micro quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
positive ssRNA
progresses to AIDS and destroys CD4 T cells
study of parasites
bacteria in blood
“cipro”Block DNA gyrose
Ionizing destroys DNA
Nonionizing damage DNA
Most easily recognized promoter
acid-fast waxy cell wall
• nuterualphile• lives in flowing water environment and certain gradients• hydrogen sulfide kills rice plants pumps oxygen down to it’s roots and takes advantage. Moves hydrogen sulfide from the roots. Help detoxify ribosphere (environment around the root of plants)
2nd line inflammatory mediator, mediator: Form a blood clot (vit. K), more solid, Ex: pickling @ scabs, pull off blood clot/reopen wound.
inhibits protein synthesisused to treat gram-positive bacterial infections, some penicillin-resistant infections, and Legionnaires' diease
High temp short time pasteurization
milk is heated to 72c for only 15 seconds
emerging or re-emerging diseases
___ produce B cell derivatives
what affects D-Value
intensity/concentration- lowers D-value
Microbial load- number of microbes; D-value same rate, increased time to do so
Population Compostition- mixture of microbes
Temperature- increased temperature, more active
Environment- type of material contaminated
what organism causes Pertussis?
Bordetalla pertussis
• page 368• can live anaerobic with nitrate as electron donor
love cold (-10)-- 20 C
2nd line cell communication: Bacteria in the blood supply, when an abscess breaks.
transferred to new containers w/fresh medium
ability of temperate bacteriophages to persist in a bacterium by the integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome and without the replication of new viruses or cell lysis
ethylene oxide
-gaseous sterilant-heat or moisture sensitive items-mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic
___ means to kill all microorganisms.
used for protozoa in intestinal infections
a disease producing qualitythe ability of an organism to infect a susceptible host genetype and cause disease
Coupled transcription/translation
when transcription and translation happen simultaneously - only in prokaryotes
3 levels of control
Transcriptional-  change in gene expression levels by altering transcription
Translational - control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA.
Protein- how much the mRNA is translated into proteins.
All vaccines induce humoral immunity, Good (attenuated) vaccines induce ____ immunity
what type of organism is influenza?
• Gram positive• Grows well in the refrigerator • “not nice lactobacillus relative”• Cause of bad meat• Can contaminate dairy products• Can cause spontaneous abortion in preganant women because it can cross the placenta barrier• Reason why we pasteurize cheese
Clostridum Difficile
Gram Positive
Anearobic rod spore Former
Antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis
Two Toxin (cytotoxin & enterotoxin)
chemotroph that eats organic (carbon, etc)
Dendritic cells
2nd line: Relatives of macrophages that reside throughout the tissues and RES; responsible for processing foreign matter and presenting it to lymphocytes.Usually found in skin, cannot circulate through body, turned off until an antigen shows up (ex:pollen), will also become an APC if the antigen come through the skin.
what pathogen associated with uncooked foods?
Hepatitis A
a substance, similar in structure to normal metabolites, that prevents a cell from carrying out an important metabolic reaction
collection of strains that share many common features and differ significantly from other strains
normal microbiota
-remain there entire life-respond to altered environmental conditions with increase and decrease in population-normal flora, residents-localized in certain regions of the body
In decimal reduction time, it takes one unit of time to kill ___% of organisms.
Two Types of Motile Behavior
run and tumble
Cytochromes (cyt)
They are proteins containing an iron-porphyrin ring called heme. Several classes, differ in reduction potential
breaking a bond, requiring an H20 molecule
____ are cytokines that are like recruiting signals that allow chemotaxis to the site of infection
Plant Nutrition
• Some fungi associate with roots
– Help them obtain nutrients from soil
– Called mycorrhizae
Classic staph lesion
furuncle (boil) - inflammatory response to growth of S. aureus
what 2 ways are vaccines usually taken?
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
described live microorganisms through magnifying lens
transmission of leprosy
direct contact and respiratory routes
Large Intestines
1st line: mucus, NFO (500 species, produce vit. k and biotin), fecal material (fecal coliforms).
Taenia saginata(BEEF TAPEWORM)
form by undercooked BEEF! recognized by scolex with suckers only
selective toxicity
must harm the microbes without causing significant damage to the host
What are the symptoms of cystitis?
