Microbiology 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mutualism
procaryotes ribosome
70S
Gamma Irradiation
Sterilization
What is adherence?
rotavirus
-Children's diarrhea-reovirus (double-stranded RNA)
aminoglycosides
antibioticinhibit protein synthesisgram- bacteria
plasma like fluid
lymph
"the green algae"
Chlorophyta
 
direct transmission
(horizontal)
 
person to person
Polyomavirus causes
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
dipeptidases
 
in kidneys
break down carbapenem
 
Flagella arrangements
MonotrichousOne polar flagellum

 

Amphitrichous One flagellum at each pole

 

Peritrichous Flagella spread evenly over the whole surface

 

Lophotrichous Cluster of flagella at one or both ends  
Direct ELISA tests for...
Antigen
Members of normal microbiota
salmonellaclostridium
bacteriostatic
agents that inhibit growth
Sarcodina (amebas)
▪ ameba▪ human pathogen = Entamoeba
Varicella-Zoster
Chickenpox...damage to blood vessels, shinglesVaccine:Attenuated virus vaccine protects against chickenpox; Shingles unknownLatent; resides in ganglia (head and neck) which is why it can cause Shingles
How is West nile transmitted
Mosquitos
transposons
migration of DNA "jumping genes"
Beta-lactam group
three-carbon, one-nitrogen ring; interferes with proteins involved in synthesis of cell wall▪ penicillins, Cephalosporins block crosslinking of peptidoglycan cell wallVancomycin, Bacitracin – hinders elongation of peptidoglycanIsoniazid (INH) – works by interfering with mycolic acid synthesis; used to treat infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis; oral doses in combination with other antimicrobials such as rifampin, ethambutol
Diptheria
Lysogenic strains of COrynebacterium diptheriae produce a potent exotoxin that is the cause of:
Microbiology
Study of microorganisms (or microbes)
Alexander Fleming
Discovered the Antibiotic “Penicillin”. Before this discovery infectious disease was treated with heavy metals which caused more illness. Fleming discovered that mold produced penicillin, which kills bacteria.
Hans Christian Gram
Developed gram staining
Variations that imact growth
-pH-temperature-osmolarity-oxygen content-pressure
Asthma
labored breathing, wheezing, chest tightness, inflammation, bronchospasms, airways thickened with exudates
What causes primary pneumonia?
streptococcis pneumoniae
Acidothiobacillus ferroxidans
live by oxidizing iron
Flagella
Three parts:(1) Filament = long slender protein whip-like structure10-20 nm width; may be up to 70 m in length(2) Hook (sheath) = connects filament to basal bodyRight angle-shaped piece(3) Basal body = series of rings anchored into the cell wall
An endemic infectious disease is always present. t or f?
true
Are AHL Gram-Postive, negative, or both?
Negative
Human MHC II molecules
HLA-DR, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ
Aneuploidy
having an abnormal number of chromosomes (too many or too few)
Monosomy : 2n-1
Trisomy : 2n+1
Double Monosomy : 2n-2
Complement fixation
competition between antibodies which may be in patient serum and an anti-RBC control antibody that will bind to RBCs
Incineration: mode of action
protein oxidation
(700-1500 C)
 
At 1000 C: only protein oxidation occurs and all organic material is burned
endoenzymes
enzymes that function and remain within cells-the majority of a cell's enzymes
How many chromosomes can an archaeal/bacterial organism possess?
1
Normal Microbiota
Normal flora are those not-typically-disease-causing microorganisms normally found in and on healthy individuals.
during this transmission of disease can occur using preparation surfaces for different foods
cross-contamination
Fungi and human diseases
 
yeast infection and thrush (AIDS) caused by c.. a...
 
organism that has variability in form is d..
candida albicans
 
dimorphic
 
 
 
