Micro Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nernst Equation
sterilants destroy=
ALL micro-organisms!!!!!!!
stops bacterial growth
-static/-stasis = standing still
treatment using chemicals
-simple to complex, make bonds
-required energy, use ATP
LPS structure
Lipopolysaccharides,3-5 sugars repeated 25 times, sugar polymer and fatty acids ester bonded to Glu. Is an endotoxin
animal components of plankton
• Lithotroph• Lives in spring water, well water…very little organic carbon
Neiserria Meningitidis
gram negative
non-motile diplococci
Conjugated vaccine (not for B) polysialic acid
flatulence with greasy, malodorous stool. Get it from WATER. "Beaver Fever", recognized with parasite with TWO eyespots
-(100 degrees Celsius)destroys most microorganisms and viruses-NOT effective sterilization-does NOT destroy endospores
Bullet-shaped rhabdovirus causes what disease
the microbial population that colonizes the human body making up the microbial flora
differ from bacteria
based on- mechanisms of penetration, mode of transmission, strategy andlocationof replication
Formalin-killed vaccines
pathogen inactivated with formalin
Sprilla (sprillum)
• Spiral shaped• Habitat mainly freshwater• Motile by polar flagella• Uses other magnetosomes???• Aerobic• Eats other gram (-) spiral shaped bacteria…bores through the outer membrane and digest then reproduces in the periplasma• Gram negative• Most not pathogenic
Staphlyococcus aureus
grape like cluster cocci
Heat Stable enterotoxin transmitted via food
rapid food poisioning 1-6 hours
Peptidoglycan synthesis is prevented by Penicillin blocking formation of peptide cross-links in peptidoglycan
Parotitis happens and VF= syncytia forms which is cells fusing together
act as antimetabolitesused to treat urinary tract infections
taxonomic methods for bacteria
numerical taxonomygenetic homologyribosomal gene sequencingimmunologyphage typing
the inhibition of nucleic acid sythesis
botulism symptoms
foodborne, intestinal symptoms, floppy baby
does not form sporesanaerobic- does not need oxygen--> they lack the enzymes superoxide and catalase- which gets rid of toxic byproducts of oxygen
metabolismmeans? 2 parts?
to changecatabolism- breakdown, release E anabolism- putting together, need E
Fungi that is the reproductive structure in the mushroom.. spores released from underneath mushroom cap
parasitic fungi
two organisms interact, one benefits 
while the other is harmed
what type of organism causes measles?
study of protozoa and parasitic worms
Defined media term, need specific growth factors such as aa's, nucleic acids, vitamins, etc.
1st line chemical factor: Enzyme that digests peptidoglycan in perspiration, tears, saliva, nasal secretions, urine, and tissue fluids.
break don molecules outside of the cell
emerging viruses
viruses that were previously endemic or had "cross-species barriers" and expanded their host range to other species
F+ cells
cells that contain the fertility plasmid
energy from sunlight and carbon from organic compounds
Is the probability that a positive test will not be reactive if a specimen is a true negative.
Lacrosse Encephalitis is what kind of virus?
Phylogenetic classification
A natural scheme of classification based onphylogenetic/evolutionary relatedness
Nitrate reducing bacteria
Beneficial process for sewage treatment plants,Dissimilatory nitrate reduction widespread in microbes– Used for making energy via oxidative phosphorylation
filamentous (hyphal) form of fungi the form spores
template strand of DNA is
3' - 5'
what percentage of the total organisms are destroyed with each log reduction?
monoclonal antibody
produced from a single B cell
what was the leading infectious killer of children in the US up to 1935?
What causes inflammatory acne
propionibacterium acnes (aerobic diptheroid)
Replication occurs during the
S Stage of interphase
-cides fungi- viri- algi-
kills fungi, viruses, algae
Vaginosis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
causes gree white, FROTHY, foul smelling vaginal discharge, very bubbly!!, caused by parasites! "Strawberry cervix"
what type of organism makes up the most biomass of soil?
Barbara McClintock
Won Nobel Prize for work on transposons, using corn-1983
What causes plague (black death)?
Yersinia pestis (gram-negative bacillus facultative anaerobe). Virulent anti-phagocytic capsule.
