MGT 2 Flashcards

outcome-input ratio
Terms Definitions
shop stewards
Leading
instilling enthusiasm by communicating with others, motivating them to work hard and maintain good inerpersonal relations
mentor
experienced employee who supervises, coaches, and guides lower-level employees by introducing them to the right people and generally being their organizational sponsor
optimizing
balancing and reconciling possible conflicts among goals.
utilitarianism
ethical choices that offer the greatest good for the greatest number of people
motivators
in Herzberg's theory of motivating factors, job factors that caused employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction

Making managerial decisions without consulting others.
a) Autocratic Leadership
b) Free-Rein Leadership
c) Participative or Democratic Leadership
d) Management Leadership
Autocratic Leadership
SummonsCh4
Paper issued by Clerk telling defendant they are being sued
Types of conflict
1) substantive conflict2)emotional conflict
Confucian Dynamism
Long-term orientation (according to Hofstede)
ethical reasoning
looking at the information available to us in resolving an ethical dilemma, and drawing conclusioons based on that information in realtion to our own ethical standards
Standardization
produced in large numbers but few products; the production cost is lower
franchise
right to use a specific business's name and sell its products or services in a given territory
Coalition power
ability to control because the individual owes an obligation to you or another as part of a larger collective interest.

Similar equipment and functions are grouped together.
a) Assembly Line Layout
b) Fixed-Position Layout
c) Modular Layout
d) Process Layout
Process Layout
Equity theory
a theory of motivation that concentrates on people's perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to, or in proportion to, their work inputs. Motivation is influenced by the comparison of one's own outcome-input ratio with the outcome-input ratio of a referent.
 
Equity exists when a person perceives his or her own outcome-input ratio to be equal to a referent's outcome-input ratio.
  
Inequity- exists when a person's outcome-input ratio is not perceived to be equal to a referent's. 
Underpayment inequity- when a person's own outcome-input ratio is perceived to be less than that of a referent. Overpayment inequity- when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input ratio is greater than that of a referent. 
Article SevenCh5
Our constitution will be established when 9 states ratified it - happened in 1788
gainsharing program
groupbased incentive plan that gives rewards for productivity improvements
Construct validity
A complex process of showing underlying constructs
Law
A body of enforceable rules governing relationships among individuals and between individuals and their society
thick consent
when jobs are plentiful and the employee would have no difficulty in finding another position, then the employee has a realistic alternative if he or she finds a monotoring policy unacceptable, and consent can be classiffied as thick
Responses to Job Dissatisfaction

Exit: behavior directed toward leaving the job (quit)
 

Voice: active and constructive attempts to improve conditions (talk to boss)
 