 
Virchow
Introduced the idea of biogenesis. Cells arise only from other cells.
optimum temperature greater than 45 degrees C
thermophiles
Viruscontains?
DNA or RNAa protein coat "capsid"
organelles
membrane bound structures in which specialized functions occur
Which is more invasive, salmonella typhe or salmonella enterica?
typhe
Other Gram-Positive Cocci

peptostreptococcus - obligate anaerobes
may average up to 20% of subgingival flora in advanced PDD (peridontal disease)
have been found in odontagenic & soft-tissue absesses


staphylococci-micrococci - found in nearly every mouth in small numbers-facultatives
staphylococcus aureus - numbers low
Steps in Lytic cycle:
1. Absorption/ attachment2. Penetration3. Biosynthesis4. Maturation5. Release
The addition of phosphate to a compound is called:
phoshorylation
Krebs Cycle?
-Pyruvic acid from Glysolysis is broken down to CO2 with production of ATP and reduced coenzymes (NADH and FADH2)-each GLU molecule yields 8 NADH, 2 FADH, 2 ATP and 6 CO2
metabolism
sum of all chemical processes carried out by living organisms-includes anabolism & catabolism
Th effector function
Activate mac's, inflammation, activate T/B cells
List PRR's
Mannose, CD14, TLR's, Scavenger, FMLP, Dectin-1
MN Blood Group
Not usually associated with transfusion reactions
2 alleles: LM = M antigen LN = N antigen
3 genotypes: LM LM– only M antigen (Type M) LN LN – only N antigen (Type N) LM LN – both M and N antigens (Type MN)
Codominance
retrovirus
Class VI-RNA genome (in virus), DNA genome replicative form-DNA is intermediate part of replication cycle
Synthesis (Condensation)
build larger molecules from smaller precursors▪ usually involve condensation (joining reaction releases a water molecule)
Passive transport
 
process by which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration; rate depends on the size of the concentration gradient
pneumococcal pneumonia
A patient has fever, difficulty breathing, chest pains and fluid in the alveoli. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the sputum. The patient most likely has
the vector of malaria
the female Anopheles mosquito
Virology
The study of viruses and viral diseases.
plague
an endemic disease in rodents caused by yersinia pestis that is occaisionally transferred to humans through the bite of a flea
DNA Structure
Sugar: Deoxyribose (Loss of oxygen which increases the stability of the molecule).Base: Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine.Phosphate Double helix, usually double stranded, stable.
biosynthesis
invloves those reactions which use the C skeletons to make subunits of the macromolecules
 
12 key intermediated, ATP, NADPH2 (i.e. the products of fueling) → building blocks
Microbes/Microorganisms
Minute living things that are usually unable to be viewed with the naked eye
type of radiation that causes deep penetration and breaks DNA
ionizing
Deep branching thermophiles
-diverged early from Eukaryotes-grow at very high temps (fastest growing)-Aquifex & Thermotoga: live @ boiling temp-Deinococcus-Thermus: lower temp & radiation resistantVERY RAPID DNA REPAIR
Patholgenesis of Legionella?
1.  inhaled
2.  Engulfed by macrophage
3.  Survives and proliferates in phagosome
4.  Infected macrophages secretes chemattractants
metabolic pathways
sequences of chemical reactions which are determined by enzymes
Aerotolerance test
used to determine the atmospheric requirements of the obligate aerobic bacteria, facultative anaerobic bacteria and obligate anaerobic bacteria
What are the general characteristics of S. aureus?
GM+
Staphylococcus

Adaptable
Wide temp range - high temps
Facultative anaerobe
pH extremes
Metabolically versatile
Viable after air drying
Resistant to antibiotics - MRSA/VRSA
This prevents the expression of any incoming genomes of the same bacteriophage
Repressor protein
How is HCV spread?
rarely sexually transmitted, more oftern parenterally
Spherical (coccus) - give example
Staphylococcus aureus
- staph infections
-little things, pimples, skin infections, boils
-big things, pneumonia, meningitis, TSS
What is herpangia
Red oropharynx vesicles, fever, sore throat
What amino acid is oxidized to produce nitrogen oxide?
Arginine
what are nucleosomes
eukaryotes winding DNA around histones to form helix 
 
histones play a primary role in this formation
(Nitrogen cycle: diagram 4) what is the nitrogen compound that should be in box 2?
nitrogen gas
Chemotherapeutic drug
any chemical used in treatment of, relief from, or prevention of disease
biochemical characteristics
analysis of FAMEs - differences in chain length, degree of saturation, branched chains, hydroxyl groups
Pertussis"Whooping Cough"
1st stage: resembles a common cold2nd stage: paroxysmal (violent spells) stage is characterized by attempts to clear the throat by coughing3rd stage: sporadic coughing for several weeks (100 days cough)
Most oxidizing acidophiles are of what gram reaction?
Gram negative
What is septic shock?
body undergoes massive inflammation and the BP is so low it cant be controlled by fluids (leads to organ failure)
raw water
surface water or groundwater that has not been treated in any way
What is virulence?
Virulence is a measure of pathogenicity. A stronger pathogen has higher virulence.
binary fission
the most common means of unicellular microbial reproduction
 
