Microbiology - Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Canis Familiaris
microbial contamination
Prevent phagocytosis-Streptococcus pneumoniae-Haemophilus influenzae-Bacillus anthracis
Tobacco mosaic virus
Bordetella pertussis
G- coccobacillus
Causes "whooping cough" (pertussis)
Attaches to and multiplies in ciliated tracheal cells but don't invade deeper
Major cause of death worldwise
Facultative Anaerobic (Gram-negative); AKA: bacterial dysentery
nuisance bug, iron sheaths
death phase
begins to die
Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay
Serratia marcescens
Name the pigment-producing bacteria:
red pigment
Enterobius vermicularis
What species are pinworms?
resistant, dormant resting structure to protect microbe from adverse conditions.
Active Site
The enzyme's functional site.
Pott’s disease
TB of the spine
Controlled by brain. Macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Adenisine triphosphate, the cell's energy storage chemical.
structural organic molecules, energy source-chemotrophs use organic carbon sources-autotrophs use CO2
O blood is universal (donor/acceptor)
Taenia solium
Name the helminth/worm:
-Ingestion of larvae encysted in undercooked pork -> intestinal tapeworms
-Ingestion of the eggs causes cysticercosis & neurocysticercosis
Tx = Praziquantel (-bendazoles for neurocysticercosis)
Give 4 examples of immunodeficiency.
T-cell depletion (HIV, transplant)
CC 3-5
An enzyme that destroys hydrogen peroxide.
mode of action: 
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Capsules (glycocalyx)
resists phagocytosisA major virulence factor
aerobic - require abundant O2anaerobic - must have O2-free environment (Clostridium example) some use molecules instead of O2make H2S instead of H2Oothers make methane (swamp gas)facultative - grow in presence or absence of oxygenmany strep, staph, intestinal rods, Bacillus, E. colimicroaerophilic - prefer a little O2 examples cause disease of oral cavity, urinary tract, and GI tract
contains protein and non protein molecules
a apoenzyme and 1 or more cofactors which can be organic or inorganic
macronutrient required by cell to make enzymes, some of which are involved in protein synthesis
Yersinia pestis
Bubonic plague, systemic infection. Reservoir: Rodents, rats. Vector: Fleas.
What organism causes Legionnaire's disease?
Legionella pneumophila
What is plasmodium caused by?
Anopheles mosquito
removal of pathogens from living tissue
Enterohemorrhagic E. coliEHEC
-Pili colonization-Secretes Shiga-like toxin (inhibits protein synthesis of 60S ribosome, results in epithelial cell death)-Diarrhea is bloody with severe abd. cramping-Also causes HUS
How do plasmids transfer information in genetic engineering?
when bacteria liberate toxins and the toxins enter the bloodstream causing an infection
acute bacterial endocarditis
usually Staphylococcus aureus in originstrikes rapidlycan infect/destroy normal or abnormal heart valves quicklydeath in a few days or weeks if untreatedmore common among elderly, IV drug users
The inflammatory response seen in a pneumococcal infection is due to ________ and _______.
acute infectious disease with triad of fever, pharyngitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy - lasts 1-4 weeks*kissing disease
The use of microbes or their products in the commercial or industrial realm.
sugar polymers
we can only digest alpha-linkage, other animals can digest beta though
different links =different functions and uses
Molecular Biology
Study of genome sequencing and evolutionary relationships.
4 informational macromolecules  (containing information?)
1. dna
3. proteins
4.nucleic acids
Carriers of animal reservoirs may be able to transmit to humans. T or F?
Restriction enzyme
Protect a bacterial cell by hydrolyzing phage DNA
Proteins made by cells that affect the behaviour of other cells.
use: additive to ointments used to prevent infections in burn patients
Gram negative cocci identification:

-all positive for what test?
-what are the 4 species?
-differentiate between them by what test?
-gonococcus needs which special media (not blood agar)?
Gram negative cocci identification:

-all oxidase +

1. N. gonnorhoeae
2. N. meningitidis
3. N. lactamica
4. Moraxella/Barnhamella catarrhalis

-differentiate by CTA sugar test with glu, mal, lac, suc. What pattern for each species?