___ is a gaseous sterilant that oxidizes DNA. It is used for electronic instruments.
Ethylene oxide
Membranes of Archaea
Isoprenoids in place of fatty acidsBilayer and monolayerEther linked glycerides in place of ester linked
Enzymes Associated with Staph
1. Coagulase- blocks opsoninzation2. Fibrinolysin- breaks down fibrin3. DNAse4. Hyalurondiase- breaks CT5. Penicillinase- resistant to antibiotcis
____ is like making a library except only a specific gene is inserted into the new host
What process? Cutting the DNA, runnig the pieces on a gel, and probing for a specific sequence
Southern blot
what organisms involved in Koumiss fermentation?
S.lactisLactobacillus caseiTorula spp.
The B part of anthrax is called
protective antigen
macular rash on face (later trunk and extremities), tiny red patches w/central white specks on oral mucosa opposite molars, ear infection, secondary bacterial infection
what are papillomas
benign skin growths caused by viruses
treatment of tuberculosis is
antimicrobial therapy with isoniazid-9 month regimen
Epidermis of skin
1st line physical factor: Forms a physical barrier to the entrance of microbes.
name two bacteria that cause food infections?
E.coli and Salmonella
What is arboviral encephalitis caused by and what are the symptoms?
Arboviral encephalitis is arthropod-borne (mosquito vector) that hosts primarily humans, birds, horses, and small mammals. Symptoms include chills, fever, headache, and possible coma or death.
___ disinfectants kill everything but mycobacteria, naked viruses, and spores. They are used where?
low-level, used at home
What makes flagella turn?
Energy from PMF, takes 1000 protons
ATP synthesis and Dissimilatory nitrate reduction
ATP synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation
STeps in cloning
isolate and restrict DNA, separate the gene of interest from the rest of it, clone the gene of interest into a cloning vector (such as a Ti plasmid), introduce the plasmid into a host, Use the host to inject the plasmid into a cell
what are the products formed by Leuconostoc mesenteroides during the first stage of sauerkraut fermentation?
lactic acidacetic acidmannitolethanol
3 methods of respiratory protection
mucociliary escalator, native flora, lysozyme and blinking
what is used for temporary tatanus immunity?
tetanus immune globulin
What is necrotizing fasciitis caused by
invasive strains of GAS
Defined media
can be "complex", but has known simple chemicals like salts, pure carbon and nitrogen sources, etc.
which temp.class do most human pathogens fit into? what kind most likely to be found in refrigerator?
pathogen - mesophilesfridge - psycrophiles
How do some antimicrobial agents disrupt the cell membrane's function?
certain polypeptide antibiotics, such as polymyxins, act as detergents and destroy bacterial cell membranes by binding to phospholipids in the membrane, not affective on eukaryotespolyenes, such as amphoteric B, bind to particular sterols in fungal and animal cell membranes, not affective on bacteria
What is a fungal sexual problem?
Candidiasis (Candida albicans)= yeast infection
TCR on Tc cells recognize and destroy B islet cells in pancreas so that they cant produce insulin
Type I diabetes
3 kinds of fungal infection
superficial (on skin), dandruff :: Cutaneous (in skin), tinea -- athlete's food and ringworm :: Systemic - dimorphic fungi
what MOs would might be found in soft-centered candies?
yeasts Clostridium sporogenes
3 functions of activated (effector) Th cells
stimulate proliferation and differentiation of B cells that have engulfed T-dependent antigens, binds to MHC2 of macrophage and secretes cytokines to boost the macrophage response, activates self to proliferate Th cells and clonal selection
what is MRSA resistant to?
many of the -cillin antibiotics (Methicillin, Amoxycillin, Oxacillin, Penicillin)
what disease is rare but can be caused by HSV 1 or 2
Herpes Encephalitis
which pathways can produce pyruvate that may be used in fermentation?
all three - glycolysis, entner douderoff, pentose phosphate shunt
Name and describe the different viral shapes (determined by capsid).
helical-ribbon-like protein that forms spiral around nucleic acidpolyhedral-many sidedicosahedral-one of most common polyhedral capsid shapes, 20 triangular facescomplex-combo of helical and polyhedralspericalfilamentous-thread like in shape
What are the symptoms of Arbovirus encephalitis (west nile- Flavavirus)?
Chills, headache, fever. Mental confusion, coma, and neurological problems can occur if it progresses.
Eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins have homologuesin bacteria
– actin : MreB and relatives– intermediate filament-like cytoskeleton: crescentin– tubulin-like proteins: the cell division protein, FtsZ
Normal flora is where in the body?
skin, GI tract, vagina, mouth
what are three types of food hazards and examples?
1.Biological - pathogens, spoilage2.Chemical - pesticides, cleaning agents3.Physical - allergies, foreign objects - glass, hair, plastic, etc
Koch's Postulates (and revisions)
The bacterium must be present in every disease case (toxins - bacteria aren't present, and idiopathology), The bacterium must be isolated from the disease case and grown in pure culture (most bacteria can't be grown in pure culture anyway, and diseases are often caused by multiple bacteria), The specific disease must be reproduced from pure culture in a healthy susceptible host inoculated with the bacterium (still do - except now we usually use animal model instead of humans -- problem with AIDS, we don't have a good animal model), The bacterium must be recoverable from the susceptible host.
how doea diptheria cause disease?
bacteria grows in throat, when killed by immune system they release a toxin into the bloodstream which interferes with protein synthesis
what products formed from Butanediol fermentation? what organism? what test used and what is detected?
-formic acid, lactic acid, CO2, H2, ethanol, butanediol, acetoin- Enterobacter- Voges Proskauer test detects acetoin
What are the effects of conjugation?F+ conjugation?HFr conjugation?F' conjugation?
conjugation-transfer is effected by a plasmidF+-a single plasmid is transferedHFr-an initiating segment of a plasmid and a linear sequence of bacterial DNA that follows the initiating sequence are transferred F'-a plasmid and whatever bacterial genes that adhere to it when it leaves the bacterial DNA are transferred
What are the types of taxis that affect bacteria?
Chemo, photo, osmo, aero, magneto
Sigma factors are specific to ____. Why is this important?
promoters :: it allows transcription of different sets of genes
How can your immune response kill you via inflammation?
phagocytes recruited by inflammation (Type III and Type IV HS) damage tissue ... meningitis and PID (N.g. and chlamydia)
Where is Neisseria meningitis most common
In children under two, and sporadic adult cases associated with crowded stressful environments
What's the difference between the pneumonic plague and the bubonic plague?
The bubonic plague is from flea bites and has a mortality rate of 50-75% IU. Pneumonic plague is from inhalation of airborne droplets (Yersinia in lungs) and has a mortality of 100% IU.
why don't you have to eat flukes to become infected?
they can burrow through skin
How does a conjugate vaccine work?
A B cell binds to the T-independent antigen in the vaccine and internalizes the whole conjugate. It digests it and presents the protein on MHC2. A Th cells recognizes the protein and stimulates B cells to make antibodies to the original T-independent antigen. Also creates memory B cells and plasma cells.
What are two characteristics of S. pyogenes
B hemolytic strep, divided into 80 antigenic types based on M protein
What does conjugation between Hfr and F- result in?
an F- cell with variable quantity of chromosomal DNA
In a ____ gene, mRNA is usually produced but can be turned off by certain conditions. ex?
Repressible :: ex: if bacteria are provided with amino acids, the gene for making amino acids isn't needed and is turned off
live attenuated polio vaccine is given orally whereas attenuated flu vaccine is given as a nasal mist, why?
memory mucosal B cells exist at the site of infection
A name of a bacterium often reveals what?
its shape, where it is found, what nutrients it needs, who discovered it, what disease it causes
Why do our cells have receptors for bacteria?
we don't on purpose - the receptors are actually for something else and the bacteria have evolved to be able to use them. (ex: Nicerria Gonorrhea binds to CD46 whihc is usually a cancel kill signal for NK cells
3 major flu pandemics of the last 100 years
1918 (spanish flu) - H1N1 - most deadly, killed healthy adults :: 1957 (asian flu) - H2N2 - very old people immune because it was common in 1870s :: 1968 (Hong Kong flu) - H3N2 - mild
Aspergillus, Penicillium
oxygenic photosynthesis bacteria
Ajellomyces capsulatum, Saccharomyces
Survive high salt concentrations
-caused by franchisella tularensis-present in rodents-spread by arthropod vectors-inf occur by contact with infected animal or with arthropod vector (no person 2 person)-febrile illness & lymphatic spread - swollen painful lymph nodes
continually present in population
Average always follows the _____
name five virulence factors
1. adhesins2.invasins3.evasins4.exotoxin5.endotoxin
what indicator assesses time, temperature, and pressure during each sterilizer load?- mechanical- chemical- biological
Define fungi.
Eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms which obtain their nutrients from remnants of dead plants and animals (saprobes)
Canine Distemper
-conjunctivitis, purulent rhinitis, fever, cough, comiting and diarrhea, mild pneumonia, seizures
-targets choroid plexus epithelium, ependymal cells, astrocyte foot processes, and neurons
- destroys tooth enamel
Hair-like structure on bacterial surface which promotes adhesion
productive talents and energy of people (physical and mental)
food carrying pathogenic organisms. water, airm blood, body fluids, drugs and intravenous fluids w/ a pathogenic organism hitching a ride on it
vehicle transmission
Oral hairy leukoplakia
EBV in AIDS pts
oxidase organic compounds of fats, proteins, sugars
- carbohydrates on eukaryotic cell surface
T/F: A Bacteriophage resembles a syringe.
Is Staph or Strep catalase positive?
Avian influenza
-wild waterfowl reservoirs
- targets endothelium and GI mucosal epithelium
- induces DIC
natural or artificial
fragments of DNA released upon cell death are taken up by competent cells
Drug-induced _________ is used during organ transplantation & organ grafts to guard against rejection
excess demand; demanders are unable to buy all they want at the going price
H. Influenzae vaccine
Hib polyribose phosphate vaccine conjugate
relies on organic nutrients
what is a heterotroph?
what type of defense is (the inpregnability of skin)?
LJ Medium (Lowenstein Jenson)
Isolation of MYCOBACTERIAMalachite Green inhibits G+
The rabies virus is a(n) __________ virus, which is classified in the ________ group.  
RNA, rhabdoviridae
Antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity are both characterized by:
- specificity 
- memory
- both A and B
- neither A nor B
both A and B
strep infection in the subq fat-hot red swollen lesion, regional lymph nodes are enlarged, malaise, chills, fever-caused by strep pyogenes and staph aureus
(1) such as tryphotphan operan are usally on until enough of the end product accumulates and binds to the repressor protien
Coronavirus enteritis
bad in young animals
-those that recover have blunt and fused GI villi so feed conversion is less efficient
cloaking devices
Structures, such as the hyaluronic acid capsule and the S. aureus
antibody coating, that allow bacteria to hide from our immune
Corrective Tax
A tax designed to induce private decision makers to take account of the social costs that arise from a negative externality.
use and knowledge to prove new ideas and products
incubatory carrier
initial stages of disease, before s/s are noticed
Specimen collection
most important step in clinical micro; asceptic collection; can get contamination or not enough of sample; transport
Identification of endospores (5)
1. Position
2. Size
3. Shape: central/metacentric, subterminal, terminal
4. Laminated appearence
5. Unique chemical compostion
Stop codon
a protein called release factor binds in a site and new rna and polypetide are released, the ribosomes are recycled to continue the process
Cytotoxic T cells are important in controlling _________.
- allergic reactions
- autoimmune responses
- bacterial infections
- viral infections 
viral infections
Protozoan meningitis
-free living amoeba - naegleria and Hartmanella-multiply in stagnant water-inhaled/swallowed- reach meninges via the olfactory tract and cause meningitis-high mortality
What is another name for direct selection?
Positive selection
NAMEdoes not require light to fix muattions
dark repair
What do you use to treat streptococcal pharyngitis?
N fixation
-microbial process where N gas is converted into ammonia (NH3/NH4+) and rapidly assimilated into organic molecules
-reverses denitrification
-include symbiotic and non-symbiotic
Consumer Surplus
The area below the demand curve and above the price measures the consumer surplus in a market.
larger & higher
compared to outcome when firms are price takers, price searcher markets will result in _____ variety of product & ______ prices
antibody production
NOT a component of the innate immune response?