Dysuria and pyuria
branch of medicine that deals with the causes or origins of disease
___ causes the most serius malaria.. can effect brain causing cerebral malaria
p. falciparum
an item that a sick person touches, then another person touches it and they get sick
Continuous Culture
Used to keep bacterial cultures in exponential phase
_______ are important in killing most invading microbes. ____ mop up the survivors
phagocytes, complement
Algae and Protozoa
• Phycology: study of algae
• Unicellular and multicellular plants
Sin Nombre - fever muscle aches nausea and loss of lung function shock and death = very rapid pneumonia and hypovolemia
purpose of anergy?
important to prevent random immune responses that can be harmful to the body
what newer vaccine on the Recommended Immunization Schedule is first given at 12 yrs?
Meningiococcal vaccine
Effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
-Time of exposure-Specificity of agent-Strength of agent-Temperature-pH
what are microaerophilic and aerotolerant bacteria? what type of infections are often caused by microaerophilic bact.? where are aeroltolerant bact. used?
-microaerophillic - prefer smaller amounts of O2 than usually found in environment, cause many diabetic infections-aerotolerant - dont use O2 but aren't killed by it. fermentation bacteria
What are the 2 types of bacteriophages?
virulent & temperate
What is a plate counts ideal number?
30 to 300
Examples of Synthetic culture media:
• inorganic salts• carbon source• energy source• growth factors (vitamins, amino acids)• buffer system
What is fermentation?
An ATP generating metabolic process in which the organic degradation products act as electron donors and acceptors
Small amount of energy is obtained via substrate level phosphorylation
What disease is a classic example of a granuloma?
Frame Shift Mutation
addition/removal of a base; results in a shift in codon reading and alters protein function
virulence factors associated with Group A strep
C5a peptidase (damages complement), Hyaluronic acid capsule (looks like self), M Protein (C3b protease damages complement and antigen responsible for late sequelae), G protein - Fc binding protein, exotoxins, hymeolysins, streptokinase
Which of the following is not used as a target for antiviral drugs?a. nucleic acid synthesisb. receptor bindingc. proteolysis of a polyproteind. viral budding from host celle. viral folic acid metabolism
Herd immunity
when there are enough people immune to an infection that the infection cannot spread rapidly for lack of hosts ... "enough people" depends on the disease
what feature do the category A bioterrorism bacteria have in common?
1.easily disseminated2.easily tranmittable3.major public health impact(require considerable resources for each victim and special preparedness)4.Panic/Fear factor
Binary fission
way by which bacteria cells divide and replicate (DNA copy is made). This is not mitosis, which occurs in eukaryotic cells only.
what are the non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria? what are the oxygen requirements?
Azotobacter - strict aerobeClostridium - strict anaerobeEnterobacter - facultative anaerobeAnabaena - aerobe?
problems with bacterial taxonomy
too little is known about evolutionary relationshipssome groups contain unusual organisms
The ___ phase can be very long and is when more cells are dying than are dividing.
What happens to the lactate?
Transported out by lactate symporter. Takes a proton out with it
Lactate is still a good energy source
How can bacteria avoid phagocytosis?
by blocking PMPs on their surface
Problem with German measles
vertical transmission - from mom to baby - causes congenital rubella syndrome = blind, deaf, heart disease, retardation
what sympotms mark the paroxysmol stage of pertussis?
severe violent bouts of coughing
sub-culture / passaging
take stock culture and start new cell culture from it
what steps in nitrogen cycle results in loss of nitrogen from the soil?
ammonification if no water presentdenitrification
What are the effects of transduction in general?specialized?generalized?
transduction-transfer is effected by bacteriophagespecialized-only genes near prophage are transferedgeneralized-fragments of host DNA of various lengths & numbers are packaged in viral head
____ derivitize cysteine to prevent disulfide bonds. 2 examples?
Heavy metals: silver nitrate, and mercury
How does our enzyme lysosomes affect the cell wall?
breaks the sugar backbone.
breaks apart the nam and nag sugars
Protozoa are found in, can be, have a
moist habitats 
aerobic or anaerobic
resting stage called cyst -not as resistant as endospore
late sequelae of strep throat
rheumatic fever develops if strep is untreated
in DNA replication, the LAGGING strand is formed from
short segments called Okazaki Fragments
what are the 2 genera that are used in vinegar production?