expresses the fact that 2 cells have arisen from one cell
 
usually involves an equal partitioning of material (DNA, proteins, etc)
 
cells elongate to approximately twice their length and then form a partition that eventually separates cell into 2 cells
 
septum results from invagination (inward growth of cytoplasm). membrane and cell wall from opposing directions
SEM
scanning e beam. only sees outside of specimin.
Fimbriae and Pili
-attach to cell surface-Pili: transfer genetic info back and forth from bacteria-secretion system attach to cells to prey
Symptoms of legionella
1.  Pontiac fever:  Flu like
2.  Legionnaires disease:  microabscesses seen on CXR
What is the main characteristic of cryptococcus neoformans?
thick capsule
What is dysentery?
inflammatory disorder of the long intesitine, diarrhea + mucus + blood
During the eclipse stage, the host cell first produce
viral enzymes
What is an antibiotic?
an antimicrobial that originates from another living organism
 
contagious
a disease that is caused by an agent that is highly communicable
Where would you contract Blastomyces
Mississippi and Ohio via inhalation
What are the manifestations of Abortive polio
HINT:  4 
1.  Fever
2.  Malaise
3.  Nausea
4.  Sore throat 
Peyer's patches
Organized nodules of B cells and some CD4+ T cells (mostly in the ileum of the intestines)
What does IgA do?
Provide mucosal immunity and defense against microbes
DNA polymerase III
builds (polymerizes) new DNA strand by (1) aligning a nucleotide with the correct complementary base with the base in the template strand and (2) catalyzing the sugar-phosphate bond between nucleotides in the forming strand.Read 3' to 5', Build 5’ to 3’
nucleid acid base composition
determination of DNA base composition; can be done via melting temperature or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); however, two very different base sequences can be constructed from the same proportions of AT/GC
What are the coil directions of the DNA portions during chromosome replication in prokaryotes?
Negative supercoil
What does scalded skin syndrome come from?
staph aureus toxemias
Mycoplasma pneumonia presents with
1.  Abrupt onset of fever
2.  Malaise
3.  Sore throat 
phagocytes
a cell (as a white blood cell) that engulfs and consumes foreign material (as microorganisms) and debris
type of mutation caused by a random change in DNA due to errors in replication that occurs without cause
spontaneous mutation
Treatment of mycobacterium leprae
T. Leprosy:
1.  Dapsone + rifampin for 6 months
 
L. Leprosy:
1.  Dapsone + Clofazimine for 2 yrs
rate of microbial death
-number of microbes (more microbes, longer to kill)-environment (organic matter can prevent control of microbial growth)-time of exposure (need extended time to affect more resistant microbes)-microbial characteristics (affect the choice of chemical control methods)
What strain of E.Coli is similar to cholera?
enterotoxigenic strain
antigenic drift
small changes in the virus which occur gradually (i.e. the errors viral RNA pol. makes)
Explain MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration)
-Minimum inhibitory concentration is a quantitiative test which determines the lowst concentration of a specific antimicrobial drug needed to prevent growth of said organism
-Determined by examining strain's ability to grow in broth containing different concentrations of test drug 
- Tubes set up withdecreating concentrations of test drugs and known concentrations ofa specific strain are added to each tube. They are then incubated andthe growth is examined for(by turbidity). 
-The lowest concentration of the drug to prevent growth is the MIC
Describe the internal membranes in prokaryotes and how this is different from eukaryotes.
-chromatophores which contain pigments for photosynthesis-Mesosomes (infoldings of cell membrane)-inclusionsEukaryotes only contain vesicles (called vacuoles) but none of these other internal membranes. Instead contain many membrane bound organelles.
What is the complement system?
Group of serum/plasma and membrane proteins
What do consensus predicted epitopes show?
High values for antigenicity, flexibility, surface location
What is a structural analogue?
compound similar enough in structure to fit into active site of an enzyme but different enough that no products are formed
Generalized steps of Beta-oxidation
oxidation to yield double bond on alpha and beta carbons; removal of double bond, addition of -OH to beta carbon; oxidation to =O on beta carbon; breaking off to form one shortened chain and one molecule of acetyl-SCoA
what is Malaria?
a type of hemolytic anemia. too few red blood cells caused by lysing of
How does the CXR look for mycoplasma
Pachy and anatomically confined
What are germinal centers
activated b cells form a specific structure in the seconnday lymphoid organs that are needed for effectibve later responses of b cells
Polymyxin and Bacitracin (Topical Use Only)
Alteration of cell membrane function
What type of gram stain is Nersseria Meningitis?
gram negative diplococci
Which organism stares back at you in a fecal smear?
giardia lamblia
What are the ways to identify bacteria?
1. Metabolism2. Environment3. Motility4. Arrangement5. Shape6. Stain
why do lysogenic bacteriophages make themselves more virulent?
because their genes are passe generation to generation
Where can one find extrachromosomal DNA in prok. vs. in euk.?
in prokaryotes, found in plasmidsin eukaryotes, found in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts as well as plasmids
Give the make up of Rubella Virus
1.  (+) ssRNA nonsegmented
2.  Enveloped
 