Sources of energy in a cell
ATP- adenosine triphosphate
PMF- proton motive force (electrochemical gradient)
glycolysis step 2
The six carbon molecule with two phosphates is split into two three carbon molecule in a series of steps to pyruvate. The electrons are transferred to coenzyme NAD+ to form NADH and ATP is formed with 4 molecules of ATP formed. under aerobic conditions the pyruvate goes on to make more ATP and anaerobic to form lactic acid
early symptomatic disease
- termed AIDS related complex or progressive generalized lymphadenopathy- CD4+- immune system not functioning
Types of Market Failure
-Public goods, Externality, Lack of Competition, Lack of Info, Merit Goods, Common Goods, and Distributive Efficiency
substitution effect
the change in consumption due to being on the same indifference curve but at a different MRS
Market Equilibrium
Firms are doing the best they can and have no reason to change their output
Neonatal Bacterial Conjunctivitis (Purulent) AKA Opthamlmia Neonatorum
-presents during first month of life (3-5 days post birth usually)-caused by N. Gonorrhea or Chlamydia Trachomatis-can lead to blindness or systemis illness-tx w/ erythromycin ointment
Cells using anaerobic respiration generate__________ of ATP from one glucose molecule.Cell using aerobic respiration generate ___________ of ATP from one glucose molecule.
two molecules thirty eight total molecules
risks and benefits, detectable, adverse, resistance
With Antiviral therapy, the patient must consider the ______ and ________ of therapy and that therapy can be beneficial to anyone with any __________ plasma HIV-1 RNA because they have ________ effects (like becoming resistant to it) and the viral ________.
Describe the life cycle of trichomonas vaginalis.
Trichomonas vaginalis is transmitted by direct contact between membranes, and cannot survive outside a living host. There is no cyst stage – there is also no vector – it dies after the trophozoite stage. This protozoa is mostly asymptomatic but when aggressive can cause vaginitis in females (frequent urination, pain, yellow discharge), and in males: urethritis, and infection of the prostate gland.
What startes synthesis in replication?
DNA polymerase starts and finishes process of replication. RNA polymerase starts the synthesis by adding a short stretch
For competitive firms, average revenue and marginal revenue equal?
the price of the good
Oral Cavity - Saliva
Saliva is hard place to live because lack of nutrients & lysozymes/lactoperoxidase destroy bacteria;
To be immunogenic, a molecule must normally be all of the following EXCEPT:
- foreign to the self
- large
- have a simple structure
- degradeable
- have a simple structure
What is the RNA polymerases?
adds bases to the chains during replication
What are the elements of game theory?
5 things
different actors
set of rules
set of strategies
set of pay-offs
equilibrium concept
all of the following are true about DNA repair mechanisms except:
DNA polymerase proofreads DNA sequences
nuclease enzymes perform damage repair activities
mismatch repair involves replacing long sequences of DNA
damage repair involves the excision
mismatch repair involves replacing long sequences of DNA
Gram Negative cell walls are composed of what layer(s) of their cell wall?
They contain two layers, the peptidoglycan layer, thinner than Gram Positive and the Lipopolysaccharide layer composed of a toxic endotoxin Lipid A, and O polysaccharide.
law of supply and demand
the price of any good adjusts to bring the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded into equilibrium
What are the 2 main categories of antimicrobial agents?
1. chemical agents (generally used topically or to clean inanimate object)2. synthetics and natural agents (used in vivo)
Principle 3
"how much" is a decesion at the margin
You make a trade off when you compare the costs with the benefits of doing something
decesion of doing a bit more or a bit less
How many bacteria have been successfully grown worldwide?
Less than 10% - because we don't know how to create the medium needed - you can't mimic the human body in a petri dish
Is is the same effect if the buyers are responsible for paying the tax?
Yes. Sellers get a lower price for their product and buyers pay more but pay a lower market price to sellers
Bent rods
Giant roundworm
Ascaris lumbricoides
Tx of Clonorchis sinensis
most common invasive mold
Both organisms are benefited.
-ALL killed (even endospores)
-15psi to get above boiling temps
Bacterial Conjunctivitis distinguishing features
-Acute onset-Purulent Discharge-Pruritis
Steph Protein A
IgG binding protein
acute ulcerative gingivitis
-treponema denticola/vincentii-p. intermedia
willing and able to pay
what causes metabolic inhibition?
lactic acid
"swiss cheese" appearance in brain
Taenid solium
confined to one place, i.e. boils
Relationship in which one species gains some benefit while the other species has no advantage

Gram Negative Bacteria
primary pathogens, cause gastroenteritis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever. Incapable of lactose fermentation, produce hydrogen sulfide. Many species exist, (over 2000 varieties called serovars, I.D. by antibody testing).
