Micro Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
"Philes"
"love"
Microaerobic
some Oxygen
mycology
study of fungi
mycobacterium
• grows slowly-pathogenic• acid fast staining• has an envelop • has non-polar characteristic to cell• some dieaseses it causes are long lasting. Takes years for people to show symptons.• Acid-fast staining due to mycolic acid • Hydrophobic gut of cell does not decolorize• Causes leopercy and TB
prions
small proteinaceous infectious particle, causes at least 8 progressive neurological diseases
malaria causative agent
sporozoan (plasmodium)
Sporozoa examples
malaria, toxoplasma, cryptosporidium
nonliving reservoirs
soil and water
archaea
prokaryotic organism, lack peptidoglycan cell wall, live in extreme environments (high salt or heat)
Leukotrienes
2nd line inflammatory mediator, mediator: Increase pain as an indicator, increase WBC.
REDOX REACTIONS
-Oxidation: loss of electrons
-Reduction: gain of electros
-energy of the electron is transferred, coupled reactions
 
 
Sreptomyces
filamentous bacteria that commonly inhabit soil
Electron Transport Phosphorylation
Required Components:
Cytoplasmic membrane
electron transport chain => redox reaction
Proton + charge gradient => pmf
Membrane-bound ATP synthase => ATP
___ causes African sleeping sickness.
Trypanosoma
what agency originally developed HACCP?
NASA
rare measles complication
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
algae
eukaryotic organism with cellulose cell walls, use photosynthesis for energy, produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds
Tyndallization
fractional steam sterilizationHeat for 20 mins at 90CKill cells-->, spores survive --> spores germinate at 37C --> reheat, redo process up to 3X to completely sterilize.
T Memory cells
3rd line: remember antigens.
Carbapenems
inhibit cell wall synthesisused to treat mixed infections, nosocomial infections, and infections of unknown etiology
competence factor
protein released which facilitates entry of DNA into bacteria
obligate aerobes
absolute requirement for oxygen(ex: Nocardia species, Micrococcus sp.)
Membrane filtration
used for liquid cultures. nitrocellulose membrane catches bacteria, but viruses get through.
Propegated disease
host-to-host, low incidence, slow onset
Flagella
made up of flagellin protien
main tool for mobility
 
mono- one
lopho- one group
amphi- opposite sides
peri- all around
Examples of flagellates
giardia, leishmania, trichomonas, trypanosoma
 
antibiotic targets
 
 
• Cell wall synthesis
• Membrane function
• Protein synthesis
• Metabolite antagonism
 
How is cat scratch disease treated?
ampicillin
how is Rotavirus spread?
fecal oral transmissionfomitesparticulates
Cytophage
• Found in the soil• Has gliding motility- not flagellum • Can eat cellulose• Isolates organism take bacteria cell, blow it up and over lay.
tuberculosis is transmitted by ___
airborne droplets
Staphylococcus aureus
Common Name: staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Body system affected: skin
Type: bacteria
Vibrio chloerae
"Rice Water" aka watery diarrhea, DEHYDRATION is most serious issue, FECAL_ORAL via water!! VF= Cholera toxin, and gram stain is comma-shaped bacterium
what does vinegar mean in french?
sour wine
pathogen
an organism capable of causing disease in its host
What is the vector of Lymphatic filariasis (Roundworm-Nematode)?
mosquitos.
 
 
 
Subunit
use only those antigenic fragments of a microorganism that best stimulate an immune response.
___ can be damaged by alcohols, aldehydes, halogens, metals, ozone, peroxygens, phenolics.
Proteins
Antiporters
energy from a protongradient is used to move a protoninward and a cation such as Na+outward, creating a Na+ gradient.
What donates electrons to the electron transport system (ETS)?
NADH
Negative Stains
repel acidic; cling to slide
presence of a capsule?
Cellular immunity allows cells to recognize ____.
intracellular invaders
Histidine Auxotroph mutagen
Histidine auxotroph- mutant bacteria with histidine nutritional requirement
 
