Microbiology 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Metronidazole
amoebicide
Cocci
Sphere shaped
Ionizing irradiation
Sterilization
staphylococci, micrococci
irregular clusters
Anabena
Heterocysts protect nitrogenase
macrolides
antibioticinhibit protein synthesisgram- bacteria
motile feeding stage
trophozoite
Basidiomycota life cycle
Basidiospores
- sense carries what?
RDRP
Antagonism
Cytokines inhibit each other
Hypotonic
low outside solute/salt concentration
Psychrotrophs

•Psychrotrophs = facultative psychrophiles

–Can grow at 0-7 oC

–Optimum: 20-30 oC

–Food spoilage organisms
Single Spirillum
Thin rigid spirals
Causative agent of cholera
scotobacteria
what are helminths?
intestinal worms
Rich medium
chemically not definedusually contains some sort of extract produced from extract of animal, plant or yeast
Enzyme repression??
typically regulates anabolism. When tryp is available, the aa binding activates repressor proteins, which then binds to the promoter and represses tryp synthesis (which is usually a product).
capnophiles
carbon-dioxide loving organisms that thrive under conditions of low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations
T cells
Modified in thymus gland   
parenteral
beyond intestine = bypass gastrointestinal tractinjection into vein (intravenous)injection in muscle (intramuscular)apply to skin surface (topical)injection beneath skin (subcutaneous) or body cavity (e.g. intraperitoneal)
viscid
sticky, viscous, gluey, gelatinousworm of cells
Vaccine
biological preparation that improves immunity to a certain disease
Eukaryotes
“true Nucleus“ (Algae, Fungi: Yeast & Mushrooms, & Protozoans: Disease causing Amoeba).Have Nuclei/Nucleus & Organelles.Single & Multi-cellular cell.Only some Eukaryotes are microorganisms!
Endospores
High-tech survival structures produced in response to decrease nutrients. Produced inside cell to withstand heat, drying, freezing, and chemicals. Contains genetic material. Lasts forever.
leukocidins
protein that kills leukocytes (WBC's)
Accessory Organs
Diaphragm, intercostal muscles, sternum, and ribs
disinfection
the destruction of vegetative pathogens on non-living objects (fomites) and surfaces
Listeria
-make lactic acid-plagues food industry (listeriosis)-largest meat recall in '93-likes fridge-80-85% spontaneous abortion--crosses placental barrier
Name an enveloped helical virus:
Influenza virus
which kind of transmission involves development?
biological
Where is Valley Fever contracted?
Southwest US
CD14 stimulates...
Transcriptional activation via NFkB and AP-1
Y Chromosome
(normally) Determines Sex of Fetus
Agglutination
crosslinking of large aggregates due to bivalency of antibody molecules; contains them; more attractive for phagocytosis; causes precipitation
Name 3 cationic detergents

Quaternary ammonium compounds
Benzalkonium chloride
Cetylpyridinium chloride
Picrophilus oshimae
-archeon acidophiles-found in soils associated with volcanic activity-pH optimum is 0.7; lyses @ ph 4
Sterilization
 
Heat
definition 
two types commonly used
 
1) Dry Heat:
(a) oven T≥125°C ; 90-180 minutes
    (glassware and heat-resistant plastic)
(b) Flaming pipettes and inoculating loops
 
2) Wet Heat: autoclave (large pressure cooker)
(a) Pressure: 15psi (greater pressure, keep liquid from boiling)
(b) Temp = 121°C; 20-30 minutes
**Drawback: thermolabile components --> must be sterilized separately then added later
Which has a greater invasiveness, strep pyogense or staph?
strep
What type of disease transmission causes primarily respiratory disease
Air
Primitive Eukaryotic cells descend from prokaryotic cells that established mutually beneficial relationships with smaller prokaryotic cells. The E... H..
Endosymbiosis hypothesis
Composition of Agar
Red seaweed, polysaccharides, proteins
discovering and recording traits of organisms for placement into taxenomic schemes
identification
Divisions:produce sexual spores
Basidiomycota ("club fungi")Acomycoa ("sac fungi")ZygomycotaChrysophyta
Cephalosporins
BETA LACTUM ANTIBIOTIC - Broad spectrum, alternative to penicillun
What food is bacillus cereus associated with?
rice
Catalase Test
Enzymes catalase produced by MO reacts with H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) to produce oxygen and water.
The observation is bubbles or none.

