Micro Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
dsDNA virus
fecal-oral transmisison
only in humans
extra dna strands
degrades connective tissue
Type 1 (herpes)
mouth sores

mold used in antibiotics
Restriction endonucleases (aka enzymes) recognize specific sequences that are
lack of blood flow
• Gram negative• All parasitic (interacellular) obligate intracellular• All causes diseases (i.e. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus)• Very little metabolism on its own • Has functional ATP system• Makes proteins
2nd line inflammatory mediator, cytokine: Increase temperature to kill organism (local or full body fever) activates fever, works with APC and neutrophils. (ex: help with MS)
the capability to produce disease
the concentration of serum antidody.
Where do foodborne/waterborne dieseases originate?
an animal
Phagocytes produce cytokines that recruit other phagocytes, once engulfed the pathogen is in a phagocytic vesical called a phagosome, the phagosome fuses with the lysosome to make a phagolysosome

infectious proteins that lack nucleic 
mad cow
what is OPV
oral polio vaccine
Peter Mitchell
• figure out oxidation phosphorlation
Antibiotics: Penicillins: "cillins"
Block peptidoglycan synthesis
active vs G+ bacteria
Some G - bacteria
Penicillin G --> short lived
Penicillin V --> acid tolerant
Both penicillin G and V are narrow spectrum
Platelet Activators
2nd line inflammatory mediator, mediator: Platelets activated when there is an insult, proteins that turn platelets on to get sticky and for mesh work.
cells that attach to surfaces, multiply, and spread to from sheets one cell thick
genetic engineering
purposeful manipulation of genetic material to alter the characteristics of an organism in a desired way
2% glutaraldehyde=
optical density of a culture correlates with # of cells in that culture -- depends on cell size
study of how diseases are spread
Haemophilus influenze
two types:type b and nontypable
The HIV inhibitor enfuvirtide blocks the gp41 receptor, the speicific receptor to which HIV spikes attach. Cells treated with enfuvirtide are expected to show? A. only HIV RNA in the cellsB. Only HIV nucleocapsid inside the cellsC. no HIV in the cellsD. O
Bacterial Growth Conditions

– Temperature
– Nutrients
– Water (osmotic balance)
– Appropriate atmosphere
– pH
pasturella in chickens causes?
fowl cholera (pneumonia)
chile/teenager - chickenpox, then persistant vomiting, signs of brain dysfunction
Reyes syndrome
• page 368• can live off carbon monoxide as electron donor and carbon source.• Enter-Dandruff pathway• Gram (-)• Has cytochrome (cytochrome C oxidase)• Oxidase (+)• Do not ferment• Breaks down pesticide and hydrocarbons• P. aeruginosa: pathogenic; hard to kill organism found in hospitals.
Enterohemmorhagic E. Coli
"Jack in the Box"
Hemorrhagic Colitis
copious bloody stool, no fever
low pH, less than pH 5
Necator americanus(Hookworm)
tissue worm, causes severe nutrient depletion, and failure to thrive
what soil pathogen causes gas gangrene?
Clostridium perfringens
serum killing power
determines effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent in which a bacterial suspension is added to the serum of a patient who is receiving an antibiotic and incubated
numerical taxonomy
comparison of organisms based on quantitative assessment of large number of characteristics
invasion or colonization of the body brought by pathogenic microorganisms
_____ are super resistant microbes that can only be killed by autoclaving or gluteraldehyde wash.
Bacterial endospores
appears to be necessary for their shape, as mutants lacking the protein form rod-shaped cells
Growth at 44 to 70 degrees celsius
Does a phase contrast microscope use stains?
___ control is when an activator protein binding allows mRNA synthesis
Direct Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis
Translation inhibitors- RNA misreading
Responsible for rapid transfer of multiple antibiotic resistance between bacterial cells
R plasmid
Acute glomerolonephritis is a Type ___ HS
what vaccine was just approved and will be included in the 2007 schedule?
hypothesis that living celss can arise from preexisting cells
antigenic shift
major change in influenza virus antigen due to gene reassortment
Nasal Passage
1st line: Organisms that get into lungs cause pneumonia, TB ect, cilia (sweeping motion prevents attachment), mucus (flushing action prevetns attchment), NFO, Mast cells (release histamine).
what organisms naturally perform transformation of dna?