-gonococcus needs Thayer Martin
Gram negative cocci identification:

-all positive for what test?
-what are the 4 species?
-differentiate between them by what test?
-gonococcus needs which special media (not blood agar)?
CTA test (G,M,L,S)

1. N. gonnorhoeae (G)
2. N. meningitidis (GM)
3. N. lactamica (GML)
4. M/B. catarrhalis (all negative, but DNAase +)
rocky mountain spotted fever is transmitted via?
dermacentor tick
Who came up with the five kingdoms?
opportunistic pathogens
–Cause disease when host defense is compromised –May cause disease if introduced into tissues they do not usually colonize –Do not have well-developed virulence factors
ability to establish a focus of infection in the host
What is a self replicating extra-chromosomal piece of DNA?
a plasmid
plant pathogens that can cause serious economic problems. They do not have a protein coat and cannot produce proteins
preventing malaria in travelers
reduce exposure to mosquitos
insect repellent (DEET)
bednets insecticide treated
cover skin

chemoprophylaxis with antimalarial
choice of drug mostly on itinerary
there are chloroquine sensitive and resistant areas
GAS makes a capsule made of _______________.
hyaluronic acid26a-3
Elementary Bodies
Which stage of chlamydia spreads the infection?
Treatment for tetanus in an unimmunized individual is?
tetanus immune globulin
Lipid biosynthesis
anabolic reaction for the formation of lipids, usually uses precursors of glycolysis
An inanimate object that serves as a reservoir for a pathogen
Hemolytic Urecemic Diarrhea
The diarrhea that causes hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure.
Who came up with the current system of classification?
Who is credited with the introduction of hand washing in hospitals?;
Ignaz Semmelweiss
industrial microbiology
to make things on a large scale
T or F attachment proteins project out from the capsid and bind the virus to host cells
1. Resistance plasmids
- Confer resistance to antibiotics, and various other inhibitors of growth
- R100 plasmid of enteric bacteria
- Carries resistance-genes for a number of antibiotics and heavy metals
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissue
Bugs w/ positive quelling rxn
strep.pneumoniae, H.influenza (esp serotype B), Neisseria miningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae (The capsule on these bugs is antiphagocytic)
a special medium to promote growth of organism
What type of fungi was originally thought to be a protist that caused Pneumocystis pneumonia?
P. jirovecii
What type of chromosomes can prokaryotes have?
circular and linear
Imipenem/ Cilastatin, Meropenem
MOA:  Imipenem is a broad-spectrum, B lactamase resistant carbapenem.  always given with cilastatin (inhibitor of renal dihydropeptidase I) to decrease inactivation in renal tubules
Use:  Gram positive cocci, gram negative rods, and anaerobes.  Drug of choice for Enterobacter. Limit use to life threatening infections b/c of significant side effects. Meropenem has reduced risk of seizures and is stable to dihydropeptidase I
Toxicity:  GI distress, skin rash, and CNS toxicity (seizures) at high plasma levels.
Name three factors that affect dissemination of a virus.
Portal of entry.Host immunity.Cell-specific virus receptors.12-4
mening occuring mostly in children age 6mos - 4yrsprevented by Hib vaccine(normal throat microbiota, Ag type B)
H. influenzae Meningitis
Teichoic acids
part of the peptidoglycan of gram + bacterial cell walls, which may be linked to proteins and help anchor cell to surface or membrane to wall
Local Infection
one that is confined to one site without spreading
What is a MTB granuloma?
Central region of macrophages, extracellular bacilli, and dead phhage. Surrounded by newly recruited activated macrophages and T cells. Eventually gets a fibrin coat and is called a TUBERCLE (which can calcify).
What does transformation require?
Must be sufficient homology between foreign and host dna for recombination event to incorporate foreign dna into host chromosome
What is a called when a membrane allows passage to some molecules?
Selective permeability
T or F enevlopes are usually of host cell origin; but the virus does incorporate proteins of its own, often appearing as glycoprotein spikes
4. Virulence plasmids
- Code for proteins involved in pathogenesis
Examples of RNA Viruses?
Reo Viruses- Diahhrea.
Picorna Viruses- Polio.
Rhinoviruses- Cold.
Togaviruses- yellow fever, german measles. Rhabdoviruses-Rabies.
Tetroviruses-Leukemia, Aids.
* Mimi example of both Rna and Dna
Lederberg and Tatum
discovered that DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another
Why are shigella important?
Bacteria that are responsible for bacillary dysentery
What are special segments of DNA that move spontaneously from gene to gene?
transposable elements
Process of secondary Ab response
memory B cells undergo rapid reactivation and differentiation into Ag secreting cells upon Ag contact
predominantly IgG response

in vivo evolution of Ag specific memory B cells
natural exposure
mimicry of exposure (polysac injection)
booster vaccine injection