Primary differentiation is GM+
cocci (staphylo - pos. & strept-neg.)
bacilli (Bacillus-pos. & Lactobacillus-neg.)
What part of the bacteriophage penetrates the IM?
Tail core/rod
The killing or inhibition of microbial growth on non-living objects (not spores)
Disinfection/disinfectants
Genetic code?
Genetic code is the relationship between each codon and a specific amino acid constitutes the genetic code
Examples of photoautotrophs.
photosynthetic bacteria (green sulfur, purple sulfur, cyanobacteria) and algae
What is a major nonclassical gene present in CI region?
CD1
Family which collectins belong to
C-type/Ca-dependent animal lectin
Chromosome 6
"Chromosome 6 contains the 'holy grail' of immunology, the MHC"
If this delicate balance is disturbed it can result in autoimmune disease such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. 
True/*False
Similarities in 16s RNA sequences make a lot of practical sense in understanding what bacteria do in the world
Chemoautotroph
an organism that relies upon inorganic chemicals for its energy and carbon dioxide for its carbon
best type of microscope to determine 3-dimensional localization of a specific flagellar protein component
confocal
Cholera
No diarrhea can compare with the extensive diarrhea associated with
Viremium
the presence of viruses in the blood
What causes toxic shock syndrom?
staph aureus toxemias
vector
a living agent that transfers a pathogen
missense mutation
base substitution that causes a different amino acid to be made
oxidation
involves the removal of an electron(s) from a substance
 
LEO
 
the electron donor
Memory cells
Make for quicker reproduction of antibodies in the event of a repeat infection
this method of control destroys all microbes
sterilization
Differential Stain
-divides bacteria based on different staining properties-gram-positive and gram-negative (differences in cell wall)-pos:purple-neg:pink
species
the most specific level in the taxonomic hierarchy.
inoculum
the microbes that are introduced into a culture medium to initiate growth
How is leptospirosis spread?
comes from animals (zoonotic)
Physiology of Chloroflexus
-resemble purple nonsulfur in photoautotrophy-grows well in dark by aerobic respiration as chemootrangotroph-hydroxyproponate pathway
Once a number of structures have come in contact with the host, is known as
penetration
Where is HBV and HDV found?
Semen and blood
Which domains are ester-linked (lipids)?
 
Ether-linked?
Ester- bacteria and eukaryotes
 
Ether- archaea
When do the first symptoms of enteroviruses appear
Day 3
Max PMN lifespan/average
10 hours max, 7 hours average
What are allogeneic grafts?
Between two genetically differenty inbred animals
Differentiate between inactivated, attenuated and subunit vaccines.
-Inactivated viruses: "killed" virus by heat or chemical
-Attenuated viruses: "weakened" virus
-Viral subunits: protein molecules produced by genetic engineering.
Recombination of V-J-D Sequences
▪ occurs during B cell development▪ genomic DNA of an individual B cell is randomly "cut and pasted" to give rise to a unique combination of gene sequences
Rocky mountain spotted fever
Systemic infection (through whole system, doesn't go through skin)fever = systemic
membranous
a thin layer of cells across the entire surface of the broth
In bacteria, a single promotor is usually followed by what?
Several genes
What are the symtpoms of limes disease?
flu-like, rash
dna fingerprinting
use of the techniques of genetic engineering to determine the origin of dna in a sample of tissue
What's the pathophysiological response to secondary peritonitis
1.  Local inflammation
2.  Outpouring of fluids
3.  High protein
4.  Large number of WBC cells 
colonize
to inhabit or invade a host and multipy; necessary to cause disease
Dark field microscope
blocks all direct light. specimen bright-dark background. easy to see unstained samples.
effective inflammatory response
isloates and limits tissue damage, destroying damaged cells and pathogens
prokaryote
a cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope.
How do you treat polio?
iron lung (life support)
What is useful for trying to isolate campylobacter jejuni from stool culture?
Microaerophlic
The capsid of a virus is made of
protein
What do surfactants do?
change membrane permeability in order to kill bacteria
Describe gaseous sterilants(ethylene oxide)
-Denatures proteins and blocks DNA replication
- Industrial and hospital sterilization of instruments
What did Pasteur discover?
-found that avirulent bacteria could be used as a vaccine for fowl cholera, coined the term Vaccine-developed rabies vaccine-disproved spontaneous generation theory with his special flask
How do you treat Parainfluenzae, RSV & rhinovirus?
Supportive
Reduce fever
Anti-histamines 
Anti-inflammatory 
Determination of release from BM
Deformability, receptors (respond to cytokines to allow release), membrane charge and blood flow
Papain cleaves where?
Above S-S bonds in Ig molecule (generates Fc and 2x Fab)
Substitutions (point mutations)
▪ Silent = no change in amino acid▪ Missense = encode different amino acid▪ Nonsense = creates a stop codon
How do peptidoglycan subunits connect?
Through peptide crosslinkages; some use peptide interbridge
In order to cause infection and disease, pathogens must make it to the correct what?
Portal of entry
The Pattern of Microbial Death