Acetobacter and Gluconobacter
Vectors inject the pathogens directly into the host during their meal except for which one?
The kissing bug- the pathogen is scratched/rubbed in by the human.
3 things that activate complement
C3b protein binds to cell surface :: mannan binding lectins (MBL) bind to cell surface :: antibodies bind to and clump pathogens together
what is the Delaney Clause?
an ammendum to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Actsays that you cannot have known carcinogens in food
what is the name of the organism that causes chickenpox and shingles?
human herpes virus 3
what chemical process occurs in denitrification?
REDUCTION: NO3- to NO2- to N2O to N2(nitrate to nitrite to nitrous oxide to atmospheric nitrogen)
Do all bacteria have an outer membrane?
No, gram+ bacteria do not have one
what does L.acidophilus do in the making of Kefir?
forms 3-D polymers of glucose and galactose that traps MOs and CO2.
When does somatic recombination happen?
before birth -- we are born with all the antibody-producing capacity we will ever have.
what happens to NH3 when water is present?
reacts with water to form NH4OH(base) which seperates into NH4+ and OH-
why isn't botulism common in the US anymore
canning procedures keeps it out of food
how do glass and steel differ from copper beer vats?
glass/steel - inert materials, no rxtn w/proteins and amino acids - less foamcopper - stabilizes proteins and a.a for better foam production
where are your parotid glands? what disease associated w/swelling?
salivary glands below and in front of earsmumps
How can one measure the rate of growth of a bacterial culture?
By measuring over time any growth relevant parameter
Cell mass
Viable cell number
Total cell number
Dry weight
Any chemical cell constituent (DNA, RNA, Protein)
HOw can a person be desensitized to an allergen?
If you are injected with the allergen in gradually increasing doses of serum B cells to produce IgG, so that the IgG can outcompete the IgE :: OR be injected with anti-IgE antibodies against the Fc region of IgE (rhuMab)
How is TB prevented in the US? and why don't we do what everyone else does?
PPD or Mantoux Skin test (if you have TB, you'll have activated T cells that create a skin rxn)- because TB isn't a big enough problem to need to vaccinate everyone, and those who have been vaccinated present a positive skin test (Type IV HS), so it's impossible to know who actually has it... we'd rather know who has it.
QuinineQuinacrine: giardiasisChloroquine: malaria
Using a computer
What is lockjaw
Gram - (staining)
pink stain
Endospores and Non endospores
Lysozyme works by?
hydrolyzing peptidoglycan
bacteria multiplying in blood
• page 363• has 2 hydrogenaseo generation of proton motor force and ATP productiono reduction of NAD reducing potentialo both oxidize hydrogen using oxygen as electron acceptor
2nd line inflammatory mediator: chemicals that are released.
change in an organism's characteristics through transfer of naked DNA
antigens  linked together by antibodies  to form visible aggregates 
prevents monomer transport across membrane
Algae .. paralytic shellfish poisoning
Single stranded viruses ex. HIV
enzyme reverse transcriptase RNA to DNA
DNA incorporates into host genome
When did variolla minor appear
C. Botulinum
• Most ponent biological poisoning• Can kill over 1 million rats• Causes Tecnus neuro-toxin
Based on Carbon source:inorganic carbon (CO2, CO, CH4)
3rd line Immunoglobulins: IgA is produced by cells in mucous membranes. The main function of IgA is to prevent the attachment of viruses and bacteria to epithelial surfaces. IgA is also found in many body secretions, such as saliva, perspiration, and tears. Its presence in the first milk produced helps protect the infant from gastrointestinal infections.
inhibitory effect produced by 2 antibiotics working together that is greater than either can achieve alone
state of permanently changing an organism's characteristics by integrating foreign DNA (genes) into the organism
used on inanimate objects and surfaces
UHT pasteurization
"ultra-high temp" - sterilizes, creates long shelf life. 150C for 1 sec
prevent replication in nucleic acid synthesis -- works on gyrase
(re)emerging pathogens
new, reemerging or drug-resitant infections whose incidence in humans has increased within the past few decades or whose influence threatens to increase in the near future
Segmented viruses can undergo ______.
genetic reassortment
Detergents as disinfectants
Surface active compounds (“surfactants”)
– Damage cell membranes
– Denature protein
antiserums are ___, ____ immunity
artificial, passive
how many emerging infectious diseases currently listed by the CDC?
