micro final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 
 
Filtration
Staphylococcus
• Aerobic• Catalase positive• Growth by fermentation• No motility• Found on skin or mucous membrane• Yellow pigment• Associated with boils, pimples and etc.
Differential Types?
gram +/-
Acid-fast
flagella
endospore
Toxemia
toxins in blood
O-phenylphenol
Lysol I, fungicide
 
 
penicillium
mold used in antibiotics
Gram -
10% peptidoglycan
 
LPS (lipopolysachride layer)
 
Periplasm- between membranes
 
 
lymph adenopothies
lymph node swelling
Lactobacillus
• ferments lactic acid• “good organism” can prevent intestinal disease and vaginal yeast infection• Used to make buttermilk• Homofermentativemake cheese yogurt and other dairy products• Probiotics: antimicrobial properties• Inhibits lost of infections
Serotonin
2nd line inflammatory mediator, mediator: Produced by the brain, increases pain (make aware of issue), constrict smooth muscle (Blood vessels).
Tyrocidins
interfere with cell membrane functionskin infections caused by Gram-positive cocci (topical application)
 
 
How does an atoclave work
 
Uniporters
carry one solute in onedirection.
what chemical signal recruits phagocytes to the site of an infection?
chemokines
Negative Control
 
when a regulatory protein inhibits transcription initiation; repressor protein binds to operator to prevent transcription
 
what are parotid glands?
salivary glands
streptomyces
• Large genus• Most antibotics are derived from streptomyces---common in soil• Excrete substrate from outside the cell---use lots of energy• Kills neighbor to get their food• Powdery appearance to the plate• Produce spores that can with stand dry…not endospores• Uses poison to get food from other organisms
Complex media
yeast extract, tryptone/peptone, nutrient broth, soil extracts, blood, oatmeal, etc.
Iron-binding Proteins
2nd line antimicrobial substance: Inhibit growth of certain bacteria by reducing the amount of available iron.
teratogenesis
induction of defects during embryonic development
colicinsbacteriocins
proteins released by certain bacteria that inhibit growth in other strains of the same species or closely related species
phenolics
-aka: carbolic acid-one of earliest disinfectants-active ingredient in LYSOL!!!
Boiling can disinfect but not ____.
sterilize
total cases in a given time
prevalence
Four terminal reductases
NAP, NOR, NIR, N2OR
Which of the following antibiotics would not affect protein synthesis? vancomycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, mupirosin
vancomycin
Transformation
Transfer 'naked' DNA from one bacterium to another
Frederick Griffith- Transforming principle
Bacterial disease caused by spirochaete (cork-screw bacteria) called borrelia burgdorferi
lyme disease
local infection
infection at one particular spot
Winogradsky
• Worked with lithotrophs; grown in inorganic solution; turns over lots of substrate
Clostridium Tetani
Gram Positive
Anaerobic Rods, forms spores
 
Tetanus Toxin causes spastic paralysis
 
 
Are eukaryotes or prokaryotes more complex?
prokaryotes
Mast Cells
2nd line: Specialized tissue cells similar to basophils that trigger local inflammatory reactions and are responsible for many allergic symptoms. Blocks bad proteins that can be introduced during bug bites.
how is hepatitis A transmitted?
food and water
Chain & Florey
isolated penicillin and developed methods of mass production
ENZYME MECHANISM OF ACTION
-Active site= substrate attaches
-Specific= determined by active site shape (3D protein structure, lock and key)
-Lowers energy of activation or reaction
psychrophile
-5 to 15 degrees Celsiusimportant in food spoilage
What makes pseudomonas so resistant?
they form biofilms
Enterobactin
a siderophore producedby E. coli. It chelates Fe3+ throughoxygen molecules on the catechol rings.• The complex is bound by a bindingprotein, transferred to a specific receptoron the cell envelope, and transportedacross the membrane by an ABCsystem.
Divisome
The assemblage of these proteins at the site of Z-Ring has been called the divisome
Hopanoids
improve structure or membrane; such as chlosterol in Eukaryotes
What technique would you use to identify the DNA off a piece of hair found at a crime scene?
PCR
Genetic Transfer
 
• New, foreign DNA is incorporated into 
the chromosome
• Once foreign DNA is incorporated, the 
organism is called a recombinant 
organism
 
mucociliary escalator
normally keeps us from getting respiratory infections by: goblet cells secrete mucose in nasal passages, which trap bacteria then cilia sweep it out
Sporotrichosis infections
AKA "Rose gardener's disease" fungal infection caused by punctures from plant thorns, which introduces dimorphic spores... nodules form along lymph nodes
what type of immunity allows recurring, but usually milder, infections?
incomplete immunity
Joseph Lister
began treating surgical wounds with phenol solution, reduced infections to surgical patients
antigenic drift
minor change in influenza virus antigens due to gene mutation
Reproductive Tract
1st line: NFO, secretions are mucus based, acidic pH which kills many sperm.
Acute Diarrhea with Vomiting
preformed toxin, intoxication NOT infection
Gerhard Domagk
discovered a red dye (prontosil) in 1935 that inhibits growth of gram + organisms
5 kingdoms of organisms
1. Plantae2. Fungi3. Animalia4. Protista5. Monera
chemicals that react with cell membrane=
biguanides, phenolics, quats
__ infects about 10% of the world's population, causing a death about every 30 sec
malaria
4 common portals of entry
urogenital, respiratory, skin, digestive tract
Growth Rate
Growth rate describes how fast a bacterium grows in a particular environment
___ opens up DNA at each replication fork.
Helicase
Plant and animal viruses
contain envelopes with Glycoprotein spikes
'naked' virion = non-enveloped
 
HFR cell
Cell with F plasmid inserted in it
B cells can only engulf things bound to __ (#) receptor(s)
one
name 2 organisms from category B on the bioterrorism list?
E.coliHantavirus
VIRUSES ARE TOO SMALL TO SEE WITH ELECTRON MICROSCOPE?
FALSE
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors antibiotics:
Erythromycin: macrolides, works mostly against G+ bacteria only Penicillin substitute Essentially amino acids using different side chains and side chain order on the molecule to give many different compounds.
 