Bacillus, Streptococcus, some Staphylococcus, NOT - E.COLI
spectrum of activity
range of different microbes against which an antimicrobial agent actscan be broad or narrow
What bacterial infection is acquired via the birth canal and usually resolves itself but may lead to trachoma and blindness.
Chlamydial/inclusion conjunctivitis (Chlamydia trachomitis) may be passed onto the newborn and the mother may not be aware she even has it if she is asymptomatic.
microbial antagonism (competitive exclusion)
involving competition among microbes, host's ability to protect against colonization1)competes for nutrients2)producing substances harmful to the invading microbes3) affecting conditions such as pH and O2
life cycle of rabies virus
neuron, anterograde (orthograde transport), replication in cell, enters saliva, transmission to new host, retrograde axonal transport, starts over
4 targets of antivirals
uncoating, nucleic acid synthesis, assembly, and release
Ecology of Clostridai
Ubiquitous in soil, aquatic sediments, and muds
Spore forming is an ideal survival strategy for soil bacteria
Heat shocking can activate growth of the spore
Some are pathogenic and cause gangrene
Some produce deadly toxins
___ is a technique that examines the promoter activity from all genes in an organism.
Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance
• Inactivation of antibiotics– β-lactamase
• Blocking entry of antibiotic
• Pumping antibiotic out of cell
• Altering target enzyme so it is unaffected
3 types of fungal infections
toxins, dermatophytes produce keratinase, inhaling spores
what type of vaccine is used for diptheria?
Most Probable number analysis Serial dilution, Can get more accurate with less dilute and more overall.
1 x 10mL UUUUUU 5 
2 x 1mL UUUuu 3  
100 x 0.1 mL Uuuuu 1
use these numbers and look at chart, tells how many. Tells range 95% Good: live cells, range Bad: clumps, etc.
what does adding oxygen do to the BOD?
lowers BOD
the DNA of a lysogenic phage that has integrated into the host cell chromosome
transient microbiota (contaminants)
microorganisms that may be present for several days, weeks, etc.. and then disappear
Define "growth factor"
Specific, low MW compounds that can't be made by cell (vitamins, AAs, pur/pyr)
Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
Intermediates change from one form to another
Converts pyruvate to:CO2
Reducing powerNADH
Used in electron transport for additional ATP synthesis

Dimorphic fungi are able to?
change from yeasts to molds
high temperature physical agents
autoclave- moist heat, under pressure. More quantity, more time
Boiling- moist heat, not under pressure
pasteurization- sub-boiling temps; high temp short time, ultra high temp,
Hot air
Diphtheria treatment?
antitoxin - via passive immunity - DIG (diphtheria immunoglobulin)
what type of bacteria is C.tetani?
Gr(+), obligately anaerobic, spore-forming rod
Mutation in which CAU becomes CAC is a _______________ mutation
Log phase
lots of growth is occuring. More cell born than die. unlimited nutrients, rate is limited by genetics. at top of peak, cells are most metabolically active. intrinsic growth rate limits rate of growth
name two organisms that cause food intoxications?
C.botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus
Define conjunctiva and conjunctivitis.
The conjunctiva lines the upper and lower eyelids. Conjuctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva (pinkeye).
3 metabolites that can be measured to produce cell count
ATP, gas, pH
List two physiological changes that are observed in stationary phase cells. How do these changes impact the organism's ability to survive?
Morphological changes (e.g. endospore formation)
Decrease in size
Nucleoid condensation
Production of starvation proteinsProtect DNA
Prevent protein denaturation
Prevent oxidative damage

Long-term suvival
Increased Virulence
What does MAC do?
Membrane attack complex: loss of ion gradient so the bacterial cell can no longer produce energy
symptoms of german measles
slight fever, mild symtpoms, very fine rash
What is M protein involved in
attachment, phagocytic avoidance, and compliment activation.