Neglect: allowing conditions to worsen
 

Loyalty: passively waiting for conditions to improve (sit back and hope)
lean manufacturing
production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production
Functional conflict
results in positive benefits to the group
Porter's Model for industry analysis
are business-level strategies originate in five primary competitive forces in the firm's environment: 1, threats of new entrants. 2, Bargaining power of suppliers. 3, Bargaining power of buyers. 4, Threats of substitute products or services. 5, rivalry among competitors.
Control system: Bureaucratic control
emphasizes organization authority and relies on rules, regulation, procedures, and policies
DirectEmployers.com
A search engine that was developed by a group of corporations that enables job candidates to search member companies jobs listings and be taken directly to a member company Web site once a desired position is identified.
Self serving bias
the tendency to deny pesonal responsibility for performance problems but to accept personal responsibility for performance success
ground strategies
the four primary types of strategies: growth, stability, retrenchment, and combination
Organizations
Groups of people who work together to try to achieve future desired outcomes
comply or explain
a set of guidelines that require companies to abide by a set of operating standards or explain why they choose not to.
millions abloat: tons of _______ programs that cost billions, programs potentially _______ and ________, merging ______ and _________, reduce/eliminate _____________
overlapping, ineffective, inefficient, policy, programs, duplication/overlap/fragmentation (efficient)
concept testing
taking a product idea to consumers to test their reactions
REASONED JUDGMENT
decision that takes time and effort to make and results from careful information gathering, generation of alternatives, and evaluation of alternatives
Span of Control
- horizontal concept- number of people who directly report to you –should be 6, 7, 8           
-important b/c too little that report to you is wasteful and too many is inefficient           
-the higher up the position, the narrower the span of control
Formal retreat approach
Team building takes place during an off- site retreat
Closed Loop planning
A process in which information from your detailed capacity planning is used to level (and insure the feasibility of) the master schedule
Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory
Effective leader behavior depends on the readiness level of a leader’s followersReadiness is defined s the extent to which a follower possesses the ability and willingness to complete a task- Combination of confidence, commitment, and motivation
nothing is a greater ______ to being on good terms with _____ than being at ill ease with _________
impediment, others, yourself
Intrinsically motivated behavior
behavior that is performed for its own sake; the source of motivation is actually performing the behavior, and motivation comes from doing the work itself.
terminal values (definition)
goals a person would like to achieve in their lifetime
What can be used by an entrepreneur to help determine how much money will be needed tostart a new business?
Break even analysis
Three key variable in expectancy theory and their role in motivation
expectancy: individuals act in a certain way based on expecation that the act will be followed by a desired outcome
Instrumentality: performance-reward linkage
Valence: Attractiveness of the reward
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
an agency of the US Department of Labor create to monitor and enforce compliance with Title VII
Subject Matter JurisdictionCh3
1. Limit the type of case a court can hear 2. Federal Courts get cases by Federal Question, if US is a party, Diversity Jurisdiction3. Concurrent4. Exclusive5. Federal v State
how to better address diversity (7 things)
1. honest evaluation of where you stand today2. inform employees about diversity3. convey that diversity is a valuable goal4. allow diverse employees to coordinate and collaborate together.5. admit resources to support diversity (money, time, space)6. support diversity in local community7. you be a leader by serving, being a role model
Dealing with Third Parties in a PartnershipCh20
Act(s) of every partner in the scope of partnership business bind the partnership and the other partners -- Partnership Liability
Careers - Control
opportunities
positive external environmental factors
management
process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling people and other organizational resources
external line units
maintain outside linkage
________ are individuals who create something new inside an existing company instead of through the route of founding a new venture.
Intraprenuers
production
creation of finished goods and services using the factors of production:  land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship, and knowledge
Cognitive Dissonance
Describes the psychological discomfort a person experiences between their cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior.
Geographic  Structure
-management structure for personal space products
-for international expansion strategy
virtual organization
always shifting constellation of firms, with a lead corp, that pool skills, resources, and experiences to hrive jointly
geographic structure
An organizational structure in which each region of a country or area of the world is served by a self-contained division.
corporate conscience
an alternative term for corporate social responsibility, implying that the organization is run with an awareness of its obligations to society
Agency-Agents Duties
Duty to perform
Duty to notify
Duty to account 
geographic segmentation
dividing the marketing with market by geographic area
Learning about OB
Initial experience, reflection, theory building, experimentation.