what type of bacteria tend to use the entner douderoff pathway?
gm(-)
temperate phage
phage that ordinarily does not cause a disruptive infection-phage is incorporated in bacterial DNA and replicated (prophage)-lysogenic although can eventually become lytic
Chemicals that react with proteins:
alcohols, aldehydes, halogens, metals, ozone, peroxygens, phenolics
B cells recognize own DNA and form IgG complexes throughout the body expecially in the capillaries
Lupus
Acidophiles
Microbes that grow at low pH (below pH 3)
Quorum sensing
HSL can bind to sensor kinase and turns on competitive genes -- senses the presence and # of bacteria around
Temperature sensitive mutation
mutant with a protein that becomes denatured at a certain temperature
Symptoms of diphtheria
toxin affects heart and kidneys, dead cell sin throat form pseudomembrane which blocks the airway
What is the function of Staph protein A?
Fc receptor
what is the name of diptheria that invades the skin?
cutaneous diptheria
The ________ is used to transcribe mRNA
DNA coding strand
Micronutrients
Trace elements: Ni, V, W, Mg Co, B, Cu measured in microgram per Liter amd nanogram per Liter
what is MUST in wine fermentation?
crushed grape products including grapes, stems, skins, etc.
problems with taxonomy
1) goal is to classify by phylogenetic relationships but this is difficult b/c evolution is continuous and rapidly occurring, and knowledge of evolutionary history of bacteria is incomplete
 
 
Paul Ehrlich and alexander fleming
magic bullet that would selctively find and destroy pathogens but not harm the host.
 
discovered penicillin. 
Period of Acute disease
1. Incubation- time from infection to symptoms2. Prodromal- feel symptoms3. Acute= invasion, signs & symptoms4. convalescent- getting better
___ are cytokines that kill tumor cells
tumor necrosis factors (TNF)
what are the four types of sausage? which are fermented?
freshsmokedsemi-dry (ferm.)dry (ferm.)
___ is the only endotoxin, and it's only found in gram pos/neg bacteria
Lipid A, neg
what is the neurotoxin produced by C.tetani? when is it released?
tetanospasminreleased when bacteria dies and breaks open
Antimicrobial methods: Osmotic pressure/dessication
Osmotic pressure is caused by salting and dessication is by drying or taking out water.
how is Anabaena able to use nitrogenase?
heterocysts provide anaerobic vessel for nitrogenase
Who discovered transduction and in what year?
-Joshua Lederberg & Norton Zinder -1952
HTST pasteurization
used in USA. heat to 72C for 15 sec. creates 5 log reduction in microbe population
Kingella kingae and K. dentrificans
part of the normal floraenter the system during minor oral trauma
What is one possible consequence of cytokine production in response to LPS?
Excessive diapedesis, hypovolemia, and organ failure
How do trypanosomes avoid the immune system?
protozoa - surface antigen variation
categories of eukarya
1. protists2. fungi3. plants4. animals
how are fortified wines made? what are 2 examples?
extra alcohol added after fermentationsherry and port
What are the symptoms and the treatment for neonatal gonorrheal ophthalmia (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)?
Acquired via birth canal, Symptoms include pus, ulceration of the cornea, and blindness. Treatment is antibiotics or silver nitrate.
How does penicillan affect the cell wall?
prevents transpeptidation of the amino acids of the cross bridge
what are the affects of an anaerobic environement for vegetable fermentations?
1.inhibits most spoilage MOs2.allows fermentation (anaerobic process) to occur
why is measles potentially eradicatable?
humans are the only reservoir for the disease
what would be the biggest clue to determining food infection or food intoxication?
onset of symptoms delayed-infection sudden-intoxication
Steps to make a phylogenetic tree
Isolate DNA from cells, PCR of gene encoding rRNA, DNA seq, seq analysis, generate tree!
what does it mean that bacterial death has a 'logarithmic order'?
decrease in surviving bacter duringa treatment is exponentialsurvivors plotted on a logarithmic scale results in a straight line
How can your immune response kill you via antibodies?
immune complexes stick in glomeruli after infection (acute golmerulonephritis), or immune mimicry
how is Azotobacter able to use nitrogenase?
metabolism is so fast and oxygen used so quickly and efficientyl that tiny anaerobic environment created
fate of b cells after infection by epstein-barr virus
either because latent or are infected and proliferate
what is the average time and temp. for beer fermentation?
8 - 12 days at 3-15C
what is orchits? what disease is it associated with?
inflammation of the testes 4-7 days after onset of mumps
When a cell is in an environment of low water activity, what happens to cellular water?
If solute concentration is higher in the medium than in the cell, water leaves the cell and the cell membrane collapses inward--plasmolysis
What is the vector and the symptoms of relapsing fever?
Vector is soft tick, Symptoms are high fever, jaundice, macules, relapses, and rose-colored skin spots
what is n, C, and m in regards to quality control?
n - sample sizeC - acceptance #m - value of deficiency
Pandemic
worldwide epidemic
Synthetic media
Chemically defined
ADCC
antibody-dependent cullular cytotoxicity :: NK cells seek out antibody-bound cells and kill them
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
Gram Positive
diplococci
 
Capsule;interferes w/ phqgocytosis
 
IgA protease
phototrophs
derive energy from sunlight
Steps of Glycolysis
Start
Energy Input
Cleave
Reductions
Substrate level phosphorylation
Dehydration
Substrate level phosphorylation
End products
Filtration
physical
seperates bacteria from liquid
HEPA filtration for air
ultra filtration- filters out lipopolysaccharide endotoxins from dead gram -
Flavobacterium
• Associated with infant meningitis• Not anaerobic “brightly colored”
bacteriostatic
stops growth of bacteria
what organism causes bacillary dysentery?
Shigella
symbiosis
relationship betweeen the normal microbiota and the host
proton motive force
The charge separation
Proteins
made of?
bond?
function?
Amino Acids
peptide linkage
 
