Meteorology test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ice particles.
potential energy
stored energy
both on 21
high pressure
cold air sinks
lines of constant pressure
warmest and coldest over land
_________ (with trees, buildings, ect.) causes horizontal winds blowing near the earth's surface to slow down
the friction of fluid flow
the study of atmospheric phenomenon
(meteorology) the vertical movement of heat or other properties by massive motion within the atmosphere
development or strengthening of a middle latitude cyclone
White cloud; very small cumulus elements; resemble fish scales
A ___________ has rapidly rotating winds (up to 300 mph) that move around a center of intense low pressure
Nimbostratus (NS)
-Dark grey, wet looking
-associated with continuous precipitation (drizzle, rain, snow)
-intensity of precipitation is ALWAYS light
-very low lying clouds (although tops can exceed 10000 ft)
-visibility is quite poor (due to rain/fog)
-can sometimes break apart in the wind
wind-chill index
indicates what the effective temperature is for any combination of temperature and wind speed, loss of body heat
What is the albedo of clouds?
Temperature inversion can lead to __ Being trapped close to the earth surface
water vapor is changed to a solid
trade winds
winds that blow toward the equator
rain, drizzle and other forms of moisture falling from clouds. Raindrops form around particles of dust or salt, join other water droplets or ice droplets and fall when sufficently heavy in the from of liquid or ice, depending on the quantity of collected ice crystals
200 km to 2000 km
Hurricane, tropical storms, lows and highs, fronts, everyday weather
Direct Circulation
-warm air rising
-polar and hadley cells
Variable Gases
2% of composition of atmosphere. Greenhouse gases.
Jet Streams
Fast flowing, narrow air currents found in the atmosphere at around 36,000 ft. above the surface of the Earth
a type of precipitation consisting of transparent pellets of 5 mm or less in diameter. also called ice pellets
season of wind originating from the Indian Ocean and southern Asia, these winds are usually accompanied by heavy rains
low pressure
an air mass of lower pressure
When droplets combine to form a single, larger droplet, the process is called _____
m- maritime
tells moisture content Tropical or polar. warmest mass is Maritime-tropical (gulf)
the state of air that contains the maximum quantity of water vapor that it can hold at any given temperature and pressure
What type of radiation does greenhouse gases allow to enter Earth?
Short wave
an instrument that is carried aloft by a balloon to send back information on atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity by means of a small radio transmitter
sea breeze
wind that blows from sea to land
a visible mass of water or ice particles suspended at a considerable altitude
What are the leading two greenhouse gases from anthropogenic sources that are hypothesized to be responsible for the observed warming over the twentieth century? (2 points)
Carbon dioxide
is the force which attracts objects to the earth's surface (pulls them downward).
Weather Forecasting
Predicting how the present state of the atmosphere will change over a period of time.
The tool used to measure air pressure, or barometric pressure
prevailing westerlies
Global wind system that lies between 30 and 60 degrees north and south latitude, where surface air moves toward the poles in an easterly direction
whit or milky granular deposit of ice formed by the rapid freezing of supercooled water drops as they come in contact with an object in below freezing air
Stefan-Boltzman's Law
hot objects emit more TOTAL radiant energy than do cool objects
Air is ______ if the air temp. decreases at a rate of less than 4C for every 1000 meters as you move upward.
Indian summer
An unreasonably warm spell with clear skies near the middle of autumn. Usually follows a substantial period of cool weather.
thermal turbulence
is essentially rising thermals of air in the boundary layer generated by surface heating. it is max during mid afternoon
What percentage of the atmosphere is oxygen?
oxygen 21%
What type of air mass would have LOW HUMIDITY? (maritime or continental)
Electromagnetic energy
A form of energy that travels through space as waves.
warm front
a warm air mass that overtakes a cooler air mass
Continental Polar (cp)
Forms over ice and snow covered regions of Alaska and Canada, brings very cold air south into central US, slowly warms as heads south
Disturbance/ wave
A tropical ___________ is a mass of thunderstorms with only slight wind circulation (less than 23 mph). It is the initial stage in hurricane development.