•microorganisms are not killed instantly

•(Like growth) population death usually occurs exponentially (population will be reduced by the same fraction at constant intervals).

•microorganisms are considered to be dead when they are unable to reproduce in conditions that normally support their reproduction
The immune complexes that form from endocarditis are
1.  Arthritis
2.  Glomerulonephritis 
3.  Vascultis:  petechaie, roth spots
4.  Rheumatoid factor 
Two types of heat method: m.. and d..
moist, dry
Acidic
Oranges have a pH of 5. A scientist isolates several types of bacteria that cause spoilage of orange juice concentrates. Which growth condition would be most appropriate to maintain these bacteria in culture?
Symptoms of C. trachmatis (L1-L3)
Women:
1.  Vaginal discharge
2.  RUQ ab. pain
3.  No organism on gram stain 
psychotrophs
-can grow at 0C but optimum temp = 20-30 C, not above 40- more common than psychrophiles- cause low temp (fridge) food spoilage
WHat is the virulence of staphtococcal food poisoning?
enterotoxin (5 kinds)
Viruses as part of the normal flora
persistent infections
mostly asymptomatic
not strict pathogens - often opportunists
How do you detect bacterial meningitis?
Graim stain/culture of spinal tap
Structurally, bacterial cells consist of...
1. cell membrane, usually surrounded by a wall and sometimes additional outer layer2. internal cytoplasm w/ribosomes, a nuclear region, and sometimes granules and/or vesicles3. variety of external structures, such as capsules, flagella and pili
What are isogeneic grafts?
From one animal to itself (not rejected)
What happens when allergic/parasitic defense cells are activated through FcR's?
Release of histamine, proteases, toxic proteins, etc.
What is the DOC for uncomplicated UTI
Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim)
what would be the best choice of media to use for culturing a microbe with unknown nutritional requirements?
complex
NOT defined
how is Trichuriasis transmitted?
by ingesting the undercooked flesh of a contaminated host.
Name the organism that cause URT infections
1.  Rhinovirus
2.  Parainflu
3.  RSV
4.  Adenovirus
5.  Coronavirus
6.  Influenzae 
Drying, aka d..
 
water is r.. for most c..r.. in microbes
 
f... d... also known as lyophilization
desiccation
required, chemical reactions
 
in this stage of the growth curve the graph is flat with a period of adjustment and little growth
lag phase
Where is trachoma most common?
north africa, appalachia, and Howwith native americans
What are the types of tapeworm?
taenia solium, taenia saginata, diphyllobothrium latum
Describe the different flagellum arrangements on bacteria
1. atrichous - no flagellum2. monotrichous-one flagellum one end3. amphitrichous-one flagellum bothends4. lophotrichous-multiple flagellum at one or both ends5. peritrichous - multiple flagellum all around organism
How do we control the spread of disease?
education, immunizations, quarantine, surveillance, vector control
Describe the nuclear region and how this differs in eukaryotes.
-contains circular chromosomes which vary in #-also contain plasmidsDiffer in that euk. have membrane-bound nucleus which is much more complex, paired chromosomes, eukaryotes do not have plasmids
what the 5 most common pediatric disease w/ a rash
1.  Measles
2.  Rubella
3.  Scarlet fever
4.  Roseola (HHV6)
Erythema infectiosum (Parvovirus B19) 
What does the invariant chain do?
Promote assembly/proper folding of a/b CII dimer, prevents CII molecules from binding peptides in ER, targets the full structure to endocytic compartments
Describe the two methods of pasteurization.