Direct microscope count
# of cells in known volume, determine cell density from this.
what is done with dried sludge?
burned, buried, or sold as fertilizer
How can transposons disrupt gene function?
by randomly inserting itself into bacterial chromosome or another plasmid, however usually it inserts BETWEEN genes rather than within
Chlorine is a ____ and iodine is a ___ disinfectant.
sterilant, intermediate-level
Difference between MHC I and MHC II
MHCI presents cytoplasmic antigens, MHCII presents antigens from phagolysosomes
what does the mashing step of beer-making accomplish?
1.enzymatic changes determining sugar content (affecting favor and alcohol content) 2.surface MO's inhibited by heat treatment
what causes antigenic drift
minor changes in flu virus because it is an RNA virus - no proofreading
what is the result of elevated oxygen levels in effluent sewage?
increased MO activity, increased breakdown of organics
What is the vector and the main reservoir of Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)?
Vector: hard (deer) tickMain Reservoir: mice
4 ways bacteria fight back at phagocytosis
antioxidants to fight oxidative burst, oxidates to kill phagocyte, leukocidins to kill PMNs and monocytes, capsules to prevent phagocytosis
what do hops do for in beer making?
1.adds to flavor2.inhibits many MOs3.contributes to foam by adding proteins
what type of immunity do you get from having a disease?
naturally acquired active immunity
What are the 5 cycles in the replication of a phage or virus?
1) adsorption-attachment of viruses to host2) penetration-entry of virions or genome into host3) synthesis-synthesis of new n.a. capsids, and other components by using metabolic machinery of host4) maturation-assembly of new components into complete virions5) release-departure of new virions from host, lyse host cell
How does the lysozyme experiment demonstrate that cell walls confer shape?
In an isotonic soln, if lysozyme is added, the cell wall is removed. If the shape of the cell changes, you will know that it is responsible for cell shape.
how would you make Koumiss more alcoholic?
add sugaradd more yeastadd acid to kill lactics before they use up too much substrate
Why can't mycoplasmal pneumonia be treated by B-lactams?
no cell wall, can't be treated with anything that works on cell walls
what is the role of alum in sewage treatment?
binds with small particles and bacteria/MOs making them settle faster
why shouldn't you give babies honey until they're a year old?
floppy baby caused by botulism - no native flora to protect against it (i guess botulism is common in honey?)
why do kegs have a much shorter shelf life than cans/bottles?
cans/bottles are heat treatedkegs are not
how does the epithelial system work as a defense system?
1. barrier - lines surface of body(skin) and interior tracts/pathways (mucous membranes)2. outer cells (and attached MO) shed everyday
Why can't one always tell when a culture enters the death phase by the use of total cell count?
This is because you cannot tell the difference between live and dead cells
How do the major parts of the flagellum differ btwn gram+/gram-?
gram- had L and P rings, gram+ doesn't have L ring
Recombinant vaccine
to kill
___ makes primer.
• Club shaped• Causes diphtheria
minimum inhibitory concentrationlowest concentration of an antimicrobial agent that prevents growth in the dilution method
Type I hypersensitivity
allergic response
Spliced out :: "intervening"
inanimate object carrying MOs
Haemophilus Influenzae
Gram negative
Chocolate Agar
 Fastidius needs Factor X(hematin) V(NAD)
 Encapsulated and non-encapsulated
PRP Capsule looks like RNA
2nd line inflammatory mediator, mediator: Mast cells degranulates and release histamine. Promote fluid release to flush out stuff. Ex: runny eyes and nose.
acellular infectious agents smaller than cellshave nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)nonlivingcause disease not placed in a kingdom
high efficiency particulate air filter
remove almost all microbes
pH 5-8. Most human pathogens
"eat me tag" for phagocytosis
Atypical pneumonias differ from typical pneumonias, in that atypical pneumonias require more/less treatment?