Bisphenols (triclosan)- used in oral and antiseptic solutions
the display of foreign antigens coupled with MHC class __ targets cell for destruction by cytotoxic T cells
NAMEcontains hundreds of genes that are composed of DNA
Where does Clostridium botulinum live?
The soil
Kovac's reagent
-contains butanol to extract indole
-extracts indole
-indole reacts w/ dimethyl amino benzaldehyde of Kovac's reagent
Enveloped, SS -, linear, 8 segments, Helical
2nd Degree Price Discrimination
Optional Two-Part Tarriff--consumers choose their price: (1) High Price w/o a fee (2)Low Price w/ a fee
Adenovirus is also called what?
The common cold
Growth-dependent ID methods
selective & differential media; conventional biochemical tests; rapid biochemical tests; automated biochemical tests
work by lowering the energy of activation.highly specific
allows streptococci to escape from a fibrin clot
rheumatic fever
- inflammatory changes in heart- streptococcal M protein cross-reacts w/cardiac myosin
triggers of hypersensitivity
- infectious agents- environmental substances- self-antigens
NAMEare animsal altered to produce medically uself products in milk
transgenic animals
Price Floor
Price cant go below = Surplus
skin lesion with sea water contact
virio vulnificus
-Urease broth-the ph raises which causes the color change-red/pink is positive
antiviral drugs
-viral infectiosn depend on hosts' metabolic pathways
-want to disrupt specific phases of life cycle or inhibit virus-specific enzymes
-ex: amantidine (prevents flu)
An outside force that causes change in demand or supply.
if future price is expected to be higher, demand shifts....
csn occur through sneezing coughing or even laughing. confined to smaller distancesex: influenz, whooping cough
doplet transmission
Fungal Classification
4 Main Divisions based on Spore Type:ZygomycotaAscomycotaBasidiomycotaDeuteromycota – no sexual spores
sinusitis and otitis
what two conditions commonly develop as secondary infections to rhinitis?
- in vitro reactions used in diagnosis/to determine of population for epidemiological purposes
serological reactions
T/F: Sex Pili are a means of attachment.
Price of Pepsi + = Coke demand +
A more complex process, the vector bites an animal reservoir, the pathogen reproduces in the vector' gut or salivary glands then the vector bites a person
Organisms that do not require oxygen and cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen
obligate anaerobes
Market Power
Ability of a Firm to influence price in the market
org grow at 0 but optima between 20-40 C, widely distrubuted in nature than pschrophiels
organism living in or on host & causes damage; diagnostic micro: parasitic worms & protozoa (stool samples)
Delayed Hypersensitivity, 2-3, T-cells, macrophages, contact dermatitis
Type IV hypersensitivity is _________ _______________, the onset is ____- ____ days, it is created by ______ and __________ and causes _________ ________ (as immunological reaction, not irritation)
carbohydrate fermentation medium
contains sugars that can be fermented, converted to acids, and a pH indicator to show the reactionbasis for identifying bacteria and fungi
96% of a microbial cell is composed of 6 elements. What are they?
Term for Occurrence of a Disease where a disease...

is a Worldwide epidemic
Pandemic disease:
3 Primary Reservoirs of Infection
Active cases, Carriers, Endogenous Infection
Marginal Benefit Curve
is a curve that shows the relationship between the marginal benefit from a good and the quantity consumed of that good.
community-acquired and nosocomial
what are the two major types of pneumonia?
if there is not a formula for crude oil, the medium would be described as
complex medium
A substance that is capable of eliciting an immune response and of reacting specifically with the products of the response. 
complete antigen or immunogen
What is a saprobe?
An organism that lives on organic matter of dead organisms
Reservoirs (Continual Sources) of disease are...

1. Human:
ex: AIDS, gonorrhea
(Carriers may have inapparent infections or latent diseases)

2. Animal:
ex: Rabies, Lyme disease
(Some zoonoses may be transmitted to humans)


3. Soil, Air, Water, Food:
ex: Botulism, tetanus
Stackelberg First Mover Advantage
One firm must set its output first, and the other must base its decision on the one made by the completion. “Fait Accompli” – Regardless of what the second competitor does, the output of the first will be larger. The second competitor will not want to drive prices down by producing a large amount, and for that reason, the first competitor will make a great profit.