Batch (holding) stir milk
Old temp: 61.7 C for 30 mins
killed mycobacterium bovis (TB) but not Coxiella burnetti

New temp: 62.9 C for 30 mins

Flash
71.6 C for 15 secs
What composes the Primosome complex?
DNA G (Primase) and DNA B (Helicase)
The Physical exam for bacterial pneumonia looks like?
1.  They look awful
2.  Rapid breathing
3.  Anatomically confined 
What are responsible for activating the immune response in humans?
toll like receptors and NOD receptors
How do you prevent german measles?
rubella vaccine (MMR) - live attenuated strains of virus
What type of gram stain is vibria cholerae?
gram negative curved rod
Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) agar
Prepared on slant - inoculated by streaking and then stabbing.
Contains glucose, lactose, sucrose, ferrous sulfate, phenol red and nutrient agar.


Differentiates sugar fermentation. 
Yellow is acid, Red is alkaline. 

R/Y - Ferments glucose only.
Glucose is consumed and amino acids acids are used for energy which oxidize change pH.
Y/Y - Ferments glucose, lactose, and/or sucrose
R/R - does not ferment any sugar (double
List to protein complexes in mitochondria and indicate which are pumps?
-The protein complexes are as follow:
1. Complex I 
2. Complex II 
3. Coenzyme Q 
4. Complex III 
5. Cytochrome C 
6. Complex IV 
-Complexes I, III, and IV are pumps
There are 4 stages to a rabies infection, name them
1.  Parplegia stage
2.  Encephalitis period 
3.  Furious stage
4.  Paralytic stage 
Where does HSV1 hide out in?  How about HSV2
Trigeminal ganglia & Sacral ganglia
What is the PA used for?
-protective antigen can be used for vaccines.-vaccine removes PA from the ATR -no PA = no bridge into cell-toxins can't get into cell
How do you diagnose necrotizing facitis?
culture on blood agar (beta hemolytic group a), immunological assays for toxin (to verify presence of toxin)
How do you make wine?
juice- white wine the seeds and skin is taken out
this is the must and is pasteurized
it ferments for 3-5 days at 20-28* C final product contains 10-18% EtOH
Sediments removed by racking
 
What is the gram stain of streptococcus pneumoniae?
gram positive cocci in pairs (diplococci) - THIS IS DIAGNOSTIC because there are no other gram + diplococci that cause meningitis
How do you diagnose candiditis?
germ tube test: determines if it is caused by candida albicans (positive test the head and tail are connectted)
Describe the role of Ribosomal RNA in transcription.
Ribosomal RNA (pg 185 direct verbatim)– this binds closely to certain proteins to form two kinds of ribsomoe subunits. A subunit of each kind combines to form a ribosome. Recall that ribosomes are sites of protein synthesis in a cell. They serve as binding sites for transfer RNA and some of their proteins act as enzymes that control protein synthesis. Prokaryotic ribosomes are made of a small (30S) and a large (50S) subunit (Eukaryotic ribosomes are formed from a 40S and a 60S subunit).) After the two subunits join together around the strand of mRNA, the synthesis of a peptide beings. The newly formed polypeptide chain grows out through a tunnel in the 50S subunit.
How is the membrane attack complex formed?
C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a/b, C5b binds C6 and C7 and this complex inserts into membrane, C8 binds complex and inserts further into membrane, C8 induces polymerization of C9 monomers and formation of lytic tunnels (causes osmotic shock)
Out of C, O, Fe, and N, what is not a major constituent of cells?
Fe, iron
What is the vaccine given for Streptococcus pneumoniae?
New conjugate vaccine for children 2 mos to 2 years.
Prevents Otitis media
What toxin does V. chloerae carry and it's effects
AB toxin
A.  ADP ribosylates
1.  Increase cAMP
2.  Increase Cl- in the lumen
3.  Less Na+ is absorbed
4.  Water in the lumen (dirrhea)
B.:  binds to ganglioside GM1 on epithelial cells in the small intestine 
What are the two types of mold hyphae?