E storage, structure, cell membrane, homones, protection, enzymes
 
RNA Holoenzyme
RNA pol + σ factor
 
primary infection
initial illness, acute infection
Methanogens
• Strict anerobes: NO OXYGEN• Take Co2 to methane• Lives in guts of animals• Can consume acetane(fermenataion product)Co enzymes and cofactors involved• All begin with “methano”
Bordetella pertussis
gram negative
strict aerobe
whooping cough
 
Vaccine Controversy
DTaP
 
 
Urine
1st line physical factor: Washes microbes from urethra.Chemical Factor: Contains lysozyme, urea, and uric acid, which inhibit microbes; slight acidity discourages microbial growth.
what enzyme involved in nitrogen fixation?
nitrogenase
attenuation
the weakening of the disease-producing ability of an organism
Mycobacterium species:
CELL WALL STRUCTURE initiates resistance
 
 
Immune electrophoresis
combining the techniques of immunodiffusin and electrophoresis. Used to speed up the movement of antigen and antibody in a gel.
Carbon: source/function
CO2, constituent of cell materials
Microaerophiles
Occupy niches with limited oxygen level--2 to 10% O2
___ are antiviral cytokines produced in response to double-stranded DNA and activates inflammatory response.
interferon
Polymers (proteins) formed from
monomers (amino acids)
What is characteristic of pseudomonas infections?
biofilms
what vaccine changes year to year?
Influenza
What is TSS caused by
Toxin 1
protein which controls the "switch" ________ protein
operator
Antiviral drugs
Acyclovir: nucleic acid base analogsTerminate viral DNA synthesisActive against herpes Figure of structural comparison of acyclovir and deoxyguanosineAmantadine: fungi, general antiviral
IgM
3rd line Immunoglobulins: IgMs are the first circulating antibodies to appear in response to an initial exposure to an antigen; their concentration n the blood then declines reapidly. Thus the presence of IgM consists of five y shaped momomers arranged in a pentagonal structure. THe numerous antigen-binding sites make it very effective in agglutinating antigens and in reactions involving complement. IgM is too large to cross the placenta and does not confer maternal immunity.
Viral Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver, Symptoms include Jaundice and dark tea colored urine
Selman Waksman
discoverer of streptomycin in the 1940s
hybridoma
a hybrid cell resulting from the fusion of a cancer cell with another cell, usually an antibody-producing white blood cell
pressurized steam
-achieves sterilization @ 121 degrees Celsius, 15 psi, in 15 minutes
 
 
 
Biophenols
derivative of phenol that contains 2 phenolic groups connected by a bridge.  kills staph and streph
Subclinical infections
too few pathogens (below infectious dose), not highly virulent
new ____ of antibiotics often have expanded activity spectrum, different administration routes, and less side effects
generations
Virulence
ability of a microbe to cause diseasethe degree of disease caused by a pathogen genotype under appropriate conditions. Akin to agressiveness
DNA replication usually happens where? RNA replication happens where?
nucleus, cytoplasm
Transcriptional Control example
Diauxic Growth of E. coli-
 
transition occurs; glucose genes off, lactose genes on
 
___ is caused by an anaerobic spore-former called clostridium tetani
tetanus
IgA
main secreted in mucus, dimer, in breast milk - 1st line of defense in babies
Chronic disease
develops slowly, lasts a long time/recurs
Proponic acid bacteria
• Makes proponic acid• Gives swiss cheese its flavor• No ETS
major source of enzymes used in biotechnology is
bacteria
Surfactants
Soaps + detergents are not normally disenfectants.  They just help by degerming surfaces such as hands, etc.
Gonorrhea
2nd most common std in world, very high increase in adolescents, asymptomatic carriage greater in women but disease found more in men, arthritis is an outcome of this disease! PID!!!!
cytopathic effect (CPE)
visible effect viruses have on cells
METABOLIC TYPES
classified by source of carbon and energy.
 
