mgmt exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
douglas mcgregor
Conscientiousness
dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering.
Authority
Power to hold people accountable
interests
expressions of personality that influence behavior through preferences for certain environments and activities
lock out
manager literally locks employess out
virtual team
Information technology allows group members in different locations to conduct business.
staff manager
functional area specialists, give advice to line managers
Government Regulators
Regulatory agencies that establish ground rules under which organizations must operate.
restructuring
the process of changing an organization's structure
infrastructure
a country's physical facilities that support economic activities
Middle-of-the-Road Management - (Mid Y, Mid X)
contingency approach



—Strategy formulation 



—Develop courses of action and contingencies; adapt plans to accommodate changes in the environment
Discriminatory contracts
promises to discriminate based upon color, race, religion, national origin, gender.
Transfer pricing
conflicts over establishing the fair or "competitive" price of a resource or skill developed in one division that is to be transfered and sold to other divisions that require it
subcultures
a culture created within a small subset of the organizations employees
arguments for diversity
varied experiences can improve managerial decision making through broader range of ideas, different approaches, and different knowledge about hetergeneous customersIncrease retention of valued organizational membersexpected/required by other firms
failure to exercise care
uses reasonable person test
breach
type of activity dictates required degree of care
higher standard if care required if have or claim to have special knowledge or skillUS v. carroll towing
hand formula
sociocultural dimension
the dimension of the general environment representing the demographic characteristics, norms, customs, and values of the population within which the organization operates
Suitability violations
- these claims arise from recommendations by a stockbroker or 'financial advisor' those results in losses in your account from investments that were not appropriate for your risk tolerance, overall financial situation, or investment objectives. 
marketing strategy development
designing an initial marketing strategy for a new product based on the product concept
introversion
being energized by private time and reflection
dog
low market growth and weak relative position, Oldsmobile
the tendency for the presence of others to influence an individual's motivation and performance
SPITS
PRODUCT INNOVATION CREATES VALUE BY CREATING NEW PRODUCTS OR ENHANCED VERSIONS, THAT CUSTOMERS PERCEIVE AS HAVING:
MORE VALUE
"violent video games"
federal judge (Robert Lasnik) in Seattle blocked enforcement of a state law that banned the sale of certain violent video games to minors. He questioned the law's constitutionality
The Importance of History
Understanding the historical context of management provides a sense of heritage and can help managers avoid the mistakes of others.
 
Robert Owen and Charles Babbage were two of management’s first pioneers.
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
an Internet-based business acts as an intermediary between and among consumers
Strategic management
a specific type of planning in for-profit business organizations; typically pertains to competitive actions in the marketplace
conjunctive tasks
tasks for which the team's performance depends on the abilities of the weakest link
Influence
the effect a person's actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior of others
emotional intelligence
ability to detect and manage emotional ques and information
discretion
the degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own
public
any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on an organization's ability to achieve its objectives
What is Justice-based?
Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially.
team members freely communicate with one another and arrive at decisions together
personal communication channels
What is compliance?
People confomr to others expectation or behaviors in the hope of acquiring rewards or avoiding punishment.
Diversity culture
is a specific culture type focused on fostering or taking advantage of a diverse group of employees.
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
a large-scale information system for integrating and sunchronizing the many activities in the extended enterprise
Defenses and non-defenses for conversion
Defenses: Necessity; purported owner does not in fact own the property or does not have a right to possess it that is superior to the right of the holder. Non: good intentions; the good purchased was stolen.
B2B marketplace
an electronic marketplace set up by an intermediary where buyers and sellers meet
Person-job fit
the extent to which a person's ability and personality match the requirements of a job
leader-staff teams
a team in which the leader makes decisions for the team and provides direction and control over members who perform assigned tasks, so this distinction makes sense in that the responsibilities of the leader and the rest of the team are distinct
Control movement abilities
important in tasks for which people have to make different precise adjustments using machinery to complete the work effectively.
Coercive
One reacts to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one failed to comply
What is Groupthink?
the groups desire for consensus and cohesiveness overwhelms its desire to reach the best possible decision.
Pro-Regulation reasons
1. Whats good for a business is not always best for society/govnt 2. Businesses may not adequately address issues of public safety3. Regulations used to deter businesses from engaging in unethical conduct, make examples..