1/1,000,000,000 colony will grow on non nutritional medium
 
Mutagen introduced to increase mutation rate
common cause of nosocomial UTI after catheritization
pseudomonas
A pathogenicity island is a?a. cluster of virulence factors that can be transmited by HGTb. group of pathogenic bacteria boudn to an M cellc. patch of membrane receptors to which pathogenic bacteria bindd. plasmid on which multiple antibioti resistance ge
a
What disease has symptoms including, fever, headache, and a stiff neck, often followed by nausea and vomiting, convulsions, and coma
Bacterial meningitis
spontaneous generation
hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter; a "vital force" forms life
hansen's disease (leprosy) is caused by ___
M. leprae
Mucous Membranes
1st line physical factor: Inhibit the entrance of many microbes, but not as effective as intact skin.
what strain of E.coli associated with food infection?
E.coli 0157:H7
mutualism
form of symbiosis in which 2 organisms of different species live in a relationship that benefits both of them
Pandemic occurrences of plague have been directly responsible for more human deaths than any other infection except _____ and ______.
Tuberculosis and malaria.
 
 
Passive test
The antibody react with the soluble antigen adhering to the particles.
Failure to produce one or more components of the immune system
immunodeficiency diseases
3 disease reservoirs
humans (vaccines can prevent), animal, environmental (impossible to erradicate)
Community acquired pathogens
those infections caused by bacteria acquired outside the hospital setting
DNA polymerase attaches new molecule to an existing 3' OH on a ____. It also needs a ____ to copy.
primer , template
oncogenic viruses
Incorporation of viral DNA into host DNA may interrupt cell function
Otitis media
middle ear infection - bacteria in pharynx travels up eustachian tube to ear canal - very painful, may cause eardrum to rupture, no fever, caused by H. influenzae and s. pneumoniae
what are PrP proteins?
naturally ocurring prions in CNS
NUTRIENT MEDIA
IS NOT A CURRENT METHOD FOR CULTIVATING VIRUSES
Location of facultative anaerobe in stab inoculation?
all throughout tube
what are the 3 main areas of food microbiology?
pathogensspoilagefermentations
CONDITIONS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY
-Optimal temp and pH narrow range
-Temperature: high=denaturation (unfolds structure) low=freezing (loss of conformational plasticity
-Osmolarity and pH: too high or low causes denaturation of protein enzymes
 
 
Why does vaccination work
The injection by skin scratches provoked a primary immune response in the recipients leading to the formation of antibodies and long term memory cells. 
Prok cell wall functions
provide cell shape, withstand turgor pressure, composed of peptidoglycan (NAG/NAM), crosslinked w/ peptides
Organisms that perform lactic acid fermentation
Several genera
Gram +
Aerotolerant anaerobes
Many are auxotrophs
Live in organic rich environments
biological vector
bacteria or virus live IN the vector as a host --- must carry out part of lifecycle in host
what are hops?
the dried flowers from the Humulus plant
the eustachian tube connects the ___ and the ____.
ear and nasopharynx
pasturella in rabbits causes
snuffles - progresses to lethal hemorrhagic pneumonia (bloody lungs)
How is measles spread
droplet contact from nose or mouth
respiratory system normal flora
found in the upper respiratory tract
Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes
Common Name: Impetigo
Body system affected: lesions usually around mouth, face, extremities.
Type: Bacteria
What are the 7 (-) sense RNA viruses?
Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Arenaviridae, Reoviridae
What are the signs of glomerulonephritis?
Proteinuria (affects bp), hematuria due to swollen glomeruli, and immune complexes containing streptococcal ag's.
2 kinds of direct cell counts
Petroff-Hauser Chamber (counting cell within known square), Coulter counter (interruption of electric current as cells pass through counter)
M. lacunata
can be isolated from the eyes and may cause conjunctivitis
Rho (ρ) Dependent Termination
1. Rho factor binds to mRNA and moves along until stem-loop reached
2. Helicase unwinds RNA-DNA complex then RNA pol dissociates
control for lyme disease
avoid vectors (wear long pants and sleeves), antibiotics (tet and pen derivative)
How does tetanus cause death
spastic paralysis and death by respiratory failure
Physical methods of microbial control
Radiation - ionizing (stronger -xrays, gamma rays, etc) and non ionizing (weaker, UV light, germicidal lamps)Gamma radiation for food.
what types of organic molecules might be in sewage effluent?
carbohydrates, proteins, salts, polar fats, anything that is water soluble
What is congenital toxoplasmosis caused by and what are the neonate problems involved?
It is caused by Toxoplasma gondii (protozoan). If exposed, antibodies usually develop easily (except congenitally or in immune-compromised adults). Neonate problems include retardation, hydrocephaly, enlarged liver and spleen, convulsions, jaundice, and stillborn.
What are the major parts of bacterial flagellum?
Filaments, hooks, basal structures
How can you screen a library for a particular gene?
use a probe
what may cause deviations from the linear nature of a survivor curve?
1.spore germination prompted by initial heat2.clump or chain configurations of bacteria3.multiple strains of diff. heat resistance4.microbial injury
Derivative of Koch's postulates that we now use
Molecular Koch's postulate -- isolates infective GENE from bacteria
what types of cells phagocytize invading MOs? what 2 types?
White Blood Cells 1. Macrophages2. Neutrophils
mumps is caused by ___ and is spread by ___
paramyxovirus (like measles)airborne
What are the 2 ways that antimetabolites work?
by competitively inhibiting enzymes by being erroneously incorporated into important molecules such as nucleic acids
 