Vegatative - grow along the surface

Reproductive (Aerial) - originate from vegatative hyphae and produce asexual spores.
Describe the parts of viral particle and their purpose:
         1) Genome
         2) Capsid
         3) Envelope
         4) virion
1) Genome: genetic material in a cell or virus. Nucleic acid that it has. RNA or DNA (never both) single/double, circular/linear
2) Capsid: (protein coat) repeating proteing subunits (copsomeres) protection and attachment
3)envelope:made up of ophospholipid bilayer. Membrane surrounding the viral cpaid.
4)Virion: a virus outside of a cell, consisting of a proteinaceous capsid surrounding a nucleic acid core.
How are the Variable regions of the TCR alpha/beta chains produced? what does this mean?
gene rearrangement; each mature T cell expresses it own alpha/beta region that can ecognize one or a small number of peptides
What is a carbohydrate? What are the 3 main functions of carbohydrates?
-organic compounds composed of C,H, and O with a distinct 2:1 ratio of H:O. Includes sugars and starches1. food reserves2. cell structures/membranes3. energy storage, fuel cells
How many signals do T cells require to undergo full activation? When does each happen?
2; signal 1: occurs upon TCR stimulation, signal 2: occurs upon costimulatory receptor activation
What are teichoic acids? What type of bacteria have them? What are the 4 functions?
-acid in the cell walls of gm(+) bact. made of primarily an alcohol and phosphate.1. gives structure to cell wall2. (-) charged so attracts cationinc(+) particles such as dyes, Na,K,Ca. moves these to membrane where they can be absorbed by the cell3. allows for extracellular 'storage' of phosphate4. allows for some breakage of cell wall to allow for expansion during growth
tome, tomy
cutting
GABA and glycine
inhibitory
Bacteriodes-related diseases
Bacteriodes fragilis
Resevoirs
•Humans- symptomatic; asymptomatic carriers •Non-human animals –Zoonosis- disease that exists primarily in animals but can be transmitted to humans •Environmental reservoirs- –Soil- Clostridium tetani –Water- Giardia lambia, Legionella pneumophila
Enveloped or naked: Papovavirus.
Naked.11-6
measure size of ribosomes
Svedbergs
Staphylococal food poisoning
Staphylococcus aureus
Word association:

bipolar staining
Yersinia pestis
toxigenicity
ability to produce toxins
osteomyelitis with Hemodialysis patients
Location: Vertebral osteomyelitisFrequent Isolates: S. aureus and S. epidermidis Oxacillin resistant S. aureus is commonTiming: 12 to 72 months after initiation of hemodialysis
PCR
-uses short oligonucleotid -primers bind complementary sites-requires primer
Proteins
-function
enzymes: speed up chemical reactions
structural role in cells
A newborn girl has
mothers estrogen
Strong Chemical Sterilization.
a)Ethyl Alcohol--strong degermingb)Plasmas--electomagnetic excitation of a gas. Used on instruments used in Arthroscopic or Laproscopic procedures. Uses a vacume.
Transduction
Transfer DNA by a bacteriophage
vancomycin
cell wall,
inhibits D-alanine layer
chemically-unstable molecules
chemical methods of control
Optochin test
Test for S. pneumoniae.
Nystatin
MOA:  binds to ergosterol, disrupting fungal membranes.  Too toxic for systemic use.
Use:  "swish and swallow" for oral candidias (thrush); topical for diaper rash or vaginal candidias
precautions to prevent dissemination of droplet nuclei or dust particles smaller than 5 microns
airborne precautions
Formula for calculating number of generations (n)
n=(log10(Nt/N0))/0.301
types of bonds