-Autotrophs:photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs
-Heterotrophs: photoheterotrophs and  
                       chemoheterotrophs
psychrotroph
20 to 30 degrees Celsiusfound in Artic and Antartic regions
___ means to reduce the number of microbes in a culture.
Pasteurize
S-layer
In cell wall of Archaea. • composed of a ordered layer ofprotein or glycoproteinExamples: Many thermophiles,halophiles, methanogens
Facultative Aerobes
Use Oxygen when available, but can utilize anaerobic pathways as well
Common antigen presenting cells
Macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-lymphs
3 kinds of lymphocytes
B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells
what is the GRAS list?
list of chemicals/ingredients Generally Regarded As Safe
plasma cells
secrete antibodies (IgM first, the IgG and IgA)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
bacteria with no cell wall, uses sterols from host in membrane... has very simple genome... uses adhesion proteins to bind to host cell, is not internalized
Convalescence stage
stage of disease where person feels better but not 100%, easy to relapse
resistance
ability of an organism to ward off disease, includes skin, stomach acid, antimicrobial chamicals
Selective enrichment cultures
Flaws: culture dependant analysis can be flawed because of complexity
Staph Aureus Exotoxin
Staph enterogtoxin= VF, food that has been left out for too long
Name both a broad spectrum agent and a narrow spectrum agent that affect Staphylococci and some clostridia.
broad-Tetracyclinesnarrow-Vancomycin
What are the bacterial STDs?
Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and pelvic inflammatory disease (?)
rabies is endemic in?
mammals - transmitted to humans through their saliva
Pyogenic strep
beta, pus formingS pyogenes- group A- throat, most commonS agalactiae- group B- vagina
Aerobic Respiration
Need O2create most energy O is the receptor off the ETC
inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
Active against Gram positives
– Natural or semi-synthetic
– Allergies and pathogen resistance
ex PENECILLIN 
Clonal selection
when B cells divide to produce clones of itself (some are plasma cells and some are memory B's)
___ is a known reactivator of herpes virus. It reactivates along a ____, which is fed by one neuron.
stress, dermatome
what type of bacterium is Corynebacterium diphtheriae?
gr(+) non-spore forming rod
cell theory
all living thingss are made of cells and come from preexisting cells
Tetracyclines: series of compounds
Broadest spectrumActive against G+ and G- bacteriaVery bodily mobile: gets to places other antibiotics can’t goActive against intercellular parasites (gets inside your cells)
what food pathogen can cause sickness after the cooking process? how?
Staphylococcus aureusenterotoxin is heat stable
What is the significance of conjugation?
-important in creating genetic diversity b/c large amount of DNA transferred-linear transfer useful in chromosome mapping
What is a gumma?
It's an internal ulcer like an internal chancre. Can be found on internal organs and skin and involve the cardiovascular system and CNS during the tertiary stage of syphilis.
common source disease
when many people get sick from the same source (food poisoning)-- fast onset, then quick decline
What happens to unkilled bacteria?
forms granuloma to encase unkilled bacteria
what are the steps of malting?
1.barley grains germinated2.shoots and roots removed3.remaining parts dried
Antigenic shift
in flu virus - major changes when RNA segments are reassorted in alternate host (human or pig)-- responsible for major flu epidemics (1918)
what are the similarities among prion diseases?
1.long incubation time2.spongiform neuronal loss3.failure to trigger immune system4.always fatal
If A replaces C in UGC, the result is a ______________ mutation
nonsense
what is the theory that explains mitochondria and chloroplasts? what is the evidence to support this?
endosymbiont theory1. right size2. plasma membranes with no sterols (like prokaryotes)3. dna for metabolic processes are 'protected' by their postition on chromosome
Explain alteration of membrane permeability for resistance
genetic changes change the nature of the proteins in the membrane, antimicrobial agent can no longer cross membrane
Cell Mass can be determined through
TURBIDITY, total weight, and amounts of cellular chemical constituents
Sulfa drugs and trimethoprim (SXT)
used in combination because of their synergistic effects-- competitively inhibit PABA
The biology central dogma involves the three main molecules involved in ______, which are:
inheritance :: DNA, RNA, Proteins
what determines the jurisdiction of FDA and USDA?
USDA - unprocessed foods (raw spinach)FDA - processed foods (frozen spinach)
how does HPV work to cause warts?
replicates in epithelial cells, causing abnormal cells with the E6 protein... causes wart
How does polio cause paralysis
invasion of the tonsils and small intestine by the virus lead to involvement of the lymphatic system and blood stream. Viremia leads to invasion of capillary walls and CNS involvment where it infects the motor nerve cells of the CNS, the cells die, and paralysis results
what products formed from mixed acid pathway? what organisms? what test used to detect this pathway?
-lactic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, CO2, H2, ethanol- Eschericia, Salmonella- Methyl Red Test (acids bring pH down)
Name the layers of the skin from most superficial to deeper.
Epidermis, dermis, subutaneous, muscle
Law of Conservation of Energy
States that in an isolated system the total energy remains constant
what are the steps of the fermentation process in beer making?
1.Hops added2.Yeast added3.Time and temperature determined
How do self cells avoid complement?
we have a C3b regulatory protein, which prevents activating complement
which type of cold tolerant mo does well at room temp? which one doesn't?
does well - psychrotrophsdoesn't - psychrophiles
What is the vector and the vertebrate reservoir of Arbovirus encephalitis (west nile, stl encephalitis- Flavivirus)?
Vector is mosquitos and vertebrate reservoir is birds.
HOw can your phagocytes recognize a cell as a foreign invader rahter than one of your own?
the invader has surface features that are recognized by specific phagocyte receptors
____ are pathonomic for measles, meaning?
Koplik's spots -- if you have Koplik's spots, you have measles
what is done to glucose after it is absorbed through cell membrane to keep it from traveling back across?
phosphate added from ATP through kinase enzyme
What is the vector of relapsing fever (HA myalgia, lethargy, photophobia, and coughing)?
It can be soft ticks or louse-borne.
Why is the lagging strand looped back during replication?
Because both strands are replicated in the same direction and to conserve DNA polymerase because each okazaki fragment needs its own polymerase
pathogenicity islands as compared to swapping homework
swapping one gene at a time would be like swapping one problem at a time, so they swap as pathogenicity islands (PAIs), which is like transferring an entire assignment at once
What is the name for jock itch? For athlete's foot?
Jock itch is called tinea crusis. Athlete's foot is called tinea pedis.
what is done with sludge after microbial treatment?
may be spread on reed bed or dried on drying beds
Each B cell produces how many types (VDJ combo) of antibody?
one -- so we have about a billion B cells
Coxackievirus
Picornavirus
NAME3'=5'
lagging strand
oral polio vaccine
live
MRSA
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection
Surfactant
membran alteration-allows penetration by reducing the surface tension
 
ex: greasy skillet- soap (surfactant) binds to the grease and disoldges it
 
surfactant binds to a cell and the cell dies
Treatment of Strept pneumoniae
PCN
Tapeworm, cat-scratch fever, toxoplasmosis, brucellosis, Q fever, typhus fever, and Western equine encephalitis are all examples of?
Zoonoses
Positive Externalities
Consumers under-consume (socially) because they do not factor in the benefit to other parties (home repair example).Subsidies to buyers or sellers (potential solutions)
Zygomycota
Zygomycetes (derived from Chytrids) Coenocytic hyphae with septa only where reproductive cells are formed; form asexual sporangiospores; Zygosporangium is one big structure, like a sac, holding zygospores
AB
- least common blood type
necrotizing fascitis
-flesh eating bacteria-resembles bacterial gangrene but more acute and highly toxic infection -causes widespread necrosis-pt deteriortes rapidly and dies
Trichomonas
protozoal STD; frothy green discharge
micorbial ecology
micorbes and their environemnt
Determinants of Demand
1) taste/preference
2) income
3) price of related goods (supplements & complements)
4) price expectations
5) number of buyers
Describe the Simple stain
HeatfixHuckersRinseDry and Observe
polypeptide produced by some virally infected cells
interferon
 