• used in making vinegar from ethanol • aerobic: won’t contaminate wine without oxygen• ethnolacetate (incomplete respiration)• complete citric acid cycle.
Herpes Virus (1&2)
primary and recurrent infections
primary(surface lesions)
spreads to nerve cells (goes latent)
Common Name: Body system affected: Type:
HPV 16,18
Carcinoma of the cervix,penis, warts turn cancerous!!!! very nasty!
what does BOD stand for?
biological oxygen demand
Name the 2 antimicrobial agents that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis.
type strain
original reference strain of a bacterial species, descendants of a single isolation in pure culturenamebearer of species, preserved in culture collections
Precipitation reactions
Involve the reaction of sluble antigens with igg or igm antibodies to form a large interlocking molecular aggregates called lattices.
____ disinfectants kill everything but spores. They are ok for ____ instruments.
High-level, semi-critical
a category of enzymes which catalyze phosphorylation reactions. used by, for example, bacterias, to transport sugar (Glucose) into the cell
The breakdown of larger, more complex molecules into smaller, simpler ones, during which energy is released, trapped, and made available to work
Acid Fast
thick waxy outer layervery slow growingmycolic acids ( lipids) dont allow chemicals in
fungal disease from desert soil --- dimorphic
alcohols as dissinfectants
– Dissolve lipids
– Denature protein
strep skin infection - very painful infection of fat tissue underneath skin and causes inflammation
Where is endo/exotoxin is secreted whereas endo/exotoxin is part of cell membrane
exo... endo
what is another name for herpes zoster?
Rudolf Virchow
discovered that cells arise from preexisting cells
___ is needed to diagnose meningitis
CSF sample
1st line: HCL (pH 2, cracks parasite eggs which aids in hatching, H. Pylori, E. coli, and salmonella can survive), mucus, protease/enzymes that destroy protein (breaks down cell wall of organisms).
which pathway results in gas production?
pentose phosphate shunt
transient microflora
microorganisms that may be present in or on an organism under certain conditions and for certain lengths of time at sites where resident microbiota are found
What causes protozoan conjunctivitis?
Protozoan conjunctivitis and keratitis is caused by Acanthamoeba spp. The amoeba is found in fresh water, tap water, hot tubs, soil, and contact lens solution.
Is the probability that the test is reactive if the specimen is a true positive.
symptoms of mono
very long incubation period, infects throat epithelium causing pharyngitis with pus, lymph node swelling, occasionally spleen rupture
disrupts PMF in cellm embrane -- used for MRSA
Species can live in a range of conditions from no salt to moderate levels
___ is used to alter gene expression
cassette switching
Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
lowest concentration of an antibiotic that 
inhibits growth of an organism
kirby-bauer technique
how is flu prevented?
vaccines annually (50-70% effective, whereas normal vaccines are 95%) -- usually injected killed virus, new flu-mist vaccine a little better bc its live attenuated
child, pus filled lesions and scabs on face, throat, lower back
require light for growth. quality of light, intensity, etc. Different kinds of light, xray, uv, high energy. Photosynthesis has sensory functions that detect light.
what water pathogen can cause a systemic infection?
typhoid causing salmonella
ability of a cell to take up naked DNA
Hot air sterilization
generally a temp of about 170c maintained for nearly 2 hours to maintain sterilization
ATP-Binding Cassette transporters(ABC transporters)
consist of 3 kindsof proteins:• Hydrophobic transmembrane protein• ATP hydrolyzing protein – attached tothe inner side of the transmembraneprotein• Periplasmic solute-binding protein – inthe periplasmic space or anchored tothe membrane
Electron Transport Chain
A NADH dehydrogenase to oxidize the e-donor NADH
NADH - Diffusible electron carrier
Flavoproteins, proteins bound to flavins (FMN, FAD)
Iron sulfur proteins
Quinones - hydrophobic non-protein electron carriers
Cytochromes - proteins containing an iron-porphyrin ring called heme
Terminal oxidase (reductase) to reduce the e-acceptor oxygen to water
3 classifications for viruses
Nucleic acid (baltimore scheme), shape of virus, naked or enveloped
name MOs that might be used in an inoculated pack study for a canned prodcut? why are these good choices?