 
Identify the precipitation curve
The curve is based on the ration of antigen to antibody the maximum amount of precipitate forms in the zone of equivalence where the ration is roughly equivalent.
3 steps to PCR
Denature DNA ;; bind probes to DNA ;; make new DNA from probes -- you end up with lots of copies of the DNA you want
B cells usually need to be bound to ___ to avoid anergy, the exception to this rule is if they bind ____.
T cells, repeating antigens
explain how vaccinations are tied to schools in PA
more students vaccinated, more state funding
What are the 2 types of gene transfer?
1. vertical gene transfer (sexual reproduction, binary fission)2. lateral/horizontal gene transfer-transformation, conjugation, transduction
Why is water activity important for microbial growth? What changes water activity?
Water activity is important because it designates the amount of water, which is important for growth because certain organisms need certain amounts of water. Water activity can be changed by the amount of solutes and surfaces around.
Why would you want to get phagocytized if you're a pathogen?
macrophages are much stronger once they've been activated by Th cells, so the bacteria can survive if they've been phagocytized BEFORE the macrophage is activated
why are cases of measles increasing for children under 1?
vaccine can't be given until 12 months, antibodies from mother weak
what are the long term consequences of hepatits A?
there are generally no long term consequences
With such a rigid molecule around, how does abacterium grow?
• It has to enlarge its peptidoglycanshell.• Bacteria produces enzymes:– autolysins… breaks cross-linking bonds– transpeptidases… reseal the breakes byadding new peptidoglycan monomers• It has to be highly regulated• Cell would burst
what is the vendor's risk in quality control?
probability that the company will hae to throw out an entire lot
How are botulism and tetanus different? How are they similar
Both are diseases of the CNS. Both are gram positive, obligate anaerobes, spore forming, rods. Botulism is a food poisoning(intoxication from type A neurotoxin) and tetanus is from puncture wounds(tetanus toxin).
Why doesn't lac operon use lactose if glucose is present?
It is more energy efficient to use glucose instead
In a ____ gene, mRNA is not usually produced but can be turned on by certain conditions. ex?
inducible :: ex: genes that break down exotic carbon sources
Poliovirus
Picornavirus
formula
c6h1206+02----> co2+h20+atp
peripheral proteins are?
receptors
Disease:
Abnormal body function
Bacteria causing Botulism
Clostridium Botulinum
Conjunctival normal flora
-staphylococcus epidermis-diphteroids-priopionibacterium acnes
Pathogenicity:
ability to cause disease
Profit
Total Revenue - Total Cost
Guilds
Metabolically related populations of microbes that work together to ferment, depending on environment; each guild makes similar product in own process; each element has own guild to perform their own process; unique to microbial ecology
Active Transport
H + = Proton
Anthrax
-caused by Bacillus anthracis-forms spores-mainly disease of herbivores-confined to developing countries-Ags available for animal handlers and military -vacc for animals
Epstein Barr
virus that causes mononucleosis
role of microbes
-primary producers
-decomposers
-food source
-biogeochemical cycling
-changes soluble.gaseous
produce inhibatory compounds that limit survival of micorbes/plants
-ymbiotic interactions
Scarcity
society has limited resources and, therefore, cannot produce all goods and services people wish to have
How is Shigellosis spread
fecal oral route
Flatworms
flat, no definite body cavity; digestive tract a blind pouch; simple excretory & nervous systemscestodes (tapeworms)trematodes (flukes)
 