How is the invariant chain removed from CII molecules?
Degradation through the endocytic pathway, the RLS of this is cleavage of Iip10 into CLIP
Discuss the relevance of brine, sugars, halophiles, and saccharophiles.


brine has high salt concentration (30%) and used to be used to preserve meats
sugars (in jelly) has high sugar concentration (50-60%) used to preserve fruit
halophiles LIVE in salty environments (36%) and are not pathogenic
saccharophiles LIVE in sugared environments (70%) and are not pathogenic
definitive host of toxoplasmosis
cats. the end product of the sexual cycle is shed in cat feces.
Give the Clincial picture of Primary peritonitis
1.  Fever
2.  Abdomonial pain (non-palpation)
3.  Abdominal tenderness (palpation) 
How MRSA is transmitted
Contact. Open wounds or cuts most common site of entry.
WHat is the epidemiology of measles?
outbreaks (spread person to person), mortality in very young and very old, spread by respiratory droplets (binds to epithelial cells)
What is so dangerous about clostridium perferingens?
it is a quick onset
Mutans group of oral streptococci
S. mutans - dental plauque, carious teeth
S. sobrinus - tooth surface, carious teeth
Explain how ATP synthase harvests the proton motive force to generate ATP:
-The proton motive force uses potential energy to generate ATP. H+ ions are moved down the membrane and into a pore in ATP synthase. The flow of H+ through ATP synthase relases kinetic energy, which is harvested by the ATP synthase, and used to add a phosphate to ADP, creating ATP.
Give the classic signs of furious stage
1.  Foaming at the mouth
2.  Brainstem destruction leading to coma & death 
What are the known transmissions of CJD
1.  Cornea transplants
2.  GH from cadavers that had CJD
3.  Consume contaminated meat
4.  Rare inherited form 
High numbers of bacteria in milk
b/c of:1) a disease udder2) unsanitary handling of milk3) unfavorable storage conditions-high number of bacteria = greater chance of transmission
What are self antigens?
The surface of our cells / hosts cells also have antigens that are recognized by the immune system but does not reject them.
Cell used to assist T and B cells and to conduct an immune response
T helper cell
Where does viral encephalitis come from?
starts in animals, mosquito is the vector
What are the symptoms of soft chancre?
get papules that become pustules, ulcerate into lesions and then larger lesions, develop lymphadenitis (boboes)
What are the two fucking ways a enveloped virus can enter a human host cell?
Fuse their envelope with the host’s plasma membrane or enter by endocytosis (fuses with the vesicle membrane)
What is the structure of the MHC binding cleft?
alpha-helices as walls, beta-sheets as floor
the person is intoxicated rather than infected
Antibiotics are of no value in treating botulism because
what are the 6 most prominent factors that make organisms pathogenic
1)Adhesins on pili and cell surfaces2)Capsules to prevent phagocytosis3)Endotoxins and exotoxins4)Ability to trigger phagocytosis5)Superantigens (massive immune response)6)Proteases
What type of gram stain is pseudomonas aeruginosa?
aerobic gram-negative rod found in soil/water
What is PAM and what organism(s) cause it?
Naegleria fowleri - Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis
2 groups resulting from oxidation of reduced nitrogen compounds.
1) Nitrosomonas-NH4+ 1/2 O2 --> NO2- + H2O + 2H2) NitrobacterNO2- + 1/2 O2 --> NO3--members of these groups co-inhabit various niches
What type of antigen can B cells take up to present to T cells? Why is this important?
soluble antigen; for B cell activation
What are the Cell bound virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes?