Disadvantages of First Mover (4)
1. pioneering costs2. make mistakes3. risk of building the wrong resources and capabilities (crossing the chasm)4. invest in inferior or obsolete technology
quality circle
a group of 6 to 12 volunteer employees who meet regularly to discuss and solve problems affecting the quality of their work
Modern view of BGS
- companies only exist because the society and government have given them the right to exist, by creating rules
- as companies have gained more power, society expects more out of them
leadership skills for crisis management
Stay calmBe visiblePut people before businesstell the truthknow when to get back to business.
What is reciprocal interdependence?
When activites flow both ways between units.
Tender of Complete Performance
An unconditional offer to perform by a party who is ready, willing, and able to do so. The tendering party is discharged if his tender is not accepted. // Once performance has been tendered, the party making the tender has done everything possible to carry out the terms of the contract. If the other party then refuses to perform, the party making the tender can sue for breach of contract.
Public Figures defense to defamation
Public figure has higher burden in proving defamation. Must prove "actual malice."
Type A behavior pattern
strong sense of time urgency, tend to be impatient, hard driving, competitive, controlling, aggressive, and even hostile
WHAT ARE THE 4 GENERIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE?
EFFICIENCY, QUALITY, INNOVATION, CUSTOMER RESPONSIVENESS
Employment contracts (contracts in restraint of trade)
A covenant that an employee will not start a competing business for a certain period after termination of employment. // Covenant is legal so long as the time period and geographical area restrictions are reasonable.
When can a partner transfer „partnership status?”
- A partner can transfer partnership status with unanimous consent of the other partners
Overcoming Powerlessness [Five Step Process]
1. Don't be too willing to secede power. 2. Figure out what you need to get done3. Identify your source of power4. Be proactive5. Keep your eye on the ball
Why do people join groups and teams?
(1) interpersonal ttartion (2) group acivities (3) group goals (4) need satisfaction (5)instrumental benefits
What is just compensation always a question of?Is this easy or difficult to determine?
Always a question of fact.
It is difficult to determine.
What are some Failures of Formal Goal setting (Management by Objectives)
Poor implementation of the goal setting process, Lack of top management support for goal setting, Delegation of the goal-setting process to lower levels, Overemphasis on quatitative goals, Too much paperwork and record keeping, Mangerial resistance to goal setting.
Cost of additional overtime to cover vacancy =
Wages + Benefits X # of hrs. overtime
What are some tools for Forecasting HR demand and Supply?
A Replacememtn Chart and an Employee information system (skills inventory)
When does a revocation of the offer occur? Why and under what circumstances can an offer be revoked “anytime?”
Because an offer is one sided, it can be revoked anytime before acceptance by the offeree. Revocation occurs when the offeror notifies the offeree that the offer is no longer good.
learned needs
joint venture
contract between partners
VIE Theory
Valency, Instrumentality, and Expectancy Theory
moderate positive
Conscientiousness has a ___________relationship with job performance and a ____________relationship with organizational commitment
Purpose of Statistics
pull meaning from data
Business-to-business e-commerce (B2B)
electronic transactions between organizations
job design
the application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction
OSHA 1970
mandatory safety and health standards
ingratiation, personal appeals, exchange, apprising
moderately effective tactics
nafta
north american free trade agreement, world's richest in trade, US, Canada, and Mexico
globalization
  ØThe process by which the world’s various national economies and trading systems are fast becoming a single highly interdependent system
Knowledge Management
The efforts to systematically find, organize, and make available a company's intellectual capital and to foster a culture of continuous learning and knowledge sharing.
attitudes
complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people
teamwork processes
refer to the interpersonal activities that facilitate the accomplishment of the teams work but do not directly involve task accomplishment itself
social capital
__ involves relationships inside and outside the firm that help the firm accomplish tasks and create value for customers and shareholders
assault
intentional act placing a person in fear of bodily harm or offensive contact:
must know of action, fear even if no threat (hill v. western union telegraph)
business involvement: through acts of employees: employ threatens, ex. security gaurd
 
verbal
business intelligence
sophisticated software used to spot trends, patterns, and relationships
surface-level diversity
this refers to diversity regarding observable attributes such as race, ethnicity, sex, and age
trust
reflects the willingness to take the RISK of being vulnerable
pooled interdependence
group members complete their work assignments independently, and then this work is piled up to represent the groups output
masculinity/femininity
extent to which a society values quantity of life (masc.) over quality of life (fem)
job design that systematically moves employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulation
job enlargement
what is training?