Upslope Fog
Air moves up the side of mountains. Cools and expands. Clouds form.
Fujita Scale
A scale that tells how severe a tornado is based on wind speed and the damage being caused.
mean annual temperature
the average temperature at any given location for the entire year
Freezing rain or glaze
A supercooled raindrop that reaches the ground, then freeze instantly on any object it touches.
Dew is most likely to form on
clear calm nights
What gas is considered to be "the greenhouse gas"?
carbon dioxide
Water vapor absorbs short or long wave radiation?
long wave
Ozone layer
The thin layer of zone gas in upper atmosphere that blocks most of the sun's ultraviolet radiation
2 consistent weather factors in an air mass
temperature and humidity
Absolute humidity
MASS of water vapor in a give volume of air
Low pressure or cyclone
is forced to rise and cool adiabatically which may allow the water vapor to condense into clouds and possibly storms. Air molecules at the surface are forced to rise, weight/pressure is taken away from the surface air making it lighter.
What is the formula to convert degrees F to degrees C?
F= (9/5)C+32
Vertical Structure of a Middle Latitude Cyclone
Surface low, divergence aloft aligned to surface low, the low aloft is west of the surface low
Name 3 factors for seasonality.
sun angle, depth of atmosphere, time of insulation
Three stages of development within air mass thunderstorms
cumulus stage, mature stage, and dissipating stage
Name the three (3) things you need to have for a hurricane to develop. (3 points)
An initial disturbance/low pressure, warm sea surface temperatures (>79F), little wind shear.
What is Kirchoff's law?
a good absorber is a good emitter at a particular wavelength. poor absorber is a poor emitter
what happens to warm air over the equator
it rises because warm air is less dense than cool air
materials reflectivity
March 20
Sept 22
Irregular, random, turbulent winds
Newtons second law
F= mxa
the measuring using a Radiosonde
Warm Fronts
drizzly, warm & clear
Boundary between air masses of different densities
Continental air masses
dry, indicated by "c"
Gray layered clouds that stretch across the sky
______ mass thunderstorms are caused by convection currents driven by intense solar heating on summer afternoons
Cumulus (CU)
-variety of shapes: "cotton ball"
-sharp outlines of fluffy
-base is light and grey
-"detached clouds" and have dome-like tops
-show slight vertical growth
-"fair weathered clouds"
A condition whereby the atmosphere contains more water vapor than is needed to produce saturation with respect to a flat surface of pure water or ice, and the relative humidity is greater than 100 percent.
the atmospheric layer between the troposphere and the mesosphere
Are inversion layers stable or unstable?
dew point
is the temperature at which condensation occurs
water vapor
requires a surface to condense on
the state of the atmosphere with respect to wind, temperature, cloudiness, moisture, pressure, etc.
Atmospheric front
transition zone between two airmasses with contrasting densities cause by different temps and humidities
stationary front
if the front does not move
The prevailing winds in the low latitudes (near the equator) generally are from what direction?
EF5 Damage
Incredible Damage/ 201-318 mph 3 second gusts. Strong frame houses leveled off foundations and swept away; automobile missiles fly through the air in excess of 119 yards; high rise buildings have significant structural deformation; incredible phenomena will occur
air that appears foggy because it contains small particles of dust, water, or pollutants
a stratus cloud at an intermediate altitude of 2 or 3 miles
Cold, dense air flowing down a mountain slope is called a ______ wind
Weather observation tools
surface data(ASOS and meteograms) Soundings (weather balloons) ship and buoy data, Satelite data (visible infared water vapor) Radar data
Orographic Lifting
when elevated terrains act as barriers to air flow
What is the greenhouse effect?