C.thermosacchrolyticumC.sporogenesB.stearothermophilus all non-pathogenic spore-formers with higher heat resistance that C-bot
How does rhinovirus work?
binds to epithelial cell receptors, causes cell death induces immune mediators, secretions, swelling
what can grow on the keratin layer of skin
Region of DNA which acts as a switch to turn transcription on or off is the
Live/Dead stains
Baclite-Stain. In a live cell, cell is green because small systol 13 stain can go through intact plasma membrane.Dead cells are red because large propidium iodide can enter in through spaces in cells. This process is very inexpensive, easy, but it is not 100% accurate.
what does e.coli/shiga toxin cause? what types of symptoms?
hemolytic uremic syndromeblood in urine, kidney shutdown leading to other organ failures
What are the two Clostridium toxins?
Clostridium tetani (tetanus) and Clostridium botulinum (botulism). Both Clostridium toxin bacteria are anaerobic gram positive bacillus.
Bacterial growth equation
N=Noe^utN - Number of cellsu - growth rate constant (/hr)t - time (hr)
What does the cell need to grow?
Appropriate nutrients:
Source of energy to fuel cell growth
Carbon for cell biosynthesis
Other nutrients, N,S, P, etc.

Appropriate environmental conditions:
pH, oxygen, temperature, etc.
During Elongation
RNA pol synthesizes mRNA in the 5' - 3' direction
IN a direct ELISA test, antibodies are attached to the bottom of a microtiter well. HOw can we be sure the Abs have the Fab part pointing up?
Staph protein A
What are common problems in survivors of neisseria meningitis
deafness or brain impariment
Lag phase
# of cells per unit volume is not increasing in culture because some cells are replicating, but just as many are dieing. Birth=death There are many reasons for this, such as temp shifts, new media, adjustment period, etc. a 1% cell subculture is good.
what is a trickling filter?
large concrete tank filled with rocks coated in MOs
What are some methods of studying genetic homology of bacteria for taxonomic purposes?
direct methods: base composition comparison, DNA/RNA sequencing, DNA hybridizationindirect methods: protein profiling
Rabies proliferation and detection
travels in axon to CNS and replicates there, takes months or years, produces Negri bodies (protein aggregate), anterograde transport to salivary glands... detected by corneal smear
___ is a technique that amplifies a particular sequence of DNA
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
why is milk a good substrate for fermentations?
naturally bufferedmany different substrates
potentially effective treatment for the common cold
pleconaril - binds to capsid and inhibits receptor binding and uncoating (phase II trials)
chicken pox is characterized by __ and caused by __
a systemic papular rashvaricella-zoster virus, a DNA herpesvirus
What are the 3 kinds of viral-host cell interactions?
1) productive infection-results in cell lysis2) persistent infection-virus often buds from cell without killing it3) latent infection-viral n.a. is integrated into host, virus becomes dormant, does not reproduce until triggered, enters lytic cycle
What are some causes of Candidiasis (Candida albicans- yeast infection)?
Sexual transmission, changes in diet, glycogen intake, antibiotics, and stress can exacerbate the condition.
How to create a DNA library
Isolate all genes from an organism, use restriction enzymes to create genomic fragments, join genomic fragments to vectors to make plasmids (recombinant molecules), intoduce the plasmids into cells -- each cell can be considered a "book" in the library
what is the general succesion of products in milk fermentations?
Lactose =>Glucose + Galactose =>all Glucose =>Pyruvate =>Lactic acid
what is a very serious potential problem with MRSA and VRSA strains?
that they will combine, being resistant to both types of antibiotics
What are some various mechanisms by which bacteriocins inhibit growth of other strains of same bacteria/closely related species of bacteria?