Covalent (strong): share electrons--evenly (non-polar) or unevenly (polar)
Ionic (weak): create ions when broken
Hydrogen (weak): strong if abundant
Ligase/Polymerase
Enzymes which join 2 molecules together.
No
Do negative DNA supercoils contribute to hyperthermophily?
Describe actinomycosis
=chronic destructive abscesses in connective tissue
-abscesses expand by burrowing through sinus tracts to skin or internal organs
-can get infections in abdomen, cecum, appendix, lung, chest, face, neck, uterus (IUD)
-pus contains sulfur granules
What is a cluster like bacteria?
Staph
Heterotrophic - all pathogenic bacteria - obtain energy from organic compoundsPhotosynthetic - synthesize own glucose - less apt to be pathogenicAutotrophic - no sunlight, organic compounds - use inorganic compounds (minerals and CO2) - not pathogenic
Aerobic Respiration
name:
G- enteric rods
large, thick polysaccharide capsule

found in: enteric and respiratory tract
MOT: aspiration, UIT fecally

diseases: pneumonia and UTI, sepsis
klebsiella pneumoniae
Examples of DNA Viruses?
Adenovirus-Pinkeye
Papovavirus- Warts, humans/rabbits/dogs
Herpes Virus-Cold sores, genital herpes, mono. Pox- small pox.
Hepads- Hepatitis.
* Mimi example of both Rna and Dna
T/F: Chlamydias and rickettsias are unusual bacteria because they do not have cell walls.
false
Anaerobic
grow only in absence of oxygen
Where does transcription happen?
in the nucleus
Otitis Externa
May be caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Gram Negative
Bacillus, aerobic
Produces both exotoxins and endotoxins
Can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans ; all of these found as normal flora of the skin
This drug is the only effective anti-malarial that is active against exo-erythrocytic forms of P vivax and P ovale that reside in the liver.
Primaquine.10-8
disease that is constantly present in low # in population or country- # of cases incr or decr but never dies out- ex. TB, HIV
endemic
Endotoxin/LPS
Part of cell envelope
Released by cell division/death
Potent induction of cytokine response leading to fever, weakness, aching, shock
synergistic relationship
beneficial to both organisms, but they do not have to be together
 
 
 
 
 
Endotoxins
Example: LPS in gram -
Lipid A= active portion
induce fever, initiate complement cascade
activate B lymphocytes
stimulate production of TNF, IL-1, and prostaglandins
Effects of exposure to LPS include fever, hypotension, shock, and death
Translation
mRNA is translated in codons (3 nucleotides) resulting in a protein with a specific amino acid sequence.Translation of mRNA begins at the start codon: AUGTranslation ends at nonsense codons: UAA, UAG, UGA
Grade B pasteurization
Pasturazation measure of Coxilla burnetii. Contains 1 million microorganisms. Only used in food products.
What type of polymers are complex carbohydrates?
sugar
What is a ribosome?
sites of protein synthesis
Rotavirus- Structure- Genome- Transcription / Replication
Structure: distinctive double-layered icosahedral protein capsidGenome: dsRNA with 11 segmentsTranscription and Replic: virus contains RNA-dependent RNA polymerase neede for transcr of dsRNA --> RNA
What bacteria is often identified using fluorescent antibodies?
Bordetella pertussis
name the organism:
G+
beta-hemolytic
catalase -
lives in vagina
transmitted during birth