Gases trap long-wave(infrared) radiation within the atmosphere. Increasing global temperatures
Digital Forecast
a forecast that relies on numerical data
surface convergence
winds that blow in at the surface
the amount of water vapor in the air
air mass weather
During ____ _____ _______, weather conditions remain the same day after day as an air mass controls the weather conditions.
cumulus cloud
During the growth stage rising air parcels cool and condense forming a
The outer layer of our atmosphere, the region between our atmosphere and space.
polar easterlies
Global wind system that lies between 60 degrees latitude and the poles and is characterized by cold air
snow grains
precipitation in the form of very small, opaque grains of ice. The sold equivalent of drizzle.
Planck's Law
hot objects emit more radiant energy at every wave length than do cool objects
Air remains ____ when the air temp. decreases rapidly as we move upward in the atmosphere.
Vernal equinox
The equinox at which the sun approaches the Northern Hemisphere and passes directly over the equator. Occurs around March 20
What is the third most common permanent gas in the atmosphere by volume?
water vapor
cloud cover
fraction of sky that is obscured by clouds
What is the reference point for lines of longitude?
prime meridian
station model
a cluster of symbols around a station that give current weather conditions
Tropical Storm
A _________ ________ is a mass of thunderstorms with wind circulations of about 40-74 mph.
Air Pressure
The weight of air above a given surface
Relative Humidity
the moisture held in the aire compared to what the air can hold at a specific temperature
solar constant
the rate at which solar radiation is recieved on a surface at the edge of the atmosphere. Average strength is very close to 2 calories per square centimeter per minute
same thing as dew, but when the dew point is below 32 degrees F. Tends to form under high pressure with clear skies, calm nights, and long radiational cooling.
Cloud seeding is used
to produce precipitation, in hail suppression, to disperse fog, to disperse clouds...
Wien's Law
what kind of wave length? inversely related. As Temperature increases maximum wave length goes down.
The Earth emits most of its energy as short waves. T/F
what wind patterns affect us at these latitudes?
global wind patterns
How does hail form?
Hail occurs in thunderstorms high in the atmosphere. Raindrops carried into clouds, freezed and picks up more water as it falls. Hail can be several layers.
2 kinds of vapor pressure
-pressure of water vapor
-fairly good measure of total amount of water vapor in air
-high AVP indicates large numbers of water vapor molecules, low numbers of AVP=low numbers of molecules
-the pressure water vapor would have if the atmosphere was saturated with water vapor at a give temp
-increases with higher temperature
Chinook Winds
"snow eater" or called a Foehn in the alps. It is a wind that forms when a strong pressure-gradient (strong high pressure and low pressure differences) forms in a mountainous region. Wind on the leeward side of a mountain and is very WARM and DRY!
What are cold snaps
Abrupt cold waves can happen after cold air cools surface and dumps snow.
Type of front depends on
direction air mass is moving and characteristics of air mass
summer solstice
On June 21, it is the longest day in the Northern Hemisphere due to the fact that the sun is directly over the tropic of Cancer
How do permanent gases remain constant?
cycles of production and destruction like the water cycle and the nitrogen cycle
The Relationship between air temperature and moisture
Warm air holds more air than cold air.
How do eccentricity of orbit, tilt, and precession affect Earth's global climate? (1 point)
These properties change the amount of radiation earth receives from the sun. It is hypothesized that these factors control the global ice coverage (thus controlling our swings between ice ages and interglacial periods).
What are the 3 process to transfer heat?
conduction- transfer of heat from molecule to molecule w/in substance or between substances. convection- transfer of heat through mass movement of a fluid(air can be fluid). radiation- transfer of energy propagated through a electromagnetic wave.
2 Factors that need to be determined before a hurricane watch or warning is issued.
First, the watch or warning must used to first save lives followed by property. Second, the watches and warnings should not be overused. Technology and information has greatly reduced the evacuation zones from 1000 miles to around 300 miles. No need to evacuate people who are safe.
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