M Protein - fuzzy surface on MO, increases adherance and is antiphagocytic

Hyaluronic Acid Capsule - antiphagocytic capsule
What are naive b cells? What kind of antibody do they express?
b cells that have not encountered antigen; IgM
What is a Plasmid? And what is it involved in?
Plasmid - a circular piece of DNA that replicated independently, carries non essential genes and involved in conjugation -three types: conjunctive plasmids, dissimilation plasmids and R factors
Nervous System
Lecture 9
Acinetobacter
Endoflagella
inside cell membrane
Exotoxins
proteinhighly toxichighly immunogenicheat unstablespecific effects
Sporothrix schenckii
Yeast/fungi. Sporotrichosis.
Heterotrophs
used preformed organic molecules
Pneumocystis jiroveci / Pneumocystis
fungus
Skin
First line of defense
Three Domains
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Malassezia furfur
Yeast/fungi. Tinea versicolor.
Infection or intoxication: elevated fecal leukocytes
Infection 15-3
halophiles are archea that...
love salt
manipulation of bacterial genetics
genetic engineering
Thermomicrobium
di-alcohol head group, hydrocarbon tail- doesn't look like any other membrane lipid
What does Diplo- mean?
two cells
shapes of viruses?
isometric, helical, complex
Resolving Power
Rp=(wavelength * .5)/numerical aperature
measured in nanometers, smaller the better
smaller than rickettsiae (Classified as bacteria)*- cause Chlamydia trachomatis, one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. today, also causes Trachomana, a leading cause of blindness.
Viruses
the ability to cause disease
pathogenic
clinical manifestations of HAT
gambian
Winterbottom's cervical adenopathy
asymp. for months or years
intermittent fever- Ag variation
weight loss
CNS involvement
diurinal somnolescence with nocturnal insomnia
constant headache
behavioral changes


rhodesian HAT: wks for symptoms
name of vaccine for measles (rubeola)?precautions to take?
MMRairborne
thermophiles
like temps between 45-70 degree C
 
 
 
 
Kinases
Breaks down fibrin; dissolves clots from by body to isolate infection
Allows dissemination of bacteria
Rickettsia/ Chlamydia?
Rocky mountain spotted fever, trachoma, non-gonococcal urethritis
Pneumonia
microbial disease of the bronchial tubes and lungs
Genotype
Genetic composition of organism - entire DNA
Domains
Three major groups of living organisms:bacteria, Archaea, Eucarya
Do Enterobacteriaceae have a positive or negative oxidase test?
negative
what organism expresses Lecithinase (alpha toxin)
C. perfringens
Euglenophyta
unicellular, motile, no cell wall, reproduce asexually; reserve products are carbs and oils; contain chlorophyl, Algae
- are powerful oxidizers- inhibit protein functions-alter cellular componentsie. chlorine- gas is used in water disinfection-calcium hypochlorite (chloride of lime use by Semmelweiss)-sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
iodine
What are white blood cells called?
Leukocytes
Candida albicans
Yeast/fungi. Vaginitis, oral infections, thrush disseminated infections in immunocompromised, paronychia skin infections.
prevention of newborn sepsis
maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis
based on combination of vaginal/rectal cultures for GBS at 35-37 wks + risk factors
Give the classic example of enzyme breakdown of antibiotic resistance.
Beta-lactamase.7-3
Leptospirosis
The following are sx of what disorder:
 
sudden high fever
chills
HA
muscle aches
conjunctivitis
pretechial rash 
Vommiting
 