Teaching operational or technical employees how to do thejob for which they were hired.
cognition-based
meaning that it is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority's trustworthiness
Reverse Discrimination
NO SUCH THING! All discrimination is discrimination.The act of giving preference to members of protected classes to the extent that unprotected individuals believe they are suffering discrimination.
Symbol
an object, act, or event that conveys meaning to others
specialization
__ is concerned with the type and number of jobs required to complete work
parallel teams
composed of members from various jobs who provide recommendations to managers about important issues; part-time commitment
Ethical Behavior
Behavior that is accepted as "right" as opposed to "wrong" according to those standards.
lower order needs
needs that are satisfied externally, physiological and safety needs
simple structures
perhaps the most common form of organizational design (more small organizations than large ones)
role
defined as a pattern of behavior that a person is expected to display in a given context
locus of control
deals with how individuals attribute responsibility for events in their lives, internals: effort, ability, work, knowledge; externals: luck, bosses, fate
extrinsic rewards - give by another person
Motivation model
CUSTOMER DEFECTION RATE
THE PERCENTAGE OF A COMPANY'S CUSTOMERS WHO DEFECT EVERY YEAR TO COMPETITORS
reasons for sucess and failuure
poor management
 
hardwork, drive and dedication commitment to customer sercive
Americans With Disabilities ACt- 1990
Extends affirmative action provisions of Vocational Rehabilitation Act to private employers; requires workplace modifications to facilitate disabled employees; prohibit discrimination against disabled.
Human skills
the ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member
process theories
a group of theories that explain how employees select behaviors with which to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful
due diligence
__ is a process through which a potential acquirer evaluates a target firm for acquisition
Task Uncertainty
if high when goal is clear, leader should use participative. If high when goal is unclear, leader should use directive
deep level diversity
refers to diversity with respect to attributes that are less easy to observe initially but that can be inferred after more direct experience
Exhaustion of Remedies Rule
Unless a party demonstrates that obtaining a remedy within and administrative agency would be futile, a party affected by agency action must exhaust all administrative remedies before the action can be reviewed in court.
RELIABLE PRODUCTS TRANSLATE INTO:
HIGHER EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY & LOWER UNIT COSTS
contingency workers
are employed on a part time basis to supplement a permanent workforce
grievance procedure
the means by which a labor contract is enforced
team process training
occurs in the context of a team experience that facilitates the team being able to function and perform more effectively as an intact unit
How To Avoid Group Think
-Open Climate -Avoid the isolation of the group -Assign members the role of critical evaluator -Avoid being too directive
Levels of Goals (3)
*Strategic - broad statements of where the organization wants to be in the future. Strategic goals pertain to the organization as a whole and are the stated intentions of what the organization wants to achieve.A strategic plan defines the action steps by which an organization intends to attain strategic goals. (Long-term)
What is Incremental Innovation?
It is innovation that does not significantly affect competition in an industry.
Family and Medical Leave Act-1991
Requires 12 weeks' unpaid leave for medical or family needs: paternity, family member illness.Private actions for lost wages and other expenses, reinstatement.
50% Rule Comparative Negligence (TX)
If P's negligence >50%, P recovers nothing.
Fine manipulative abilities
refer to the ability to keep the arms and hands steady while using the hands to do precise work.
how would you improve operations?
By spending more resources on research and development helps identify new products, new uses for existing products, and new methods for making products. Reworking transformation processes and facilities can boost productivity.
situational view of organization design
a view of organization design that is based on the assumption that the optimal design for any given organization depends on a set of relevant situational factors.
What is an acceptance? What controls the effective time of acceptance?
An acceptance is the offeree’s positive response to the offeror’s proposed contract and only persons to whom the offer is made have the power of acceptance. That acceptance must be communicated to the offeror using the proper method of communication, which can be controlled by the offeror or left to the offeree. In either case, the method of communication controls the effective time of the acceptance.
Four skills for communicating during a crisis
Maintain your focusBe VisableGet the awful truth outCommunicate a vision for the future
What is partitioned pricing?
it is setting the price for a base item and then charging extra for each additional component
How does a limited partnership vary from a[n] [ordinary] partnership?