A visual device that shows relationships among people divides the organization’s work; it shows who reports to whom.
a) Matrix Organization
b) Organization Chart
c) Gantt Chart
d) Flat Organization Structure
Organization Chart
Roles
getting group work done or keeping group members happy
Satisficing
-how we making decisions with bounded rationality-take the first good enough solution
Incomplete Info
full range of decision making alternatives is unknowable in most situations due to risk, uncertainty, ambiguity, time constraints
six sigma
a philosophy and measurement process that attempts to design in quality as a product is being made
task force
A committee of managers from various functions or divisions who meet to solve a sepcfic mutual problem; also called ad hoc committee.
Aspects of the world that can have only one value that does not change are known as:
facts
Intermittent Reinforcement
Fixed-Interval Schedule
reward given at fixed time intervals
 (average & irregular performance w/ rapid extinction)
off-the-job training
training that occurs way from the workplace and consists of internal or external programs to develop any of a variety of skills or to foster personal development
Dysfunctional conflict
works to the group's or organizations disadvantage.
OPTIMUM DECISION
the most appropriate decision in light of what managers believe to be the most desirable outcome
Cross-cultural challenges of motivation
most motivational theories were developed in the US and have a north american bias, therefore some theories don't work with other cultures however, desire for interesting work seems important to all workers
Ohio State Studies:2 types of leader behvior
Initiating StructureConsiderationThese to are indepenedent of each other - can be high in one and low in other, or low or high in both
Organizational Charts
are diagrams that depict the formal structures of organizations
Qualitative Forecasting
a planning method based on the subjective assesments of individuals, working separately or in groups, rather than on formal questions (delphi method)
task significance
The degree to which a manager feels that his or her job is "meaningful" because of the way i nwhich the job affects other people.
Virtues (Rand)
the act by which one gains and/or keeps values
Freud's ideas as Scientific Theory
-Theories must explain observations and offer testable hypotheses
 
-His theories were based on recollections, interpretations of pt's free associations, dreams, and slip of the tongue
 
-does NOT predict behavior or traits
brainstorming
coming up with as many solutions to a problem as possible in a short period of time with no censoring of ideas
Define values and norms
Norms: Unwritten informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations and are considered important by most members of a group or organization
Values: Ideas about what a society believes to be good, right, desirable, or beautiful.
Generation X
The label affixed to the 40 million American workers born between 1965 and 1976.
job enrichment (2)
vertical: job depth; the amount of discretion a jobholder has to choose their job activities and outcomescomprehensive based on Hackman-oldham model
Long Range Decisions
Years -> which plants to keep open
A group becomes a team when
Leadership becomes a shared activityAccountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collectiveThe group develops its own purpose or missionProblem solving becomes a way of life, not a part time activityEffectiveness is measured by the group’s collective outcomes and products
Hofsted: Power Distance
Extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions & organizations is distributed unequally.
 
Low Distance: equal power b/t those w/ status/wealthy and w/o status/wealth (ex: ireland)
 
High Distance: unequal power distribution b/t those at the top and bottom (ex: russia, US)
What are the three control systems?
Market, bureaucratic, and clan control
MX-Teachability (some people mistakenly)
Some people mistakenly believe that if they accomplish a particular goal, they no longer have to grow
transferring ownership to family members: Form limited partnership
transfer majority of shares to family members but act as the general partner to retaining control of daily operations
Define and explain the workplace concerns of workplace violence
Acts of violence against fellow employees or managers
Feedforward: ensure management commitment, provide employee assistance, enforce organizational policy, use careful screening, never ignore threats, clearly communicate policies to employees
Concurrent: observe how employees treat and interact with each other, be a good role model, intervene quickly and decisively, get expert professional assistance
Feedback: communicate openly, investigate incidences, take appropriate action, review company policies and change if necessary
Blanchard and Peale(Ethical dilemmas)
Is it legal, Is it balanced? How does it make me feel
Margaret Thatcher: "A woman must know...
...when a man is being simply childish."
Demings PDCA cycle: know at least four of 14 points
Can improve the management process overall
Institute training on the job, institute leadership, drive out fear, break down barriers between departments, eliminate slogans exhortations and targets for the work force, eliminate quotas/work standards, remove barriers to pride of workmanship, institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement, everyone must undergo transformation continuously and indefinitely, create constancy of purpose toward improvement, adopt the new philosophy, cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality, end the practice of awarding business based on price tag, improve constantly and forever the system of production and service
MX- Teachability (Ray Kroc- As long as youre green)
As long as you're green, youre growing. As soon as you are ripe, you start to rot.
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