How is polio transmitted
contaminated water
John Deedham
claimed microbes developed spontaneously from broth
Facultative anaerobe
with or without Oxygen/O2
for men!, inflammation of prostate glands, caused by GI flora,
decreased effect when 2 antibiotics are administered together
use light as energy source (photosynthesis).
ex. green and purple nonsulfur bacteria
-use organic compounds for energy source AND carbon source-ex: humans and animals
____ heats to 121C for 15-45min
Viridans ( strep)
alphas angius- oral mucosa
made of?
how they are bonded?
glycosidic linkage
cell wall, cell to cell receptors, short term E, cell support
Fungi classification when two mating types grow together to form a zygosporangium (2 mates meet and form a diploid between them)
Missense Mutation
point mutation
alteration of base pair resulting in DIFFERENT amino acid;
vaccine for pneumonia
23-valent (polysaccharide, not great)... only for adults
what type of organism causes mumps?
Lazzari Spallanzani
discovered microorganisms enter broth from air after solution was boiled, refuting Needham's claims of spontaneous generation
diptheria is caused by ___
cornyebacterium diphtheriae
Gastric Juice
1st line Chemical Factor: Destroys bacteria and most toxins in stomach.
Acute Diarrhea
Reiter's syndrom= can't see, can't pee, can't climb a treeGuillain Barre Syndrome=peripheral neuropathy ( lost function, stop moving well)* Bacteria, viral, and parasites cause this
what organism endemic to northeastern PA is resistant to boiling, iodine, and chlorine?
Giardia lamblia
presence of helminths or arthropods in or on a living host
What is defined as a small, fluid-filled blister which is a microbial invasion of the epithelium?
A sterilizing agent such as heat liquid or gas.  filtration.
___ dissolve lipid membranes, and are low to intermediate level disinfectants.
What is the chief component of bacterial cell walls?
Live in moderately salty habitats such as seawater (0.4M NaCl). Many are obligate halophiles
the study of tiny life; micro organism
In complement, what does C5b-C9 do?
build MAC
what is the substrate of meat fermentations
Nectrotizing faciitis
Strep infection with superantigen and tissue activating toxins - bacterial and cytokine induced tissue damage -- common in IV drug users who share drugs
____ is well known for swapping virulence factors via PAIs... makes it hard to stop
What disease allows for post exposure immunization
the first antibiotic, created from a mold, mass produced in 1940s
"k" strategists
in carrying capacity/top of curve area. Slow growing, permanent, very adaptable, competitive, versatile, metabolisms, oligotrophs (survive only with low nutrients and killed by too much nutrients), high pop. success, digests more complex things.
Steps of inflammation
2nd line: injury, rubor calor= redness, tumor= increased blood and fluid, dolor= heat and pain, increased cellular activity as communicaiton occurs, decre3ase chance of organism surviving, loss of function= scab or healing.
what water pathogen is commonly found in uncooked seafood?
hepatitis A
Does double or single stranded DNA enter the cell for transformation?
single-stranded DNA
What is the virus that causes Genital warts (Human papilloma virus/HPV)?
Humanized antibodies
are constructed so tha the murine portion is limitied to the antigen bindings sites.  the balance of the variable region and all of the constant region are dirived from human sources
Autoimmune disease
reaction to self antigens -- body makes antibodies against self antigens
Transmission within about a meter of the infected individual from coughing or sneezing
droplet (contact)
Where are the lipoproteins found?
gram negative cell wall
If the cell is growing without glucose and without lactose, the lac operon would be on or off?
Global Regulation
Regulation of a large number of genes 
4 types of exotoxin
A-B, cellulolytic, tissue damaging, superantigen
E6 protein
HPV virus produces it, prevents p53 from checking DNA for abnormalities - causes wart
what was the first disease with artificialy induced immunity
small pox
Hepatitis Delta Virus
 defective RNA virus
requires HBV for coinfection
can activate latent HBV
HBV vaccine protects agains HDV
liver transplant endstage
Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes or others
Common Name: Cellulitis
Body system affected: in dermis and subcutaneus tissues
Type: bacteria, fungi
what is added in FLOC stage of sewage treatment to increase the rate of settling?
supgroup of a species with one or more characteristics that distinguish it
the passage of a liquid or a gas through a screenlike material with pores small enough to retain microoganisms.
Bacterial cell shape is determined by
– Peptidoglycan– Bacterial cytoskeletal proteins
How does activity of superoxide dismutase differ from that of superoxide reductase?