causes neonatal meningitis
S. agalactia (Group B streptococci)
Q: Is the cell-mediated immune response strong or weak in lepromatous leprosy?
A: Weak!
Secondary infection
infection caused by a different organism than the one that established the original primary infection
final electron is organic molecule to energy-reduced organic compound
phototrophs
What are Bacterial enzymes that break down fibrin and digest clots formed by the body to isolate an infection?
Kinases
What chemical mutagen alters hydrogen bonding of bases?
alkylating agents
What are pyogenic cocci?
Bacteria that stimulate pus formation
For the following pathogen, name the immune cell that it infects and destroys: EBV.
B cells35-2
What is the window to treat chicken pox with anti-virals and which should you use?
13-7
how much % cases of pharyngitis caused by Strep. pyogenes?*most pharyngitis caused by:
5-10%viruses
Who won the race between Koch and Pasteur of IDing the cause of Anthrax in cattle?
Koch
E. coliChlamydia trachomatis - bacterial STD pathogenMycoplasma genitalium - no cell wall (no gram staining), aerobic bacillusMEC
causes of nongonococcal urethritis
In the alternative path once activation has occurred what will be produced?
mediators and opsonins
1.Synergism VS. 2.Antagonism
1.an interrelationship between two or more free-living organisms that bennifit both, but is not necessary for survival
2.an association between free living species that arises when members of a community compete
  ex. virus?
Describe Staphylococcus saprophyticus
1. gram positive cocci
2. catalase positive
3. coagulase negative
4. facultative anaerobe
5. one of 3 forms of staph that can cause disease in humans
6. Novobiocin resistant
7. Glycerol in Teichoic acid
Fungi
can be fuzzy and white, green or sometimes black*cotton candy like texture
thin flexible structure lying inside the cell wallpermeable to water, carbon dioxide and oxygen peripheral proteins - found on or extending to the surface of the membrane integral proteins - embedded in the layer
Phospholipid molecule layers
what are some characteristics of proteus species (P. vulgaris & P. merabilis)?
gram-negative
enteric rods
facultative anaerobes
highly motile
non-lactose fermenter
produces urease
A boundary structure present in all living cells that defines inside and outside; is also called the cell membrane or plasma membrane.
Cytoplasmic Membrane
Gram negative
bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol
Strains:
genetic variant or subtype of the same species of bacteria isolated from a different location or at a different time. Altered by mutation or genetic exchange
What vaccine is used for tetanus?
Purified tetanus toxoid
Helicobacter pylori
Gram: -
Shape: spiral
Location: water/food contaminated feces
Disease: chronic gastritis/ulcers
Peroxidase
Converts NADH + H2O2 to NAD and O2.
Factors predisposing to infection
neutropenia and defects in phagocytic defenses
defect in cellular immunity
defects in humoral immunity
What are the 4 characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae?
Facultative anaerobesOxidase negativeCan grow on media w/ only glucoseBile resistant21-4
who sets up specific guidelines for procedures based on aseptic technique?
Infection Control Committee
Generation Time
The time required for a cell to divide. This time period varies considerably among organisms and with environmental conditions such as temperature.
What type of plasmid code for enzymes that trigger catabolism of unusual sugars and hydrocarbons?
Dissimilation plasmids
Ultraviolet Light Sterilization
Used to decrease airborne infection. High humidity limits use. Used in empty hospital rooms, nurseries, operation rooms and cafeterias as it takes a long time for it to work.
How man pili are there per cell?
one or two
100 to 400 nm wavelength (longer - lower energy)
Bacteriocidal Wavelength
what bacteria is the most common cause of cholera?
vibrio cholera
C. Diff. toxin mechs
inhibition of protein synthesis and loss of intracellular K+
Superantigens
bind directly to MHC II and T-cell R simultaneously, activating large numbers of T cells to stimulate release of IFN-gamma and IL-2
What does strep pyogenes cause in the cardiovascular system?
Rheumatic fever
What are the four bacteria classified as Deltaproteobacteria?
Bdellovibrio, Desulfovibrionales, Desulfovibrio, and Myxococcales
Testible Hypothesis
Is one for which evidence can be collected to support or refute the hypothisesis.
The 2 most common bacteria that cause otitis media are...
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
CC 3-2
Antigens that happen to come into the body and induce Ab production is what type of immunity?
Naturally acquired: Active
Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates
Carbon atoms which are needed for the synthesis of glucose come from intermediates of glycolysis and krebs cycle
 
With Gastroenteritis, what are the major groups of E. coli that have been recognized?
EPEC - Enteropathogenic
EIEC - Enteroinvasive
EAEC - Enteroaggregative
DAEC - Diffuse aggregative
What are some common features of clinical presentation with anaerobic infection.
1. Mixed infection
-Facultative organisms use up O2 and provide nutrients for anaerobes to thrive
2. Form purulent abscesses
3. Anaerobes tend to cause infections in injuries adjacent to normal habitat
What processes are involved in nutrient cycling?
Nutrient cycling is biogeochemical cycling, it involves both biological and chemical processes, oxidation-reduction reactions, and it involves both aerobic and anaerobi environments.
Why might E. coli induced disease (through ST toin) be worse in children?
infants have more receptors
Strep. Agalactiae is in group A, B or D?
Group B
Toxin Description; C.tetani
(exo) blocks the release to inhibitory n.t.s (GABA and glycine); cuases 'lock jaw'
What is the best way to identify a virus?
Western blotting
Most common isolates of open fracture Osteomyelitis
Organisms from soil (ex. Staphylococcus aureus*)Nosocomial pathogens (ex. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) Normal skin flora ( ex. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus)
Epstein-Barr virus is a:
 
A) DNA virus
B) RNA virus
C) Computer virus
D) All of the above
E) None of the above
F) Some of the above
A. It's a DNA virus.
 