 
Meningitis


Membrane covering brain and spinal cord (meninges) become inflamed. Primary in children under age 4.
Severe headache, sudden high fever, stiff neck.
(upper resp)
drug
Another atopic disease is ________ allergy which reactions range from mild atopic reactions to fatal anaphylaxis.
Zoster
-latent infection in dorsal root ganglia-reactivation leads to erythromaous rash in thoracic region
SYSTEMIC ANAPHYLAXIS
A HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION CAUSING VASODILATION AND RESULTING IN SHOCK; ALSO CALLED ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
Necrotizing
along with faciitis, a rapidly spreading group A strep infection caused by superantigen and hyaluronidase toxins
Cephalosporins
alternate for those allergic to penicillin.
low toxicity to host, destroys normal flora. originally narrow spectrum and gram positive.
Toxic proteins excreted into medium that may damage host tissue away from where bacterial infections occur - often fatal
exotoxins
Duopoly
Domination of the Market by 2 firms
prokaryotes can grow at higher temp then eukaryotes
archaea can live in hottest
infection can result in
toxic shock or sepsis
what process occurs in bacterial plasma mem but not in eukaryotic plasma membrane/concerning energy
ATP synthesis
cell walls
most bacteria have pg layer= heteropolymer of amino sugars and acids (sugars = nag and nam) Function: protection from osmotic lysis, gives shape, resists passage of large molecules
Codons
64 three letter words and genetic code. and 61 of 64 code for genetic material and 3 of 64 code to stop translation
Complement facilitates phagocytosis by:
 
- opsonization of bacterial cells
- chemoattraction of phagocytic cells
- both A and B
- neither A nor B
both A and B
Triad of EBV
-sore throat with pus, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly
which diseases can an infant acquire through the ingestion of honey
botulism
vectors
animals that carry pathogens from one host to another.
"Every major contraction in the U.S. economy has either been created or greatly exacerbated by monetary instability. Every major inflation has been caused by monetary expansion." Which of the following economists made this statement?
Question 20
Milton Friedman
Freeze drying
Lyophilization: drying of the specimin from the frozen state.
A tax on imports (goods produced abroad and sold domestically) is called a?
tariff
Cross Elasticity of Demand
Price Change in Quant demanded/
Percentage Change in price of a substitue ofr complement
H. Aegyptius virulence factors
-IgA Protease-Biofilm(does NOT cause PNA or otitis media!)
what is the stop or (degenerate) code??
multiple codons
UAA
UGA
UAG
"nonsense codon"
your awesome aple, you gorrila ape, you are gorilla
List the ideal vaccine:
-Contains enough antigens-Covers all strains -Few or no side effects-Does not cause disease
THE USE OF AMINO ACIDS TO MAKE PROTEINS IS AN EXAMPLE OF.....
ANABOLISM
translocation of A-B toxins can be by 2 ways
directendocytosis
What is an example of an antibiotic that inhibits translation initiation?
Kasugamycin.
what is the technical name for German measles
Rubella
Period of decline .
The signs and symptoms subside
A toxoid is a
physically or chemically inactivated exotoxin.

*Toxoids are employed as vaccines, such as against tetanospasmin, since they induce a host immune response (i.e., antitoxin) but have limited or nonexistent toxicity.
tuberculosis
An invasion of the lung accompanied by tissue destruction caused by
M. tuberculosis; also called TB.