Superoxide reductase involves cytochrome c being oxidized, while superoxide dismutase does not. Also, superoxide dismutase has O2 as a byproduct.
Read through
sometimes a tRNA does not recognize a stop codon and keeps going - it's OK becuase there is likely another stop codon soon
what bacteria are often used in making Kefir?
S.lactisL.brevisLeuconostoc kefirL.acidophilus
#1 cause of LRT infection in babies
respiratory syncytial virus
What is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis
Streptococcal meningitis
colds are caused by ___ and are transmitted via ___
rhinovirusairborne droplets
Helminthic Intestinal Infections
S&S varies but involve GI issues, VF= Mechanical blockage and tissue damage, DX= discover eggs, larvae, or adult worms in stool
What are the 4 (+) sense RNA families?
Picornaviridae, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Retroviridae
What is a papilloma?
A hard, dry, and large NOT fluid-filled bump that can be found in clumps. Ex. warts. Microbe grows in the epithelium, which proliferates and microbe is shed with epithelial cells.
botulism poisoning
caused by very potent AB toxin, B part binds to neuromuscular junction, A part is a peptidase that prevents acetylcholine release = muscles cant contract
Cell Wall Synthesis
amino acids and sugars are built by the metabolism, assembled into peptidoglycan, then autolysins poke holes in wall, allowing peptidoglycan to move in
what are 2 examples of non-microbial spoilage in canned goods?
enzymatic browningcorrosion of can
Positive selection
T cells must bind to MHC1 in the thymus to be stimulated to develop, so T cells that fail to recognize MHC could never fuction and are left to die
T-independent vs T-dependent antigens
T-dependent- B cell receptors need to bind to T cell
What are symptoms of botulism
slurred speech, blurred vision, and paralysis
Continuous culture systems, 2 types
turbidostats & chemostats. keeps cultur diluted at a constant phase
what shape and gram stain is shigella?
gr(-) rod - like e.coli
Where is the latent varicella-zoster virus (Shingles- Herpesviridae) found and what is it called if the virus reactivates?
The latent varicella-zoster virus is in the dorsal root ganglion near the spine. When the virus reactivates it is called shingles.
What are the functions of pili?
motility, attachment of bacteria to host cells, transfer of proteins,N.A.s
Knock out vs knock down
knock out- deletes protein :: knock down- reduces # of protein made
what time and temp. is mashing often performed at?
40C followed by 70C
How is B7 produced?
by APC upon binding of PMP to TLR
what is the name for the diagnostic indicator of measles? where located?
Koplik's spotsinside of mouth
Growth rate based on temperature
Bell shaped curve: as temp increases, the growth rate is low when cold, then optimum when mid-temps, then low again when temp is max
Explain alteration of an enzyme for resistance
allows formerly inhibited rxn to occur, sulfonamide-resistant bacteria develop enzyme w/high affinity for PABA and low affinity for sulfonamide, even in presence of sulfonamide bacteria still function
Spread plates vs. pour plates
Spread plates: count cells on top of agarPour plates: count cells w/in agar (pour bacteria first, then top w/ agar)
How are protozoal flagella different than bacterial?
protozoa flagella move like an oar instead of spinning
Endotoxin effect on host vs exotoxin effect
endotoxin - always same effect, exotoxin - variable.
where is MRSA most oftenly seen? why is this a problem?
hospitals and clinical settingspeople here are all immunocompromised already
What are the symptoms of Congenital rubella (Togaviridae)?
Low birth weight, eye problems, heart lesions, diabetes mellitus, ear problems, and CV problems.
Why did the muddy chicken cross the road twice?
He was a dirty double crosser
Why do some b cells recognize self?
VDJ joining is random - nothing directs it to make only antibodies
what are two ways in which diptheria can be fatal?
membrane can block throat causing suffocationtoxin can shut down organs
what is the chemical process of ammonification?
proteins - amino acids - amine group (NH2) - NH3(gas) - NH4OH (w/water) - NH4 ion and OH ion
What is an osmoprotectant and why is it needed?
