontolysis
- : decay of a front
Pressure
weather element that always decreases as we climb upwards in the atmosphere
Advection
horizontal movement of heat or moisture
mountain breeze
The nightly downslope winds commonly encountered in mountain valleys.
sublimation
solid is changed directly to a gas
Warm Fronts
advancing warm air displaces cold air
stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere that contains the ozone layer; temperature increases as you go up
What keeps water in the cup?
air pressure
Weather Watch
- a forecast indicating that atmospheric conditions are favorable for severe weather to occur over a particular region during a specified time period.
Nitrogen
Part of the composition of the atmosphere. Permanent gas. 78.08%
rain
Liquid water drops larger than .5mm that fall to the earth.
Kirchhoff's Law
good absorbers of radiation are equally good emitters of radiation
rotation
a single complete turn (axial or orbital)
If stormy weather were approaching the pressure tendency would probably be
Falling
Weather accuracy
Accuracy (in forecasting) is arbitrary and relative - it's not clearly, objectively defined
Hygrometer aka sling Psychrometer
Measuring humidity is measured by
absolute stability
when the environmental lapse rate is less than the wet adiabatic rate
humidity
the amount of water vapor present in the air
radiative equilibrium
When a body's rate of radiation absorption equals its rate of emission.
El Ni-o
warming of surface waters in the eastern equatorial Pacific that brings about strange anomolous weather patterns to the coastal regions. Certain economical and ecological disasters can be linked to this phenomena
R
radius of curvature of the curved path (small = CENTF large)
The SOI is a measure of the _______component of ENSO.
Atmospheric
National Weather Service
Responsible for issuing severe weather warnings & advisories, daily forecasts at 4am and 4pm, hazard weather outlook, and climactic summaries for major cities.
cyclone
a swirling center of low air pressure; moving in a circle
Check out the slide 27 for good information
...
middle latitudes
are the areas that lie primarily between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres.
Dry Thunderstorms
storms that have lightning, but little to no precipitation falling. Usually in dry conditions. ...create ignite wildfires and push the fires around.
sleet
partially melted snow (or a mixture of rain and snow)
Radiation
transfer of energy from one object to another without spaces in between heated; no contact is necessary
released by EVERYTHING
upwelling
brings cold ocean water from bottow to the surface.
Any surface that absorbs all the radiation that strikes it is called a____________.
black body
occluded front
A front formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front. It marks the beginning of the end of a middle-latitude cyclone.
Trade Winds
one of three wind systems; occurs at 30 degrees north and south latitude; air sinks, warms and moves toward the equator in a westerly direction. when it reaches the equator it rises again and moves back toward latitude 30 degrees
greenhouse gas
gas in the atmosphere that traps solar energy inside the Earth's atmosphere
Air that has all of the water vapor that it can hold at a particular temperature, it is said to be
saturated
planetary wind belt
east-west winds on earth where the wind blows from one direction much of the time
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
An innaccurate form of precipitation measurement. Not good for heavy rain.
force, Increases
When wind meets a barrier it exerts _______ upon it. If the barrier doesn't move, the wind moves around it. As stable air flows over a ridge, the wind speed ______.
saturated air
air that has 100% humidity, when air contains all the water vapor it can possibly hold
Air Pressure
is defined at the pressure exerted by the weight of air above. 5000 pounds of pressure in all directions.
atmospheric window
The wavelength range between 8 and 11 um in which little absorption of infrared radiation takes place
Which is more dense moist or dry air?
dry air
temperature
a measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or substance with reference to some standard value. The temperature of two systems is the same when the systems are in thermal equilibrium.
In a middle latitude cyclone, if the surface convergence (divergence) is weaker than divergence (convergence) aloft...
the storm intensifies
air mass modification
Exchange of heat or moisture with the surface over which an air mass moves
the _____ and the sun form the basis of weather
water cycle
what are orchard heaters?
Oil heaters placed in orchards that generate heat and promote convective circulations to protect fruit trees from damaging low temperatures. Also called smudge pots.
General Circulation Concepts
It is driven by the unequal heating of the earths surface, the long term average of wind over the globe
adiabatic process
a parcel of air does not mix with its environment or exchange heat energy with its environment
Stratiform (Stratus or Strato-)
layer clouds that form in a stable air layer (air that is not rising or falling)
The word "radiation" in the term radiation fog refers to
radiant energy lost by the ground
the maximum strength a hurricane can achieve is...
proportional to the difference in air temperature between the tropopause and the surface, and to the potential for evaporation from the sea surface.
What are the 3 process to transfer heat?
conduction- transfer of heat from molecule to molecule w/in substance or between substances. convection- transfer of heat through mass movement of a fluid(air can be fluid). radiation- transfer of energy propagated through a electromagnetic wave.
Properties of mT air masses in North America
in winter it is warm and moist and unstable, heavy rains
cumulo
puffy
Thermometer
measures air temperature
Cold air holds_______ water
less
Computers
collect and store weather data
"F" category for largest tornado.
5
Alto - Stratus
mid level layered clouds
intensity of heat in a mass
temperature
An intense synoptic scale cyclone tracks up the Mississippi River Valley and passes west of Chicago. As the cold front sweeps through Chicago, the wind shifts from the south to the
southwest
Dew
water that condenses on a cool surface
About how thick is the troposphere?
0-18 km
layer of atmosphere just above the mesosphere
thermosphere
the layers of air surrounding the earth
atmosphere
A rising barometer indicates what type of weather?
rain
A tornadic circulation that remains aloft and does not touch the Earth's surface is known as a
funnel cloud
What is numerically equivalent to a force per unit mass
acceleration
What protects us from ultraviolet radiation?
Ozone Layer
Troposphere
Bottom layer in the atmosphere - where we live, breathe . It is also where all the weather occurs
jet stream
the air bands that control the wind
which is denser cold or warm air?
cold air
The eastern flank of a subtropical anticyclone is characterized by
dry climates
What is a Native American word that, according to tradition, means snoweater
Chinook
Which type of cloud would be most likely responsible for heavy rain
cumulonimbus
What is the most abundant (common) gas in Earth’s atmosphere?
Nitrogen
Stationary Front
when cold and warm air push against each other , but dont move
lapse rate formula
6.5 degrees C/km (3.5 degrees F/1000 ft.)
Most hurricane related fatalities are caused by
coastal and inland flooding
The average winter location of the polar front jet stream
southern United States
What front is followed by warm clear weather?
Warm Front
What type of cloud can be very tall and can produce thunder, lightning, hail and tornadoes?
Cumulonimbus
Coriolis effect
the effect of high low pressure in the hemisphere.
When wind speeds reach 39 mi per hour the system is classified as a
tropical storm
the streamers of light which appear in the southern hemisphere sky when charged particles escape from the magnetosphere into the lower atmosphere
aurora australis (the southern lights)
What are some purposes of the Earth's Atmosphere?
Supports plant and animal life
Protects us from UV light
Maintains a suitable temperature
Protects Earth from debris in space
The eye of a hurricane typically
shrinks in diameter as a hurricane intensifies, features subsiding air, is surrounded by a ring of cumulonimbus clouds
In the southern hemisphere, the Coriolis effect always acts
to the left of the direction of motion
The anvil of a thunderstorm cloud is likely to be
a cold cloud composed of ice crystals
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Term:
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