 
Corynebacterium diphtheriae


–Gram + , nonspore-forming club-shaped rods.
–with lysogenic corynephage that contain the genes for an exotoxin production
heat sterilize
semi-critical patient care items should be treated how?- clean w/soap and water- disinfect by spraying- disinfect by immersion- heat sterilize
Dematophytes
-superficial mycoses - the most common infections in humans-keratin loving and invade skin, hair, and nails-tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea pedis-main sx: thickening, skin dry and scaly
ALLERGEN
AN ANTIGEN THAT EVOKES A HYPERSENSITIVITY RESPONSE
Strep
sore throat with rheumatic fever sequela
sporadic disease
random unpredictable manner of occurrance.
Self-antigens stimulate the production of antibodies.
Autoimmune disease
Money
amount of currency in circulation plus the amount of checkable deposits
formula for expoententia growth of bacteria within x amount of hours
2^n
 
too nice
can limit the spread of infection
herd immunity
dissolved O2 requires ATP to cross into the cell, t or f?
false
compartmentalization
eukary much more complex than prokary, with more internal membranous structures. Eukary have true nucleus with double membrane that separates genetic material from cytoplasm. Pores allow exchange between cyto and nucleus. Prokary have no membrane bound nucleus, have region where DNA is located --> nucleoid.
Systemic infections
Caused by true fungal pathogens, fungal spores are inhaled into lower respiratory tract, they germinate into yeast like cells in the lungs that produces a pulmonary infection
- secreted by CD4 cells- proliferation of activated B, T and mast cells- increases in PDD
IL-4
rubella
-14-21 days there is mild disease with fever, malaise, maculopapular rash lasting 3 days
CAPSOMERE
A PROTEIN SUBUNIT OF A VIRAL CAPSID
Viremia –
presence of viruses in the blood.
Proleiferative Pneumonia of Foals
-under 6 months
_Ards lesion
-identical to FOg Fever or Bovine Atypical Pneumonia with sudden onset of dyspnea and death
-etiology uncertain, toxic or viral (EVA?)
Mechanisms of Drug Resistance
1. Change target
2. Antibiotic-degrading enzymes
3. R plasmids
4. Efflux pumps
5. Cell permeability
Accounting profit=
Total revenue - explicit costs ONLY
Real Income
A household's real income is its income expressed as a quantity of goods that the household can afford to buy. Income/Price of good
Otitis Media features
-follows URI, common in kids-often caused by various viruses, S. PNA,H. Influenzae Type B
Rhizomorph
go on path of least resistance in search of nutrients; can spread out through substrate to look for food; macroscopic - mushroom like
Define:Immunosuppressed
If a person's immune system is not functioning properly-note: Immunodeficiencies may either be inherited or acquired.
Cat Scratch Disease: Symptoms
Lymph node swelling
Fever
Papule at infection site
Malaise
Pathogen
- organism that has capacity to cause disease- true, primary, frank, strict
Which kind of bacteria are more sensitive to antibiotics?
Gram positive.
botulism is caused by which group of bacteria
bacilli
What is exonulease?
removes the damaged nucleotides in dark repair
A neurotoxin is
an exotoxin that disrupts nerve cells.
tubercles
Hard foci in the lung tissue into which TB organisms are walled off;
visible by X-ray.
What is the goal for:
perfect competition
monopoly
monopolostic competition
oligopoly
profit maximization for all
positive externality
benefit accured to me for no action. Ex. Flu shot, less ppl have it, less chance ill get it
thyere is a massive leakage of plasma from circualtion that causes the bp to plummett
toxic shock
Humoral immunity: Antibodies-What is it made of and where does it come from?
Glycoproteins produced by plasma cells
induction
uses for ex. allolase as an inducer to the lac operon because the repressor is always attached to the operator region. When the lactose is in the cell its allolase inducer binds to the repressor making a substance to break down lactose. The lactose must be present to knock off the repressor
cytokines are:- protein molecules produced by lymphocytes, macrophages, and other cells- normally not involved in the IR- not involved in the inflammatory process- only produced during humoral immune responses
protein molecules produced by lymphocytes, macrophages and other cells
what disease is preveted by the use fo the IPV or OPV vaccine
poliomyelitis
major cause of meningitis in adults
neisseria meningitidis, strep pneumoniae
Membrane filters
used to decon liquids that are heat labile. Pore size used to separate bacteris is 0.4 um.
how is a mopolostic competitive firm different then perfect competition?
they have heterogenous goods