* neither gram + or gram -
* waxy cell envelopes
* diagnosed with Mantoux or tine test, sputum, and Xray
* rod shaped

Symptoms include: fever, night sweats, coughing, weight loss
Two differences between NCL and Marxian
NCL
--harmony in the market
--individuals choice
 
Marxian
--conflict in market
--exploitation
Weak Natural Monopoly
MC>ATC; Consmers can consume the gdds at a good price, DWL=0
when a pathogen has moved from the focus of infection by gaining access to the blood or lymph
systemic infection
Type II hypersensitivity: what does this lead too?
Incompatible blood transfusionsRh factor incompatibility
kilocalorie
temp needed to raise 1000 ml of water one degree celcius
Which of the following features applies to IgM?
 
- first antibody produced during humoral response 
- possesses a J chain
- can bind to 10 antigenic determinant sites
- all of the above
- both A and B only 
all of the above
which bacilli group can set in after infection.
pseudomonas aeruginosa
3 most common forms of neonatal meningitis in order
strep Be. colilisteria
VEHICLE TRANSMISSION
A medium, water, air, food, or blood can carry or transmit pathogens
how is monopolistic competion similiar to perfect competition?
3 things
many firms
perfect info
free entry and exit
which worm is Dxed w/ a muscle biopsy
Trichinell (tissue nematode)
what is inflammation induced by?
a.The presence of microorganisms in tissuesb.Physical injury induced by trauma, or exposure to heat or chemicals
Both true!
T/F: A and B are dominant over OT/F: A/B co-dominant w/eachother
Malaria sx & tx:
-fever (starts with intense cold and shivering followed by hot dry stage, followed by drenching sweat)-HA, vomiting, muscle spasms-fatal during first 2-3 wks due to complications-cerebral malaria, severe anemia, hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis-has immunosuppressive effect-tx: chloroquinine, mosquito repellents
Who was the first to discredit the theory of Spontaneous Generation?
Francisco Redi (1665)
detection of nitrification
-use NH4+ to NO2-
-use broth with NH4+ as sole N source
-has to use NH4+ as E and CO2 as C sources
-Trommsdorf reagent w/ H2SO4
-rxs w/ nitrite to form blue-back color
-blue/black = + for nitrite
Robert Kock's and Postulates
Does it cause disease? Then must meet four criteria Microbes always present in sick beingsMicrobe can be grown in pure cultureIf Microbe is introduced into being then being becomes sickSame Microbe is re-isolateable
Inherited, genetic, E, mast, target, mediators, multiple, 10-30
There are some predispositions for Type I allergies: __________ generalized susceptibility, not individual allergies; ___________ basis such as enhanced Ig__ production, increased reactivity of ______ cells and increased susceptibility of _______ tissue to allergic ___________; they may manifest __________ allergies; ____ - ____ % of population is prone to atopic allergy.
Law of Supply
As the price of a good increases, the quantity supplied increases
EMB as Selective and differential mediums
-ex: EMB contains lactose
-selects for GN or intestinally-derived GP
-if able to ferment lactose, produce acid by-products to turn dyes deep blue/purple
-GN produce a green sheen when they ferment lactose (E. coli)
-E. aerogenes produces dark purple colonies
-non-lactose fermentors produce white colonies
-basically: EMB differentiates b/w lactose fermentors
Impetigo may be cause by what two bacteria?
Staph aureus and staph pyogenes
True or False: An endospore is a dormant stage of bacteria.
True, to withstand extreme conditions
In the long run if long run total cost is greater than Total Rev at the long run optimal output level the firm will?
exit the market
16, 18, 31, 33 and 45
- HPVs that are responsible for most cervical cancers
What is different about the replication process of ssRNA lytic phage?
Only affect sex pilus so only F+ bacteria
Needs RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
Burst size is 10,000 & cycle is much faster
When they created Dolly, what two types of cells were used?
(1)one that had been starved to stop cell division (low nutrients)~aka a udder cell w inactive genes (2)a unfertilzed egg that had the nucleus removed leaving only the cytoplasm
it binds to the P site, whereas all other ones after it bind to the A site. its' start codon is AUG.
what is unique about the first tRNA used in translation?
5-day rash
Rubeola
Positive symbiosis
-mutualism
-cooperation
-commensalism
Salmonella typhi
Typhoid fever
gamma-rxn
-no hemolysis
-Streptococcus species
transfer RNA = tRNA
cold sores; fever blisters
HSV-1
arginine is decarboxilated to
Agmatine
supply shifters
Technological innovations/changes in the price of inputsTaxes and subsidiesExpectationsEntry or Exit of ProducersChanges in Opportunity Costs
in chemiosmosiselectrons are transferred along the electron transport chain, protons are pumped out of the cell.This causes the proton concentration outside the cell to be higher than inside the cell, causing a
concentration gradient
capsules
- protect invaders from phagocytosis
CUTICLE
THE OUTER COVERING OF HELMINTHS
What is my first name?
Brittany
A group of related genera.
Family
decreases
AFC ______ with increase in output
botulism
which disease is most commonly associated with consumption of contaminated home canned goods?
is a bacterial infection characterized by diarrhea, systemic disease, and a rash -- most commonly caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi (S. typhi).
typhoid fever
Telomerase
repeats ("TTAGGG" in all vertebrates) to the 3' end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. adds telomere each time
B-Lymphocytes mature (are "programmed") in the:
 