Transcription initiation
-sigma factor binds core RNA polymerase which binds to promoter-polymerase unwinds DNA at promoter
What is turbidity?
-measures light transmitted through sample with spectrophotometer
- limitation: must have high number of cells
Oncogenes
a proto-oncogene that has been altered and can produce a protein that makes a cell cancerous
chemical external reistance factors
salts, acids, lipids, enzymes
Alpha hemolytic
partial destruction of red blood cells
What is the Ziehl-Neelson stain?
-stains for mycobacterium
-mycobacterium don't gram stain because of lipid and wax in cell envelope
-everything that's not mycobacterium gets stained blue
-mycobacterium get stained by carbol fuschin
What is cell-mediated immunity?
involves T-Cells (specialized lymphocytes) that act against foreign organisms or tissues = like rejecting an organ
Conjugation
Transfer DNA from on bacterium to another
if you recently talked to someone inside the hospital and later came down with these symptoms: chronic fever&cough, night sweats, rusty sputum, granuloma, caseous necrosis and weight loss what disease might you have caught in the hospital?
Tuberculosis
Who is Buchner's?
Demonstrated that fermentation does not require living cells
Enzymes produced by bacteria caused fermentation
Phospholipid
any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes
vertical gene transfer
occurs during reproduction, between generations of cells.
1861
Semmelweis published his views on the cause of puerperal fever.
What is The invasion or colonization of the body by pathogenic microorganisms?
Infection
2 killed organisms for vaccines
Rabies and influenza
Key factor in biological agent delivery
particle diameter
aerosole spray/cloud: 5-17 microns
1-5 microns absorbed in alveoli
greater than 5-10 is filtered out or deposited in URT
The genome of hepatitis A virus is...
(+) ssRNA 15-16
toxins that affect the GI tract, often cause diarr and sometimes vomiting (foodborne illness)
enterotoxins
Major Steps of infection
Transmission to host
Adherence to target tissue -Adhesins on pili/fimbrae Some may have multiple types with different affinities for different tissues (e.g. S. pyogenes, H. influenzae) Colonization of target tissue
-it must also replicate.
Obstacles: Normal flora (space/nutrient competition) Optimal growth conditions (oxygen, pH, osmotic stability) -Host immunity -Destruction of target tissue(s) -Degradation of extracellular matrix via degradative enzymes (collagenase), intracellular pathogen lysing the cell, toxin production -Exit from host to propagate cycle -Must occur before host clears pathogen
How many layers of cell membrane are in the GP?
1
Bacteriophages (phages) - Complex
These viruses infect only bacteriaPhage may attach to bacterial cell walls, fimbriae, or pili.Only viral nucleic acid enters bacteria, capsid remains outsideHave been used as an alternative to antibiotics in foreign countries - “phage therapy”
charon
Carries the sould over the river Styx (not new testament doctrine)
What are 2 yersinia sp. enteroinvasive enteric pathogens?
Y. enterocoliticaY. pseudotuberculosis
Nonionizing radiation
UV radiationA mutagen that causes the formation of pyrimidine dimers
Blood agar
A rich medium commonly used in clinical laboratories that contains red blood cells, which supply variety of nutrients including hemin, in addition to other ingredients
What unrelated medication increases the risk of infection by C. difficile in patients taking broad spectrum antibiotics?
PPIs such as omeprazole
viruses, viroids and prions are
a. operate intracellularly
b. may be considered acellular agents of disease
c. contain DNA
d. infect only animals
e. A and B
A and B
q. The genus name is always ____________?
a. capitalized.
Viral Plaques
areas on petri dish where BACTERIA have been killed by VIRUSES (clear zones), can be used to count virus
B- bleachP - phenolM - mouthwashE - ethanol
bleach
What do macrolides do?
Inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria
What are the enzymes that are constantly synthesized?
constitutive enzymes
Variable
Is anything that can change fro the purposes of an experiment.
complement system
system of over 30 serum and cell surface proteins that form an enzymatic cascade and are involved in immunity and inflammationalternate and classical pathways
For the following pathogen, name the immune cell that it infects and destroys: VZV.
Neurons and glia35-2
Argyll-robertson pupil
A sign of syphilis when pupils react better to accommodation than light is know as what?
Koch's postulates
1. microbes must be present in every case of the disease2. microbe must be isolated in pure culture3. The disease must reappear when organisms from pure culture are injected into an uninfected animal4. microbe then must be again recovered from the newly infected animal and shown to be the same organism
Growing Viruses in the Lab
Bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) have proved useful model systems because the host cells (bacteria) are easily to grow and manipulate in culture.
 
What are some specifics on Chlamydia trachomatis?
Virulence: Intracellular replication; Prevents fusion of phagosome with cellular lysosomes; Pathologic effects of trachoma caused by repeated infections
Resemble virus in lack of cell wall - no peptidoglycan layer, low energy production (RNA/DNA ratio of elementary body is ~1), and both are intracellular parasites.
Passes through a 0.45 micrometer filter
Small, G - rods
Treatment: tetracycline or erythromycin usually effective.