 
function of MREb
 
 
2 functions
   - Forms simple cytoskeleton in cells of bacter and archeae
  
Forms spiral shaped bonds around the inside of the cell underneath the CM
 
T-cells are lymphocytes that
1.Mature in the thymus 2.Have T-cell receptor molecules on their surface.3.On exposure to antigen (during infection) the above cells react to protect host
rheumatic fever
- group A strep M proteins and cardiac myosin
Encephalopathy due to Scrapie-Type agents(6 features)
1. replicate extremely slow2. not virus, bacteria, DNA3. prion protein is altered in infected brain - replication by conversion of host prion prot into abnorm form4. resistance to heat, chemical agents, irradiation5. spongiform appearance with no inflammatory response6. no tx or vacc, disease is lethal
pt presents with chorea (dance like movements of the extremities ). he had a sore throat 3 weeks ago. what does he have
RF from strep A
MIC (min inhibatory [])
lowest [] of drug that inhibits pathogen growth (want low MIC)
occurs in the bite like the ones that caused the bubonic plague that killed 1/3 of europe during the middle ages
biological vector transmission
pH, HIV RNA and proviral DNA
Saliva has poor HIV transmission because of it low ___ from oral fluids; however, HIV ____ and proviral ____ have been detected in saliva.
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE (EID)
A NEW OR CHANGING DISEASE THAT IS INCREASING OR HAS THE POTENTIAL TO INCREASE IN INCIDENCE IN THE NEAR FUTURE
Name the major classes of viral infections and each subclass. What are the differences between each other?
Acute vs Persistent
Persistent -> latent, chronic and slow
Escherichia:  common inhabitant of intestines,
E. coli
Gram Negative Bacteria
used as a research tool and indicator organism for presence of fecal contamination in food and water. Ferment glucose, lactose, sucrose, some strains may cause urinary tract infections and gastroenteritis. Often the main causative agent of opportunistic/nosocomial infections. Tetracycline/erythromycin /ampicillin sensitive.
Why are viruses not cells?
They are inert outside of host cell and active only inside host cells. They cannot produce proteins.
Derived Demand for Factors of Production
demand that comes from firms that use the factors to produce goods services. Profit maximizing firms hire each factor to the point where value of marginal product equals price.
what are the 2 membranes of chloroplasts called?
1.Thylakoids which are stacked one on top of the other called grana.2. strome- a ground substance which surrounds the thylakoids
On a graph, total surplus is?
the area between the supply and demand curves up to the equilibrium quantity
Why can His+ grow on a medium lacking histadine?
Because they can make their own.
1. mantoux test- pos. if bump, neg. if no bump
2. chest x-ray- positive if able to see granulomas
3. acid-fast staining- collect sputum from patient and it will tell you if you have an active infection
what three tests are used to diagnose tuberculosis?
cholera
bacterial, digestive
charcoal-containing media
legionella pneomophilia
pathogen
a disease-causing organism
Coronaviruses
Enveloped, SS +, Icosahedral
Filament
rigid
rotates
extends into exterior environment
majority of flagella (stringy)
UV radiation causes...
thiamine dimers
Eukaryotes, unicellular or multicellular - motile, lack cell wall
parasites
What organism causes tetanus
clostidium Tetani
 
Woolsorter's disease is another name for:
anthrax
humoral
- b cells and antibodies
MYCOLOGY
THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF FUNGI
Three types of symbiotic relationships?
Mutualism
Commensalisms
Parasitism
Foul-smelling, greenish discharge from vag; itching and burning; STD
Trichomonas vaginalis
Complication of Blepharitis
-Stye/Hordeolum: acute localized infection of the tear gland, seb gland or hair follicle
Hyphomycetes
Mitosporic fungi; most common; conidia produced on exposed conidiophores
three kingdom scheme
Animalia, plantae, and protista
 

 Chloramphenicol
interferes with protein synthesis in microorganisms
Staphylococcus aureus
-ONLY staph that produces coagulase
SAXITOXIN
A NEUROTOXIN PRODUCED BY SOME DINOFLAGELLATES
acute gastroenteritis after ingestion of contaminated sea food like raw fish or shell fish
vibrio parahemolyticus
Enzymes that function and remain within cells.The majority of a cells' enzymes
EXOENZYMES
hemolysis
-disruption of red blood cells (erythrocytes)
-zone of clearing if hemolysis occurs
Eggs visible in feces; intestinal infection
Ascaris lumbricoides
DEcreased .... Increased
population of elephants governemnt owned will ________ while population of private owned elephants will ________
Gasroentertidies effects what two organs?
Stomach & Intestines
sclerotia
dense, compact masses of hyphae & mycelium that survive in very low temps and are hard, dark pigmented structure; some form on wheat w/ alkaloids
the metabolic process in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy
catabolism
 
A disease caused by a spirochete is:
leptospirosis
provacative
The contact w/ allergen that results in symptoms is called the ____ dose.
Herpesvirus
___' envelope fuses with the host membrane then the genome is transcribed. It has viral-encoded DNA polymerase. The capsids assemble in the nucleus and are filled with DNA. Finally they acquire the envelope at the membrane.
NAMEthe thermal cycle regulates cyclic temp changes
the thermal cycle
HYPERACUTE REJECTION
VERY RAPID REJECTION OF TRANSPLANTED TISSUE, USUALLY IN THE CASE OF TISSUE FROM NONHUMAN SOURCES
SULFUR CYCLE
THE VARIOUS OXIDATION AND REDUCTION STAGES OF SULFUR IN THE ENVIRONMENT, MOSTLY DUE TO THE ACTION OF MICROORGANISMS
Elasticity < 1
inelastic; quantity bought doesn’t respond much to price change; price and total expenditure move in same direction
any agent capable of inducing an immune response
immunogen
Normal Good
Good for which demand rises when income rises
oligopolies act...
maybe compet firm = take pricemonopolist = FU all & charge moreswitch between two
the pathogen must be reisolated from the newly infected hosts
Kochs postulates
a.Acquired in an individual by immunizationb.Is not a natural process; is artificialc.The individual who is immunized makes the antibodiesd.Immunity is long lived: memory cells are presente.VaccinesThese are characteristics of what type of immunity?
Active, artificial immunity
an unknown organism grows at the top of a tube of thioglycolate broth.. This organism is _____ for oxygen requirements
aerobe
Type II hypersensitivity
- cell-bound antigen- blood group incompatibilities- pernicious anemia- autoimmune diseases: hemolytic anemias, myasthenia gravis
t cell defects
- thymic aplasia- digeorge syndrome- failed development of 3rd/4th pharyngeal pouches- unique facial characteristics- congenital cardiac abnormalities- highly susceptible to infections by fungi, viruses and protazoa- unable to reject transplant
NAMElangauge of mRNA in the form of (1)
codon
MICROORGANISM
A LIVING ORGANISM TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN WITH THE NAKED EYE; INCLUDES BACTERIA, FUNGI,PROTOZOA, AND MICROSCOPIC ALGAE; ALSO INCLUDES VIRUSES
Determinants of Inelasticity
The fewer the number of substitutes\nor perceived substitutes available.\n\nThe smaller the percent of the\nconsumer’s income that is spent on the product.\n\nThe shorter the time period under\nconsideration.
COMMENSALISM
A type of symbiosis where one organism benefit and the other is unaffected
When long-run average total cost declines as output increases there are said to be?
economies of scale
complements
goods which when the fall in price of one good raises the demand for the other
N. Meningitidis distinguishing features
-ferments glucose AND maltose-can grow on standard media-POLYSACCHARIDE capsule with 13 serogroups
Gram positive cell wall
a thick, homogenous sheath of peptidoglycan 20-80 nm thicktightly bound acidic polysaccharides, including teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid & surface proteins.inner cytoplasmic membraneRetain crystal violet and stain PURPLE
transposons are movable genetic elements that:
carry information for protein synthesis & can move from one position on a chromosome to another position 
Asthma, breathing, bronchoconstriction, suffocation, inflamed, allergens, psychological
One major atopic disease is _________ which includes impaired ______ due to severe ______________, can range from periodic episodes of difficulty breathing to fatal ___________, the respiratory tract is chronically __________, its extremely responsive to small amounts of _________ and symptoms have been linked to the ____________ state of the patient.
Korean Hemorrhagic fever
-Hantaan virus = a bunyavirus causes harmless persistent inf in mice & rats-exposure to urine of infected animals - febrile illness with hypotension, hemorrhage, renal syndrome-causes pulm disease
– is an acute infection that causes the initial illness.
Primary infection
Is Clostridium botulinum gram positive or gram negative?
It is gram positive
Organisms that do not use oxygen but are not inhibited or killed by the presence of oxygen
aerotolerant anaerobes
Law of diminishing returns
as any activity is extended it eventually becomes increasingly difficult to pursue that activity further.
antibiotics and antidiarrheals
what 2 medications should NOT be used to treat escherichia coli O157:H7?
during conjugation a recipient cell might be converted to a donor cell by the:
acquisition of the F factor
SCIDS (severe combined immunodeficiency)
- b/t cell defects- recessive defect in metabolism of adenosine- lymphocytes are destroyed- x-linked (found in males)- aseptic life
Elasticicy of Income
% change in demand / % change income
Group A strep is PYR (positive or negative)?
Positive (pyrrolidonyl arylamidase)
Herfindahl- Hirschman Index
also called HHI- is the square of the percentage market share of each firm summed over the largest 50 firms in a market 
THERMOGENIN IS A PROTEIN UNCOUPLER FOUND IN____
CERTAIN MAMMALIAN FAT CELLS (IT PRODUCS HEAT AS A BY PRODUCT)
global eradication of smallpox was possible:
1. no subclinical infections2. no carriers3. no animal reservoir (only humans infected)4. an effective vaccine was available
In US, what organization tracks... Where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