(Syllabus: 19-11)
can also acquire C. diptheria through
wound infections and absorbed toxins causes systemic toxicity
What three structures are present in all cells?
cell membrane, ribosomes, and chromosomes
Ingrediants in Nutrient broth and nutrient agar.
H2O, Peptone...a protient that digest that provides nutrients, Beef Extract(for broth), NaCl to adjust ossmotic pressure, and Agar(for the nutrient agar).
what is an atom?
smallest unit of an element of matter that can enter into a chemical reaction
When do enterococci cause disease?
outside of their normal places (e.g. UTI, endocarditis, abscesses)
Pathogenic bacteria can be: A. motile B. rods C. cocci D. anaerobic E. all of the above
E. all of the above.
Binary Fissionasexual form of reproduction in which one cell splits into two genetically identical
Generation TimeTime needed for a cell to divide, or for a population to double20 min for e.coli
The name of an intact infectious viral particle is this.
What is a virion? 11-3
What are the 3 most common bacteria that cause community acquired pneumonia?
Streptococcus pneumoniae (40% of cases)
Haemophilus influenzae
Moraxella catarrhalis
CC 3-2
In class, two primary functions for T helper cells were described. These are
further activate macrophages and “help” B cells to make antibody
Whoops: what else does shiga toxin do?
1) enterotoxic2) cytotoxic to some cells3) also inhibits PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in eukaryotic cells by CLEAVIN the 28S rRNA in the ribosomes. No evidence for an ADP-ribosylating activity of the toxin)
What does the term cardinal temperatures mean?
1)minimum temp below which it won't grow.2)maximum temp above which it won't grow.3)optimum temp-best growth.
What are the three major anthrax syndromes?
cutaneous (most common), inhaled (most lethal) and gastrointestinal
The presence and multiplication of pathogens in or on the body.
refers to the condition that result when the microorganism causes injury to the host
What is a recombinant vaccine?  Give an example.
genetic material from a pathogen is inserted into a live carrier microbe that is nonpathogenic; Hep B and Pertussis
T or F:
H. influenza can grow on chocolate agar, but not on blood agar.  Why or why not?
True: H. influenza requires two factors that are found in RBCs, therefore they must be lysed in order for growth
20-10
What are the symptoms of gastroenteritis
From mild diarhea to sudden onset of severe diarrhea with nausea, vomiting, and fever
What host protein to S. aureus use to coat itself and prevent phagocytosis?
fibrin (activates prothrombin in calcium-independent manner by binding coagulase)
What makes chlamydia a unique Gram - organism?
-it is an obligate intracellular parasite (needs host's ATP)-No peptidoglycan layer or muramic acid
Which 6 steps may be included in the infectious cycle?
Pathogen entry into the bodyPathogen adherence and colonizationPathogen invasion through epithelium (sometimes)Pathogen evasion of host defensesCell/tissue damageDissemination of pathogen1-6
Name the 3 major pathogenic species of Staphylococcus
1. S. aureus
2. S. epidermidis
3. S. saprophyticus
Q: How do protozoa maintain their shape?
A: Most maintain their shape using the underlying ectoplasm.
When are acidic dyes used for bacteria? Give some examples of acidic dyes.
dyes such as Eosin and India Ink are used to Negatively staining bacteria.
What is the mechanism of action of cholera toxin?
5 B subunits bind to host membrane and make a pore for the A subunit; A subunit ADP ribosylates alpha subunit of Gs, knocking out innate GTPase activity!íAC keeps producing cAMP and Cl- leaves cell followed by Na+ and H2O and a watery, electrolyte diarrhea is formed
/ 269
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online