-can enter bacterial cell and destroy DNA-can arrest protein synthesis by disrupting ribosome structure-can inhibit active transport or increase membrane permeability
4 adverse side effects of antibiotics
allergies (type I or by hapten type IV), toxicity (low therapeutic index), Suppression of normal flora (c diff), selection for antibiotic resistant superbugs (MRSA, VRE)
how do bacteria bind to host cells?
pili with special adhesin proteins at the tip (called fimbriae) bind to specific receptors on your cells
what does hepatitis A do in the body?
multiplies in gut, spreads to other organ systems, makes you sick for several months
Type __ HS is cell mediated or delayed, because?
IV, mediated by Th cells and macrophages, response in days, not minutes
what are the 3 steps of sauerkraut fermentation?
1.pH down to 0.6% by Leuconostoc mesenteroides products2.pH down to 1.2% due to lactic acid of L.plantarum3.pH down to 1.5-1.7% by L.brevis
what is the situation that makes rubella have a 35% chance of fetal damage
contraction of the mother in the first trimester
A bacterium can make the amino acid leucine, but can also take it up from the growth medium if it is available. the cell would prefer to? Therefore, the genes for leucine transporters would be constitutive, inducible, or repressible? and the genes to MAKE
take it from the medium :: inducible :: repressible
What are the steps in a molecular phylogenetic analysis?
1) Determine seq of SSU rRNA2) Count # of diffs at each position3) compute corrected ED4) use distance/parsimony to make evol tree
Necator americanus
-eliminates ALL
- botulinum- tetani
indicator organisms
-most non-pathogenic
-non-spore forming
-aerobic/facultqative anaerobes
-ferments lactose
-present in large #s in gut
-survive longer in water than enterics
-E. coli most common
4000-6000m, optimum at 4000M
coenzyme in decarboxylation
pyridoxal phosphate
morph, -morph-
form, shape, a shaping
autotrophic organisms that obtain energy from chemical reacrtions involving inorganic substances such as nitrates and sulfates
- g(+) rods and filaments
1. Surface2. Subsurface3. Sediment
Hair-like structure on bacterial surface which promotes adhesion
if Marginal Product increases, then Marginal Revenue Product increases. If i make better sales, i get paid more
what kind of cellular arrangement would you expect for members of the streptococcus genus?
inhalation of human produced aerosols of anthrax spores could produce a lethal ______ on a massive scale
single stranded, nucliotide of ribose, No T's in RNA and replaced with U's, functional working copy
Immunity that occurs with administration of immune serum globulin to an individual. The antibodies were produced in another individual following disease or immunization.
- natural active
- artifical active
- natural passive
- artifical passive
artifical passive
T/F: Digestion is extracellular in fungi
ObjectiveCan be observed and measured Something you see
fowl pox
-chickens (avian pox in pet/wildlife)
- raised proliferative skin lesions
-intracytoplasmic inclusions called Bollinger bodies
-lipophilic - stain with Oil Red O and Sudan Black
produced by s. aureus
associated with dessemination from promary focus
a balance for weighing minute quantities of material.
Price Ceilings
-Maximum statutory price( passed by law)-Meant to protect consumers-Falls below Equilibrium.
Ionizing radiation
excellent sterilizing agent because of its ability to penetrate deep into objects
-electrons are released from the atoms creating ions
will destroy bacterial endospores and both prokaryotic and eukaryotic vegatative cells
characteristics of plasmid
double stranded DNA,
replicate sep from chromosome
circular and linear DNA
(also called microbiota) has a symbiotic association with the host (human).1. They colonize of body surfaces and cavities after birth2.They are mostly bacteria3.Many are beneficial to host
Normal flora
what is the causative agent in rabies?
Characteristics of attenuated vaccines include all of the following EXCEPT:
- cannot cause disease
- immune response most like that resulting from natural infection
- microbe has reduced virulence
- microbe multiplies in the host
- all of the above are
cannot cause disease
T/F: Hyphae are long filaments found in the bodies of molds.