--Collect and analyze U. S. epidemiological information
--Publish Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Gram Positive vs Negative Cell Wall
Positive have think cell wall that absorbs stain while negative has thin cell wall
Cytotoxic T cells:
 
- have CD8 cells surface markers
- release killer antibody molecules
- are not antigen specific
recognize and destroy virus-infected and tumor cells
- two of the above
two of the above
 
a and d
Decisions to buy or sell securities at the Fed are made by
Question 12 answers
Congress.
the Federal Open Market Committee.
the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
the President's Council of Economic Advisors.
the Federal Open Market Committee.
SOME AMINO ACIDS ARE SYNTHESIZED BY ADDING AN AMINE GR TO PYRUVIC ACID OR TO TONE OF THE KREBS CYCLE... THIS IS ____
AMINATION (PROCESS OF ADDIN AN AMINE GROUP TO AN ORGANIC ACID TO MAKE AN AMINO ACID)
give an example of denitrification
in the lab, tests are done -- called Nitrate reduction -- where bacteria can convert Nitrate (NO3-) to Nitrite (NO2-) [e.coli] or Nitrate to free nitrogen (n2) [pseudomonas]
staph- rapid onset because only toxin is necessary. associated with meat or dairy products that have been left unrefrigerated. the toxin stimulates nerves of the intestine leading to cramping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
clostridium- slower onset, bacteri
how is food poisoning that is caused by staphylococcus aureus different than that caused by clostridium perfrigens?
HPV 16/18 = cancer, HPV 6/11 = no cancer
HPV ___/___ cause cervical cancer. HPV ___/___ do not cause cancer. All HPVs will cause warts.
Keratitis (bacterial)
staphstreplisterianeisseriaanaerobespseudomonas aeruginosa
Mycoplasmal Pneumonia
bacterial, respiratory
amoebic dysentery
entamoeba histolytica
close
if.....MR TR firm should...
Psittacine Polyoma/Papova viruse
french molt
Labor theory of value
labor produces:
use
exchange
high heat breaks Hbonding causing
denaturation
transduction
a virus(bacteriophage) injects dna into the bacteria to replicate new viruses and the bacteria is transferred into the new virus being produced this virus then goes and infects bacteria and its dna is incorporated into the bacterias dna causing recombination.
is resistance to tetracycline common?
yes
yersinia enterocolitica has abdominal pain that presents like
appendicitis
pathogens
-organisms that cause disease
-almost all microorganisms can cause disease under right conditions
-finding pathogens in healthy individuals common
Surplus
Point where quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded, causing prices to fall
What syndrome can Campylobactor Enteritis cause
Guillain Barre's
Abscess treatment
antimicrobials hard to disseminate abscesses so masses have to be excised
the enzyme ___ catalyzes the conversion of peroxide to water and oxygen...
catalase
glomerulonephritis
- immune complex disease- Igs precipitate in kidney- streptococcal lipoprotein cross-reacts w/kidney tissue
cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors include(5)
beta lactamsvancomycinteicoplanincycloserinebacitracin
INVASIN
A SURFACE PROTEIN PRODUCED BY SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM AND ESCHERICHIA COLI THAT REARRANGES NEARBY ACTIN FILAMENTS IN THE CYTOSKELETON OF A HOST CELL
Targeted marketing
Involves selling that centers on\ndefining different market segments or groups of buyers for particular products\nbased on the demographic, psychological, and behavioral characteristics of the\nindividuals.
Antibiotics: inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis
Rifamycins, ciprofloxacin
Measles, droplet transmission, 1 week incubation, bed rest only tx, immunity after contraction
rubeola
Economics
The study of how individuals or societies choose to use the scarce/limited resources to try to satisy their unlimited wants.
 