Passive diffusion vs. facilitated transport
p: water/co2 can simply diffuse high to low through membrane
f: need transport or carrier protein when available
What are narrow-spectrum antibiotics?
They only affect a single group of bacteria.
enteric viruses that attack mucosal epithelium
rotavirus: attacks tip portion of villus
coronavirus: attacks upper half of villi
parvovirus: attacks crypts
what kind of motive force does alkaliphiles posses
Na motive force rather than PMF
sanitation relates to public health
sanitation is defined in relation to - dental care- employee health- hospital care- public care
How was the theory of Spontaneous Generation discredited?
Redi's experiment showed that flies were not spontaneously generated in meat: that they came from eggs (maggots).Experiment involved two bottles with meat inside: one with netting, the other uncovered. The uncovered one showed flies, the other none.
what are some of the benefits of normal flora?
a. They provide essential substances eg, vitamins b. They prevent growth of pathogens (microbial antagonism
How are gene guns used to insert forgien DNA into Cells?
small shotguns shoot genes through cell walls of plants with mintue tungsten or gold bullets
what do all these bacteria have in common? Bacteria in the rumen of cattle, sheep bacteria in a sewage treatment plant, bacteria growing in the middle ear of chronic otitis, bacteria on the teeth
bacteria are most likely growing in biofilms...
what does S stand for? what function does it represent?
S stands for the svedberg unit, which is a sedimentation coefficient. In  general it is a measure of time for sedimentation. Bigger particles sediment faster and therefore they have higher S values.
very dry enviroments
aerobic respiration
needs oxygen
Tx for Babesia
Quinine, clindamycin
Neisseria gonorrhea defense
anti-immunoglobulin proteases
4 Stages of Growth
x- Axis = time
y-Axis = bacterial growth in terms of cell # (in logarythmic terms)
Eukaryotic organisms containing nuclei, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ER - sexual or asexual reproduction - unicellular or multicellular
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has what type of coating
avery demonstrated that pneumonia cocci could take up DNA directly  from the medium surrounding them. this is an example of:
Respiratory papillomatosis is usually found in the ___ of infants that have contracted it during passage through an infected birth canal.
functional unit of genetic information
degree of intensity of pathogen
Shift in labor supply
Supply shifts right
Trachoma sxs
-caused by C. Trachomatis-early: inflammatory changes in cornea and mucopurulent d/c-late/re-infections: corneal abrasions, scarring, eyelid deformities and blindness-keratoconjunctivitis
Septic Hyphae
Basidiomycetes & Ascomycetes; have crosswalls; control of water balance so live in dry conditions. 2-4 microns
contain c,h,o. significance: can be end products of metabolism, many biomolecules contain alcohols, glycerol is component in fats used to form membranes.

A large, brick-shaped DNA virion is the responsible agent of 
toxoid acellular/subunit vaccines
- diphtheria- tetanus- botulism
common cause of nosocomial pneumonia
e. coli
-Phenylalanine slant-reagent: 10% ferric chloride-Positive result: 1-5 min is dark emerald green color
Nonsymbiotic N fixing microbes
-reside in soil
-Azotobacter/Azotospirillum (aerobic)
-Clostridium (anaerobic)
-all fix relatively little N and limited by E available to them
The property of society getting the most it can from its scarce resources.
difference, distance between ATC & AVC is...
Vibriosis food poisoning come from what food
raw seafood
Chemoautotrophic benefits
Maintain access to H2S and CO2
in an enzymatic reaction the reaction material is the
The chancre is a painless, circular, purplish ulcer associated with:
primary syphilis
IV, chemical accelerators
Development of contact dermatitis within 18 hrs after donning latex gloves, is symptomatic of a type __ allergic reaction caused by water-soluble _______ ______.
material found in cell walls that helps make them rigid.