Junk DNA is refered to as (1)
Cleaves bonds on molecules with the addition of water (hydrolysis)
-produced from milk w/ 25% water removed
-add 1:1 ratio Streptococus thermophilis (grows faster, primary producer of acid) and Lactobacillus balgaricus (flavor and aroma)
-# microbes drops after a few weeks
-beneficial bacteria
-inhibits undesired organisms (ex: E. coli disappears after 3 days)
-anti-cancer effects?
an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy
Economic way of thinking
analyze human behavior, understand human choices
Yellow fever causes what type of SX
Flu like
In situ?
experiment that uses intact tissue (no harm to sample bcz not individual cells)
carb classification
mono= simple; triose= 3 carbon sugar (glyceraldehyde); tetrose= 4 carbon sugar (erythrose); pentose= 5 c sugar (ribose) hexose= 6 c sugar (glucose, fructose)
There are an estimated ____ species of fungi and ____ have been linked to disease in animals.
Part of the antibody or immunoglobulin that binds the antigen.
2 of these per molecule
Fab fragment
tub erculous meningitis
-assoc with acute miliary TB-sx: malaise, apathy, anorexia, photophobia, neck stiffness, impairment of consciousness
diseases caused by e. coli with virulence factors
1.diarrhea-uti-neonatal meningitis-gram neg sepsis
What bacillus cereus toxin causes diarrheal disease due to increased cAMP?
Heat labile enterotoxin
% of Hep C infections that become chronic?
Perfect Price Discrimination
A situation in wich the monopolists knows exactly the willingness to pay of each customer and can charge each customer a different price.
long run
In the _____ run, economies of scale determine the shape of the cost curves
what happens at initation
2 ribosomal subunits assemble with mRNA  (hotdog)
1. a aminoacytl trna w/ FORMYTHIONYL binds to start codon  (AUG) at the  P site
Aminoacytl tRNA + F-mythio+start codon AUG @ P
indirect/ negative staining
acidic dye; used to stain the background no distortion
All the following are possible methods for cultivating viruses except

A.  fertilized chicken eggs.
B.  tissue cultures.
C.  laboratory animals.
D. blood agar medium

D. blood agar medium
for (3) beta lactams are bacteriostatic rather than bacteriocidal -- why?
enterococcisome streptococci & staphylococcithey don't produce active autolytic enzymes
When government expenditures exceed revenue from all sources,
Question 28 answers
a budget deficit is present.
the supply of money will increase.
the government's outstanding debt will decline.
all of the above are true.
a budget deficit is present.
how to distinguish among enteric species
-citrates, SIM, urea utilization
tax incidence
how the burden of a tax is distributed among the various people who make up the economy
What 3 major organ systems does the Diptheria Toxin effect
heart Kidney Nervous
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have more proteins?
Prokaryotic - 800
Eukaryotic- 225
groups of gram positive streptococci
- mitis group- anginosus group- salivarius group- mutans
What is southern Blot?
is a hybridization technique used to sequence DNA
acute retroviral syndrome
first phase of HIV infection in ~60% of patients
Total Revenue is equal to ______ x ______.
1. price x quantity
how do antibodies show specificity?
1. An antibody reacts (forms weak bonds) only with the same antigen that induced its formation2. This is due to complementary shapes of the antigen combining site and the antigenic determinant
EBV and HHV 8
EBV and HHV __ are both related viruses in the family Herpesviridae.
"Etiological agents of disease" means what?
Etiological means 'origins of', and the statement refers to the 'microbial causes of disease'.
What determines price in the market?
Demand. In other words, how much consumers are able and willing to pay. Relative prices coordinate production and consumption decisions.

Which of the following is the best definition for innate immunity?
A.  resistance is a response to a particular microbe
B.  a response that is directed only against a particular microbe
C.  a system that protects us against trauma and disease
several nonspecific diseases present in all humans from the time of birth
What are the two types of Penicillin?
Penicillin S and Penicillin R (resistant)
cells die from saturation when
too low a dilution rate ( no enough water)
True or False: Capsules make bacteria more virulent.
True, it allows them to escape phagocytosis.
Botulism sxs in an infant 3 wks to 8 months
-constipation, lethargy, poor sucking, paralysis 'floppy baby syndrome'-spores are able to germinate in the gut due to the alkaline environment then elaborate the toxin-up to 10 week incubation
What is the benefit of coagulase for S. aureus?
forms a fibrin formation around the bacteria protecting it from phagocytosis
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