They are compatible solutes used to increase a cell's internal osmotic concentration and prevent further shrinking or swelling of the cell
what do S.lactis and L.casei produce in Koumiss? what does Torula produce?
bacteria - lactic acid only, makes the curdyeast - ethanol and CO2
stationary phase2 reasons this occurs?
# of new cells = dying cells again. rate of metabolism is lower, new genes are turned on -globulon, 1. Nutrients runs out.2. Waste amount increases
How can probes be used as primers?
If we make one that has a particular mutation and introduce it to DNA, it can make a mutation in that DNA because it will bind to it if it's sequence isn't off by too much -- called site directed mutagenesis
what is 'the lot' in regards to quality control?
all of a product made under the same conditions (same code #)ex.-shift change, new lot
jumping genes
Owl's Eye inclusions
Oxidation reduction reactions
Side effects
disruption of microflora
- into vein- ISG
Invasiveness - Antigenic Variation
-Alter surface proteins
benefits distributed uniformly among society's members
Rickettsia rickettisii
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
antimitotic drugs
- azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate
-after primary infection, virus infects lymphoid tissues, enters blood, moves to epithelial cells of trunk, face, scalp-vesicles appear as crops, then pustules, then scab over-complications in adults: interstitial pneum, CNS
major cause of pediatric diarrhea-example of a viral toxin
antimicrobial agents
-cidal= kills (ampicillin)
-static= inhibits growth (baciliram)
elastic supply
if quantity supplied responds substantially to changes in price
Clostridium dificile causes what condition?
Pseudomembranous colitis
Microorganisms that form the symbiotic relationship are called (three of them)
Pertussis-whooping cough
Cold-like symptoms, mucus accumulates, intense spasms of coughing
(upper resp)
what type of disinfectant is recommended for disinfecting dental impressions?- low- intermediate- high
HSV 1 encephalitis
-commonest severe sporadic encephalitis-2 forms: 1. primary and general inf in infancy2. in adults and due to reactivation in trigeminal ganglia-tx: acyclovir
main organ damaged by Bilharzia (Schistosomiasis)
What causes membrane disruption?
detergents, zephiran chloride
First Ig formed following immunization - presence indicates 1st exposure
Determinants of Supply
1. Alternative Outputs2. Technology3. Cost of inputs4. Number of Sellers (Market Supply)
Normally OFF- function to seperate and spread of cells
pathogens such as mycobacterium tuberculosis can cause persistant disease in which infections continue even though the host has a
working immune defense
is pili and centrioles an analagus pair?
location of genes for production of rRNAs. small region in nucleus of eukary. ribosomal proteins synthesized in cyto are imported into nucleolus and associate with rrnas there to make mature ribosomes. rRNA must go from cyto to nucleolus to cyto to make proteins. Prokary do not have nucleolus.
_____ is not effective against fungal infections.
- results later- acts systemically- stimulate B cells to produce IgA, IgG, IgE and memory cells
TH2 response
Pneumonic plague
-infection spreads from person to person by droplets
One organism is benefited and the other is unaffected.
Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD)
-vesicular lesions
-impossible to differentiate from Foot and Mouth Disease
-only pathogenic for swine
mixed living R strain and heat-killed S strain and injected it into mouse - mouse died
using Koch's postulate, isolated living S strain bacteria
Q (quantity) is fixed for a competitive firm, true or false?
Transaction Costs
are costs that arise from finding someone with whom to do business, of reaching an agreement about the price and other aspects of the exchange, and of ensuring that the terms of agreement are fulfilled
Tuberculoid Leprosy sxs
-STRONG cell mediated immune response (few bacilli)-formation of granulomas ; large, flattened plaques on face, trunk and limbs with pale hairless centers. -Patchy anesthesia-Lepromin skin test will be +
Nomenclature problems
Because fungi doesn't have 1 specific sexual state; cannot determine naming convention
Dermatophyte Diagnosis:lab diagnosis
-fungal infection of the skinPotassium hydroxide (KOH) prepCalcofluor White
template strand
serves as one copy for transcription and RNA has a complimentary strand to this
Disease Criteria
- a recognized etiologic agent- an identifiable group of signs and symptoms- consistent anatomical alterations
What is the main target of chemotheraputic drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis?