Short period of early, mild symptoms(General aches, malaise)
produce antigen receptor on cell surface
T lymphocyte
Non-Exclusive Good
Good people cannot be prevented from using
is defined by signs of systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction acccompanied by abnormal temp, HR, respiratory rate, and leukyocyte count as well as elevated levels of enzymes and altered cerebral function
severe sepsis
Define invasins
these are preducts of the bacterial cell that allows them to enter tissues and spread;
to look for bacteria that degrade petroleum, a culture med contining crude oil, sodium nitrate, phosphate buffer and magnesium sulfate is inoculated with soil.. this medium is
complex medium
molecular mimicry
- cross reaction of foreign and self-epitopes with same antigen receptors- immune response against microbe may cross-react with self-antigens- may produce tissue damage
type I hypersensitivity
- immediate- IgE, mast cells, eosinophils- peanuts, latex, pollen, penicillin- asthma, angioedema, anaphylaxis
NAMEis the inducing of cells to make foriegn DNA in some cases by making them competant able to absorb DNA
Growth Factors
Fastidious organisms = picky eaters - they need vitamins and amino acids
Required by few bacteria
Third phase-The disease is most severe-Overt, strong signs and symptoms
The relationship bw the quantity of inputs (workers) and the quanity of outputs (good or service made by inputs) equals?
production function
total revenue
amount paid by buyers and received by sellers of a good
TR = Q x P
Clostridium Tetani distinguishing features
-'tennis raquet' shaped spores; large rods-motile 'swarming' action on a plate-strict anaerobe- culture on blood agar-spores common in soil-cause dz in older ppl with waning immunity
Other noncellular infectious agents
Prions - misfolded proteins, contain no nucleic acidcause spongiform encephalopathies – holes in the braincommon in animalsbovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), aka mad cow diseasehumans – Creutzfeldt-Jakob DiseaseViroids - short pieces of RNA, no protein coatonly been identified in plants, so far
Strep. throat
Streptococcal pharyngitis
Red pharyngeal lining, patches of pus, pain on swallowing, enlarge tonsils and lymph nodes
(upper resp)
Anti-inflammatory – corticosteroid, degranulation mast, leukotrienes
Some other drugs include(1) _____- _____________ or _____________ with reduce IgE production, (2) Drugs that block the __________ of _____ cells which reduce the levels of inflammatory mediators and (3) block synthesis of __________ which helps asthmatics and people with rhinitis.
T/F: Trypanosoma brucei gambiense feeds on RBCs and tissue of large intestine.
False, Trpanosoma brucei gambiense infests the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. Entamoeba Hystolytica feeds on RBCs and tissue of large intestine.
period of convalescence
The patient regains his or her prediseased state
What type of phile is it?
It is a psychrophile
Function of Golgi Bodies
secretion of enzymes and other macromolecules
Predatory Pricing
Selling a good at below cost to push other forms out of the market
describe characteristics of viruses
circular DNA
genom can be both RNA and DNA
can be single or double stranded
The lockjaw associated with tetanus arises from:
generalized muscle stiffness in the jaw
HIV-1 strain
- 1st id'd in 1984- primary cause of AIDS- mainly in US
What is given to a pregnant women with a history of a baby born with group B strep?
Penicillin G
Price Taking Firm
Setting a price lower than P* so a company will sell a lot, but not get a lot of profit.
describe binary fission steps
after dna rep and cell elongation the membrane grow inward between the 2 new formed cells
T/F: During sporulation, after the forming of the peptidoglycan layer around the spore, the next step is the formation of the LPS layer.
False, Bacillus and Clostridium are gram positive
Where do enzymes work?
They work inside the cell, usually as metabolic enzymes.
the course of disease can be broken down into 5 specific periods
incubation period, prodromal period, period of illness, period of decline, period of convalescence
What happens in the nucleolus?
RNA synthesis and it is a collection area for ribosomal aubunits
Qualitatively, all endotoxins produce the same symptoms.

This is because the symptoms are a consequence of the body reacting to the presence of endotoxin rather than endotoxins exerting some specific effect on the host.
Host responses include:
*septic shock.
what is the disadvantage of using turbidity to estimate the number of viable bact cells in a broth
turbidity method counts dead celss as well as those that are viable and turbidity cannot be used on very dilute population
What fields of science have benefited from microbiology?
Biochemistry and Genetics are 100 yrs behind without their study.
1. fistula; 2. cellulitis; 3. intraoral soft tissue abscess; 4. osteomyelitis; 5. bactermia-septicemia; 6. deep fascial space infection; 7. ascending facial-cerebral infection
List 5 of the 7 symptoms of an acute-chronic periapical infection
On what does the positive control of the lac operon depend?
The glucose levels in the cell. When levels are low, adenylyl cyclase is activated, and cAMP is formed, which then binds to CAP, and together the 2 bind to the promoter site on the DNA.
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