Kinetics of IgG response: rapid (day 2-7) with strong increase in serum IgG
What diseases are caused by histotoxic claustridia. (There are six)?
Gas gangrene (Clostridial myonecrosis). Anaerobic cellulitis. Simple wound infection. Organ infections. Septiciemia/bacteremia, C perfringens type A food poisoning.3-9
Heat-labile enterotoxin CJT
What causes the symptoms related to C. Jejuni?
Organisms can be classified into these two groups based on their source of carbon:
autotrophs: inorganic Cheterotrophs: organic C
What is a vaccine
a suspension of bacteria or viruses that have been weakened or killed to produce immunity.
what is the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell made up of?
-phospholipids and proteins-phospholipid bilayer-embedded proteins
Where is the metabolic machinery of the cell located?
On the plasma membrane
What are the diseases caused by Neisseria meningitidis?
meningitis, meningococcemia alone, Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome, pneumonia (uncommon)
what do ciliophora use their cilia for?
movement and gathering food
Latent viral infection
the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell
What do antimyobacterial antibiotics do?
Inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacteria
3 alkylating agents and mode of action
Formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, ethylene oxide. The groups add to microbial proteins protein-SH+HCHO and convert it to protein-S-CHO. Reaction is irreversible.
Name the 4 anti-viral actions of cytokine (interferon) and cytokine inducer (imiquimod).
Induce viral mRNA degradationInhibit viral protein synthesisEnhance CTL activityEnhance NK cell activity13-5
What are the uses of the light, brightfield microscope? (3)
-Live specimens (unstained)-stained (dead) specimens-bacteria, protozoa, fungus, multicellular animal parasites eggs
What is the stucture of an enzyme?
Mostly protein w/  primary, secondary, tertiary and quaterney levels of molecular complexity
Name some laboratory tests used to confirm acute rheumatic fever
1. Antibody tests
-detect preceding Strep infection
-ASO, Anti-DNAse B, etc
-need 4x increase in Ab titer
2. Isolation of Group A strep
3. Acute phase reactants
-ESR, C-reactive protein
-nonspecific markers of inflammation
-aspiring, corticosteroid use screw up levels
What are some important proteins found in the outer membrane of Gram- bacteria?
nutrient binding proteins (NBPs), porins, adhesinons/evasions, lipoprotein
what symptoms would you expect if you had received Mycobacterium tuberculosis while talking close with someone who had it? (respiratory droplets)
chronic fever
chronic cough
weight loss
night sweats
rusty sputum
caseous necrosis
Q: In Kala-azar, what is infected?
A: Macrophages (immune cells) are infected which in turn carry it to the spleen, liver, and bon marrow.
What are the 2 types of artifical competence?
chemical competence and electro-competence
What are the virulence factors of S. pyogenes?
Cell wall: M proteinlipotechoic acidHyaluronic acid capsuleC5a peptidaseExotoxins:HemolysinsStreptokinaseHyluronidaseErythrogenic toxins
They are very similar--difference is in the site of lesions but either can occur at all sites
What is the difference between HSV-1 and HSV-2?
When Normal Flora set up______ they are competing for___ and ___ on the ___ of our body.
microbial antagonism, space, food , surfaces
Name some features of the bacteria genome.
1. single circular DNA chromosome
2. about 2-5 thousand genes
3. genes clustered according to biochem fxn and transcribed as a unit (form operon)
4. little non-coding DNA
5. introns are absent
What are the opportunistic pathogens among Enterobacteriaceae?
Proteus, (can be E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae)
what allows bacteria to have a high metabolic rate?
high surface to volume ratio
Operators are located where relative to gene?
150 bp ahead of the 5' end.
What are the 5 desirable pharmacologic properties of an ideal antibacterial drug?
Stable in acid, soluble in water, diffuses across membranes, slow excretion, selective (large therapeutic index) 4-2
List the domains and kingdoms of the Whittaker System
2 domains - eukaryotes and prokaryotes; 5 kingdoms - animals, monera, protists, fungi, and plants
Give the cause function and examples of type I alergy's
Caused by IgE antibodies, common hay fever, pollin, can cause anaphylactic shock
• The effect of mutations on proteins depends on
type of mutation and position of mutation
What is the role of viruses in the development of cancer?
Some viruses carry oncogenes whose products cause transformation of host cells into cancer cells or a viral genome may be inserted into chromosome and override the cell’s growth controls.
When new virons are released they will...
infect cells with anti virus but will not synthesize
Animal Viruses: type of nucleic acid and its arrangement?
animal viruses: DNA or RNA; single or double stranded; linear or segmented
T/F A syphilis outbreak in the early 90s occurred that was associated with poverty, crack, HIV, minority background, and homosexuality.
F. It was seen in heterosexuals, but all of the other characteristics are accurate. 16-10
Know examples of how and why food spoils.
Moist food will spoil because of its water content, unrefrigerated food spoils because it requires a cool temperature, and meat will spoil because its physical structure allows microbes inside.
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