- bone marrow
- intestine
- liver
- thymus
- bone marrow
What is mycology?
The study of fungi
Noncommunicable disease
1. opportunist2. organism resides outside the body and is introduced by mechanical means. e.g. Clost tetani (tetanus)
Vesicular Stomatitis
-cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses
-vesicular lesions on lips, oral mucosa and interdigital cleft
-indistinguishable from FMD
MRTB
Stands for Multiply Resistant TB, meaning strains of tuberculosis
with resistance to many antibiotics.
microfilm
a film bearing a miniature photographic copy of printed or other graphic matter, usually of a document, newspaper or book pages, etc., made for a library, archive, or the like.
FLOW OF GOODS
Households- Supply resources, land labor and capital. Demand- goods and servicesBusinesses- Demand resources Supply- goods and resourcesGovernment- Define and protect private property.
Cell membrane targets
polymyxins-most come from Bacillus sp.
DNA synthesis is what direction in PROKARYOTES
bidirectional
define exotoxin
proteins, secreted from the bacterial cell; they bind to certain body sites and cause damage (symptom);
WHICH STAGE OF GLUCOSE OXIDATION PRODUCES THE MOST ATP
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
Degerming
removal of microbes from a limited area of skin( alcohol /betadine)
- in innate responses, produced by macrophages and NK cells
cytokines
The nuclear membrane is characteristic of what type of cell?
The eukaryotic cell
TOXIN
ANY POISONOUS SUBSTANCE PRODUCED BY A MICROORGANISM
NAMEare antiviral drugs and antumor that replace bases during replication by substituation
Nucleoside analogs
Nonspecific immunity includes
those defenses against pathogens, etc., that are not specific to each pathogen including such things as physical barriers, chemical barriers, some cellular defenses, inflammation, fever, and molecular defenses
detection of nitrate
-broth contains only NO2-
-nitrate detected by diphenylamine reagent to form blue/black color
-make sure all nitrite is removed!
Cartel
A group of firms acting in unison. (collusion)
profit occurs
when ______ in a competitive market, indicates consumers value goods more than the resources used to make it. EX i value my car more than things used to make it
Listerosis and Tetanus are type of what infection
Nervous system
primary metabolites
known function = biproducts that are made and can be used for later chemical functions
Prokary vs Eukary
Prokary are smaller (1-2 molecular chronometers in length) than eukary (>20 molecular chronometers)
nongonococcal urethritis
Any inflammation of the urethra not caused by neisseria gonorrhoeae (STD pathogen)
-presents with urethral itching, dysuria, mucoid urethral discharge
- causes: E coli, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium; no cell wall, aerobic bacillus
Staphylococcal skin infections
-S. aureus most common-causes boils, abscesses and postop wound infections-acquired by self-inoculation or person to person-
Does the growtn of microbes in cell size?
No
Incubation period 2 to 6 weeks, followed by abrupt onset of fever (>38.5°C), severe headache, malaise, myalgias. Unlike other rickettsial diseases, rash is absent. include atypical pneumonia and hepatitis.
Coxiella burnetii
Is there fever due to S. aureus enterotoxin induced diarrhea?
NO
Type of immunity that is present at birth, non-specific, always present - 1st line of defense
innate
Firm Exits
If the revenue it would get from producing is less than its total costs.
actual incidence
actual amount of tax paid by consumer & producer.
what is a codon (cobra)
triblet of nucleic acid bases
 
head tail and body of cobra
gram +
most cocci are gram +, most endospore forming bacteria are gram + (clostridium and bacillus)
 