- A limited partnership is a partnership with a slight variation in the liability of those involved
What are interacting gropus or teams?
They are the most common form of decision-making groups which consists of an existing group or newly formed team interacting and then making a decision.
What 2007 case helps to define “void for vagueness” and how?
Gonzales v. Carhart, the decision that dealt with a federal statute that prohibited partial birth abortions.
how do you Managing Political Behavior/
(1) be aware that even if actions are not politcally motivated, others may assume that they are (2) reduce the likelihood of subordinates engaging in political behavior by providing them with autonomy, responsiblity, challenge, and feedback (3) avoid using power to avoid charges of political motivation (4) Get disagreements and conflicts out in the open so that subordinatstes have less opportunity to engage in poltiical behavior (5) Avoid covert beahviors that give the imporession of political intente even if none exitsts
  To what type of contracts do common law principles apply?
Apply to contracts that have land or serviced as their subject matter.
Cornerstone** of HRM?
Job Analysis
Parol Evidence
Same rules as before.
Mediation
Parties reach agreement themselves. Mediator (disinterested 3rd party) proposes solutions and plays active role in helping parties evaluate their positions.
Dedicated to study of:attitudesbehavoirperformance
organizational citizenship
Downsize
laying off large numbers of employees
theft
stealing company products or equipment from the organization
battery
unlawful touching or physical contact w/out consent
can be w/ gun or rock
physical harm not required just offensive
can have without assalt-didn't see it coming
if consent-can't sue-football field
Capitalism
- Adam Smith
- competition rewards the efficient producer
-results in delivery to consumer with the most efficient price
- profit is the incentive
management teams
responsible for coordinating the activities of organizational subunits to help the organization achieve its long term goals
Retraining
additional training given to trained workers for improving performance or dealing with something new
delegation
the process of assigning managerial authority and responsibility to managers and employees lower in the hierarchy
collective bargaining
is the process of negotiating, administering, and interpreting a labor contract
4 Types of Indorsements
Blank, Special, Restrictive, Qualified
conglomerate diversification
expansion into unrelated businesses to minimize risks due to market fluctuations in one industry
value
__ is measured by a product's performance characteristics and by its attributes for which customers are willing to pay. this is the source of AAR
Quality Control
The strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production.
Pleadings (pretrial procedure)
1.) Plaintiff files complaint/petition containing: a) stmt of facts establishing jurisdiction, b) stmt of facts showing entitlement to remedy, c) stmt of the remedy sought. 2.) Srvc of Process: a) defendant gets copy of compliant/petition and summons/citation. b) D is served by sheriff. c) Serving corporate defendant = serve officer of corporation or registered agent. 3.) Pre-Answer Motions: a) special appearance (objection to in personem jurisdiction), b) challenge to venue. 4.) Defendant's Answer: a) no answer = automatic loss. b) admit allegations, deny allegations, or affirmative defense (even if what P says is true, here's a reason why P can't win). c) Counterclaim. 4.) Dismissals and judgements before trial: a)motion to dismiss (usually on basis of subject matter or jurisdiction), b) motion for judgment on pleadings (where judge decides liability, very rare). c) motion for summary judgment (no disagreement on facts, judge uses evidence from discovery, only granted if no genuine questions of fact exist).
espoused values
the beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company exlicitly states
task strategies
learning plans and problem solving approaches used to achieve successful performance
normative
an approach that defines how a decision maker should make decisions and provides guidelines for reaching an ideal outcome for the organization
Reward
People comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive benefits
virtual network structure
an organization structure that disaggregates major functions to separate companies that are brokered by a small headquarters organization
Understanding and adaptation
final stage of socialization, during which newcomers come to learn the content areas of socialization and internalize the norms and expected behaviors of the organization.