study of choice
shortage
a situation in which the quantity demanded is greater than the quantity supplied
are referrd to diseases that are constantly in the population but in #s too low ot be a public problem.ex: common cold
endemic
Microbial Activity Measurement Types
Radioisotopes: high sensitivity, turnover rates, fate of substrate & killed cell control; Microelectrodes: micromanipulator, microbial mats & multiple electrodes; can look at physical aspects like O2 tension, pH, H2S concentration; can multiplex and look at multiple states at once
Glycocalyx colonies (2)
1. smooth- AKA mucoid, mucous/stringy
2. rough- little extracellular matrix material
metabolism
is comprised of both anabolism and catabolism
dental caries
Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus are associated with the development of _____.- PDD- Yeast Infection- dental caries- none of the above
What are disinfectants?
Chemicals that kill microorganism (but not necesarily endospores)and are also used on inanimate objects.
SEPTATE HYPHA
A HYPHA CONSISTING OF UNINUCLEATE CELL-LIKE UNITS
hypotonic solutions
concentration of water is greater outside of cellcell swells
Test marketing
Is an approach to analyzing consumer\nbehavior that involves analyzing consumer response to products in real or\nsimulated markets
types of halogens
hypochlorous acid, iodine, iodophor (Destroys fungi, protozoa and bacteria), alcohol
Organisms of the same species display DNA-DNA homologies of ___% or greater in hybridization assays
70
quantity supplied
the amount that sellers are willing and able to sell
bach culture
a closed system microbial culture of fixed volument
 
antisepsis
which term refers to killing most life forms on a living surface?
also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria (but not Archaea), forming the cell wall
peptidoglycan
 
What is trachoma?
a chlamydial disease of the eyes
nonregulated
the majority of waste generated in a dental practice is - nonregulated- regulated
*opsonization
process of Ab binding to the invador with their Fab regions, leaving their Fc tails available to bind to Fc receptors on the surface of cells like macrophages. This forms a bridge between the invader and the phagocyte, bringing the invader in close, and preparing it for phagocytosis
YEAST INFECTION
DISEASE CAUSED BY GROWTH OF CERTAIN YEASTS IN A SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
AXIAL FILAMENT
THE STRUCTURE FOR MOTILITY FOUND IN SPIROCHETES; ALSO CALLED ENDOFLAGELLUM
Bovine Virus Diarrhea
-rarely fatal in adult cows
-high morbidity low mortality
-diarrhea with occasional oral ulcers in adults
-occasional abortion
-varibale fetal anomalies - cerebellar hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia
-occasional immune tolerant -virus infected calves
parasitism
one partner benefits and the other one is harmed
Effects of Positive Externalities on the Market
Demand increases (shifts rightO
Oligopoly 
is a market structure in which a small number of firms compete. Example- computer software, coke and pepsi
dont allow the benefit of hindsight; in this type of studydata are analyzed abd collected, consider factors that occur as the epidemic proceeds
prospective analytical studies
is a process in aerobic respiration in which pyruvate produced earlier is metabolized further:1. carbon is oxidized to CO22.electrons are transferred to coenzyme carrier molecules that take the electrons to the electron transport chain3. energy is capture
krebs cycle
A PARTICULAR ENZYME IS ______ TO THE REACTION IT CATALYZES
VERY SPECIFIC
staph and prop
Major species of skin normal flora:- herpesvirus and cytomegalovirus- candida and protozoa- staphylococcus and propionibacterium
NAME TYPE OF CELLDNA is found in the nucleus
Euk
What is meant by the statement: "microbes are ubiquitous"?
they are everywhere
Cells only around the side of the test tube
SUBSURFACE
Cost Benefit Analysis
A study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good.
Marginal Cost Curve
min point of the AVC curve occurs where it intersects the
RT-PCR*
HIV is RNA virus so RT needed, then do PCR
Hydrogen bonding is broken by
heat, salt, ph,substrates and heavy metals such as lead and mercury
How do beta-lactam anitbiotics work?
They all inhibit cell wall synthesis.
How are inducible operons turned on?
by the presence of lactose
List 4 methods of determining microbial susceptibility to antibiotics
disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer)
dilution method (MIC and MBC)
serum killing power
automated methods
S. Pyogenes virulence factors
-M Protein and Protein F (binding to conjunctiva)-Protein G (prevents opsonization)-c5a peptidase and IgA protease-Streptolysins O and S-exotoxins SPEA
 

Amoxicillin is preferable to penicillin because it
is absorbed more easily from the intestines when taken orally
Describe positive (direct) selection
Take a petri dish with a medium containing penicillin and we grow bacteria – only bacteria that is resistant to penicillin will grow. This is positive selection.
Broad Spectrum Antibiotic
Acts against both gram + and gram - bacteria with the broadest acting against chlamydia and rickettsia.
no known dna polymerases can initiate new chain, but what can?
PRIMER- usu short strech of RNA
what is liquid media?
a broth that is used that does not solidify
why do equilibrium wages differ
1. compensating differential
more risk/inconvenience= more pay
2. human capital
more education= more pay
3. unions
bargaining together= better pay
4. worker productivity/efficiency
5. revenues
b. results in synthesis of specific IgE antibodies
12) The sensitizing dose for Type 1 allergic reactions:a. stimulates the 1st clinical manifestations, such as hives b. results in synthesis of specific IgE antibodiesc. both a and bd. neither a nor b
Which B. cereus disease has a longer incubation and a longer duration (diarrheal or emetic)?
Diarrheal (caused by heat labile toxin)
Describe the four steps involved in the Gram Stain and the chemical reaction the bacteria goes under.
1 – Crystal violet is applied, and both take the dye, both turn purple. 2 – Gram’s Iodine is applied, and cyrstalizes the crystal violet in the case of the gram positive, and has no effect on gram negative. 3 – Alcohol is applied dissolving the crystal violet from the gram negative. The gram positive remains unaffected, continuing to be purple. 4 – Safranin dye is applied and the red dye stains the gram negative bacteria, turning them red. The crystals remain purple on the gram positive.
The bottom of the U shape occurs at the quantity which?
minimizes the average total cost. This is called the efficient scale
/ 434
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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