A bacteriophage is a type of virus that 
replicates within bacteria
PBP2a (famously seen in _) exhibits reduced affinity for _ _
MRSAall beta lactams
ALLOGRAFT
A TISSUE GRAFT THAT IS NOT FROM A GENETICALLY IDENTICAL DONOR (I.E., NOT FROM SELF OR AN IDENTICAL TWIN)
MEASLES
- Koplik's spots on the lips and cheek appear- causes measles encephalitis and subacute schlerosing panecephalities- includes in the MMR vaccine
this is the indicator in the bile esculin test
ferric citrate
cross-price elasticity of demand
-  measures how the quantity demanded of one good responds to a change in the price of another good
 
-  positive for substitutes
-  negative for complements
Plasmid borne drug resistance
a single plasmid may carry the resistance gene for many products.
plasmids are scattered all throughout the cytoplasm
much more worrysome
Yersinia: Pathogens include:
Y.  pestis
Y. enterocolita
Gram Negative Bacteria

(flea borne bubonic plague and airborne pneumonic plague),

(yersiniosis gastroenteritis transmitted by meat and milk).
Streptomycin/tetracycline sensitive.
Viral Attachment Proteins (VAP)
- peplomers of envelope or capsid attaches a virus to bacterial pellicle of tooth
(1) may be the 1st vaccine to fight against HIV
subunit vaccanines
What multiple regression analysis does?
Estimates the relationship between a single\ndependent variable and multiple independent variables
Inequality of Income Distribution
Richest 20% families earn 10X as much as the 20% smallest.
describe three ways that a fever helps overcome disease
a.Higher temperatures inactivate enzymes and toxins of the infectious agentb. It incrreases host metabolism increasing the activity of protective mechanismsc.It causes the individual to feel ill, and wanting rest that prevents damage.
all of the above
which of the following are the most likely cause of percutaneous exposures in HCW?- recapping needles- improper syringe disposal- unexpected patient movement- all of the above
Give an example of ammonification
Urea is converted by bacteria Proteus Vulgaris into ammonia during urea hydrolysis
Inelastic Demand
% Change in QD / % Change in Price Increase in Revenue)
Summary of Dna Replication at the fork
enzymes unwind the parental double helix, proteins stabilize the unwound parental DNA, the leading strand is ynthesized continously by dna polymerase, the laggin strand is synthesized discountinously. and rna polymerase synthesizes sshort rna primer, which is then extended by dna polymerase and dna polymerase digest RNA primer and replace it with dna, dna ligase joins the discontinous fragments of laggin strand.
true or false: diphtheria is a non-sporeforming bacilli
true it is a non-sporeforming bacilli
Rho proteins - what do they do? what bacteria acts on them? in what way?
regulates actin polymerization, and thus cytoskeletal integrity. C. deficille has 2 toxins - A and B (10x more potent) - that glycosylate and thus inactivate Rho
Give the life cycle of both leishmania tropica and donovani.
The sand fly bites and injects parasites with flagella into bloodstream. They lose their flagella when they enter macrophages. They multiply within the flagella, and depending on the parasite cause different diseases. Leishmania Tropica infects macrophages localized in the capillaries of the skin causing boils: Oriental Sore Leishmania Donovani causes black fever by infecting macrophages of the liver or spleen.
4 phases of typical growth curve for population of cells grown in closed systems
lag phase- time b/w culture is inoculated and when growth begins
expoential phase- phase are typically in healthiest state
stationary phase- growth rate of population is zero, someetimes some die while others are growing static
death phase
What does staph aureus look like on blood agar?
Yellow ("gold"); with a clear zone around them (B-hemolytic)
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Term:
Definition:
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