Peptidoglycan synthesis.
ulcers are caused by which bacilli group
helicobacter pylori
What are genes?
are specifc segements in the chromsome
Horizontal v Vertical transmission
Horizontal means transmission between individuals specifically who are not related as a parent is to its offspring

Vertical transmission occurs from parent to offspring
occurs when the cell fills with virus particles and cell explodes, releasing them.
The demand curve for a monopoly is downward or upward sloping?
downward sloping
cause....association not causation
just because two things are associated does not mean they _________ each other.
is one that establishes itself in a host weakened by some primary infection.dangerous cause take advantage of weakened state.ex: AIDS
secondary infection
WartsTypes of disease: How it is transmitted:Body System:What pathogen causes it:
-Viral-Infected humansDirect contactUsually not very contagious (except genital warts)-Human papillomaviruses
fred griffith
The smooth strain (S strain) had a polysaccharide capsule and was virulent when injected, causing pneumonia and killing mice in a day or two. The capsule is a slimy layer on the cells' surface that allows the bacteria to resist the human immune system. The rough strain (R strain) did not cause pneumonia when injected into mice (it was avirulent), since it lacked a capsule. When the virulent S strain was heated to kill it, and then injected into mice, it produced no ill effects. However, when dead S strain mixed with live R strain was injected into the mouse, the R/S mouse died.
CD4+ T cells are characteristically:
- known as cytotoxic T cells
- known as helper T cells
- unable to produce cytokines
- not responsive to vaccine injections
known as helper T cells
these have horizontal gene transfer...
conjugation, integration of a transposon, transduction, transformation
subclinical infection
patient fails to show signs of the infection due to low number of pathogens or effective immune response.
Efficient Scale
The bottom of the U shaped ATC curve where ATC meets MC. This is the most efficient place for the firm to produce at because it costs the least per product.
function minc mind
mind of mice work together to inhibit cell division by precenting the FtsZ ring from forming
Blood is composed of what three things?
a.Red blood cellsb.Plateletsc.White blood cells; two major classes
breakdown of peripheral tolerance
- tissue cells acquire ability to present self peptides- co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines in infection/inflammation- neoantigens- polyclonal T/B cell activation- molecular mimicry- exposure of cryptic/sequestered antigens
Primary infections can occur in:
1. eye to cause conjuctivitis2. finger3. other skin sites4. genital tract
most common form of gram negative sepsis-where is this prominent-what can cause septic shock
e.coli-hospitilies pt-lipid A endotoxin
What are the steps in replication process of dsDNA lytic phage?
1) Attachment
2) Penetration
3) Transcription of phage DNA
4) Replication of phage DNA/translation
5) Assembly
6) Release
pathogens find a way to move from the original location in a host point called the ____________, here they become far more dangerous
focus of infection
antiseptics are applied to host tissues
The primary difference in antiseptics and disinfectants is that antiseptics are applied to:- dental instruments- environmental surfaces- inanimate surfaces- host tissues- none of the above
the size of a DNA molecule can be expressed in terms of its ___; each nucleotide has a molecular weight of about ___
molecular weight, 330
3 types of T lymphocytes
Helper T cells, Inflammatory T cells, Cytotoxic T cells
How are positive cultures detected in blood samples?
Microbes will metabolize nutrient and release CO2 in medium, automated detection is integrated in the bottom of bottle, fluorescence of the vial sensor, then Gram stained
What are the five steps in the life cycle of a Bacteriophage?
1-Attachment 2-Penetration (and injection) 3-Biosynthesis 4-Maturation 5-Release
What are the determinents of price elasticity of demand?
1. the nature of the good
2. availability of close subsitutes
3. share of the consumer's budget
4. time
lymph nodes are the sites where:
B cells, T cells, APCs, and antigen all gather to communicate and activate
For a business to be profitable from an economists standpoint, total revenue must cover..?
all the opportunity costs including explicit and implicit
microbial growth occurs at what two levels?
growth at a cellular level with an increase in size and increase in population
When would DAHP synthesis come to a complete stop?
An excess of all 3 amino acids is required to completely shut off DAHP synthesis.
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