top managers
are responsible for the performance of the organization as a whole or of one of its major parts
external recruiting
getting people from outisde the org. to apply for jobs
transactive memory
team state that refers to how specialized knowledge is distributed among members in a manner that results in an effective system of memory for the team
bureaucratic control
the use of rules, policies, hierarchy of authority, reward systems and other formal devices to influence employee behavior and assess performance
Affirmative action
a policy requiring employers to take positive steps to guarantee equal employment opportunities for people within protected groups
3 factors influence whether attributions are seen as internal or external
1. distinctiveness (usually external)2. consistency (usually internal)3. consensus (usually external)
consumer product
a product bought by final consumers for personal consumption
weak positive
challenge stressors have what kind of relationship with job performance
ethnographic research
a form of observational research that involves sending trained observers to watch and interact with consumers in their "natural habitat"
Clique Network
-All members are directly linked to each other.-Few or no structural holes with the team-Max team cooperation & control
task force
temporary team or committee formed to solve a specific short-term problem involving several departments
How to foster innovation:
1. recognize problems and opportunities and devise solutions 2. gain allies by communicating your vision (use persuasion, hard data and trends, and imagination to paint a best-case scenario) 3. overcome employee resistance and empower and reward them
ethical dilemma
is a situation with a potential course of action that, although offering potential benefit or gain, is also unethical
Secured Party v. Buyer
Generally, a security interest in collateral is continuous even when the collateral is sold, unless the Secured Party has authorized that sale. BIOCBs and Buyers of Consumer Goods from Consumers are exceptions.
Justin, a Human Resources Manager for XYZ Company, commits 20% of this year's budget to develop a new program for valuing diversity in the company. He is acting in the __________ role.
B. entrepreneur
Discovery (pretrial procedure)
Purpose is to obtain info, preserve evidence, helps in settlement, prevent surprise, establish witness' testimony, narrows issues in dispute for trial. Five types: 1.) Depositions, Interrogatories, Requests for Admission, Requests for Documents and other tangible things, Request for physical or mental examinations.
chain stores
two or more outlets that are commonly owned and controlled
span of control
number of people reporting to a manger, size depends on the organization
Reciprocal Interdep.
two or more groups depend upon one another for inputshospital/basketball
change is often needed in:
people, technology, structure, and strategy
Demand Instrument
States it is payable on demand or on sight.
time-driven model of leadership
suggests that the focus should shift away from autocratic, consultative, facilitative and delegative leaders to autocratic, consultative, facilitative and delegative situations
liability of foreignness
9/11 and iraq war are explanations for concerns that global strategies are not as prevalent as they once were and still difficult to implement (even with the internet)
single use plans
plans that are developed to achieve a set of goals that are unlikely to be repeated in the future
What is Buniess-Level strategy?
The set of strategic alternatives that an organization chooes from as it conducts business in a particular industy or a particular market.
What is an elevator pitch?
A 30- second action oriented decription of a business designed to sell the idea of the buiness to another.
Is there a third form(administrative agencies’ legislative function) used by some agencies? If so, what is it?
Hybrid rulemaking: a mix between formal and informal rulemaking.
3rd Componenet of TQM
Listen to and learn from customers and employees.
Balanced Scorecard for Measuring Firm Performance
**Developed by Kaplan and Norton
1. Financials
2. Customer Satisfaction
3. CPI (Internal Improvement)
4. Innovation, learning, and training (What gets measured gets done)
What is Decision Timeliness?
The degree to which how fast the decision must be made
Briefly, what do Articles IV through VII deal with?
Article IV deals with states interrelationships. Article V provides the procedures for constitutional amendments. Article VI is the Supremacy Clause and Article VII simply provides the method for state ratification of the US constitution.
Motion for JNOV (Judgment notwithstanding the verdict)
attempt by losing party to get judge to reverse jury's finding. rare.
What is the main disadvantage of Location Departmentalization?
Large administrative staff may be needed to keep track of units in scattered locations
Debate on sex: Darlene Jesperson vs. Harrah's Personal Best Case
Reno picture: all dolled up, darlene sued casion and they lost. Casino appealed. Had she made that case that it costed her financially to look "personal best" she would have won.
1. transferring a core competence to another business is easier than creating a new one 2. resource intangibility. intangible resources are difficult for competitors to understand and imitate
2 ways to create value through corporate relatedness
What does the vroom Decision Tree Attempt?
It attempts to prescribe a leadership style appropriate to a given situation.
•    By contrast, what is a voidable contract?
A voidable contract is a contract that can be unenforceable at the election of one of the parties.
Which of the following is NOT one of the recommended steps to eliminate sexual harassment?
D. Fire all sexual harassers regardless of the nature or size of the offense.
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