Detection:  Cell culture (only certain cell lines):  McCoy, Buffalo green monkey kidney [BGM]); Direct specimen tests - PCR, ELISA, FA 
what are the four main classes of polymers?
-complex carbohydrates-lipids-proteins-nucleic acids
What is p.h. corporis
Body louse (lice)--Feed on blood--Lay eggs(nits) on hair--Topical insecticide treatment
When does Corynebacterium diptheriae release diptheria toxin?
under pressure of iron restriction
Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma:

-Special feature of cell wall?

-Culture and transport media require what substance?

-Special technique to read agar plates?

-Name 3 main species and associated diseases:
Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma:

-Special feature of cell wall: Absent!
No cell wall. Only have cell membrane with sterols.

-Culture and transport media require: Sterols

-Special technique to read agar plates: must read plates under microscope to see tiny colonies. What do Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis colonies look like under microscope?

-Name 3 main species and associated diseases:

1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae - atypical/walking pneumonia
2. Mycoplasma hominis - female GU and neonatal/peripartum infxn
3. Ureaplasma urealyticum - female GU and neonatal/peripartum infxn (also spontaneous abortion)
Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma:

-Special feature of cell wall?

-Culture and transport media require what substance?

-Special technique to read agar plates?

-Name 3 main species and associated diseases:
What do Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis colonies look like under microscope?

Ureaplasma urealyticum: steel wool/brillo pad colonies
Mycoplasma hominis: fried egg colonies
Monoclonal antibody
any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by a single clone of cells or a cell line and consisting of identical antibody molecules
spongiform encephalopathies are:
[all of the above] associated with abnormal, transmissible, protein in the brain; chronic, fatal infections of the nervous system; caused by prions; asociated with CJD.
What is used To detect very small amounts of antibody?
Complement fixation
What makes having an exact copy of the parent DNA possible?
proofreading
What is the causative agent of tetanus? What toxin is responsible for the disease?
Clostridium tetani ; Tetanospasmin
What are Guarnieri bodies?
B-type inclusions in the cytoplasm of smallpox infected host cells
sterile areas of the body
blood, lymph, spinal fluid, joint fluid, most internal tissues and organs (lungs, liver, heart, brain, etc)
Miles Joseph Berkeley (1803-1889)
showed that many plant diseases were caused by fungi
Viruses differ in the following characteristics

Type of genetic material/nucleic acid they contain


Mode of replication


Kinds of cells they infect


Routes of infection (respiratory, GI, urogenital, skin, eyes, etc)


Shape/morphology


Presence of an envelope


Size
3 kinds of antrax disease
1) cutaneous. Most common, least mortality. Lesion forms black eschar with little purulence
RNA Polymerase
Makes of molecule of RNA from a DNA template
Invertible Hin region
always being produced - flips back and forth - has own promoter
what is a possible cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children?
Streptococcus pneumoniae

possible cause of pneumonia and meningitis in adults
What is recombinant DNA technology?
minipulating genes in plants, animals, and microbes for practical application
important element to Koch’s germ theory
microorganism inoculated into the animal
In which stage does competence occur?
late log, early stationary phase
Aside from resistance, what allows VRE to be prevelant in nosocomial infections?
persistant colonization of GI tract
contamination of environmental surfaces
due to slime capsule (EC glycocalyx)
What organism produces a shiga toxin that can damage kidney function?
a. Shigella dysenteriae
b. Enterotoxigenic E. coli
c. Enteropathogenic E. coli
d. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
e. a & d
e. Shigella dysenteriae (some strains)
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
 
15-4
Varicella/Herpes-Zoster
Chicken Pox / Reye's Syndrome
Chicken Pox - Upper RTI -> Vesicles appear on skin -> latent Virus in Spinal Cord -> Shingles
 
Varivax Vaccine
 
Reye's Syndrome - Severe Complication associated with Viral Inf - Aspirin Increases Risk
Maintain Reservior, meaning and example
a place where microbes can manifest, example would be humans, animals, environment.
Describe the carrier state for S. aureus
NOT normal flora
-can transiently colonize nasopharynx
-Colonization can occur in:
1. nasopharynx
2. skin
3. vagina
-increased chances of being colonized occur in
1. medical personnel
2. diabetics
3. IV drug users
What is gluconeogenesis and when would a cell engage in it?
Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of of new glucose (from noncarbohydrate precursors). A cell would engage in it when it requires more glucose (i.e. a heterotroph)
What is the main function of a capsule in bacteria?
protect against phagocytosis
what is the role of O antigen?
excludes hydrophobic compounds like bile salts and antibiotics
Why are burkholderia important?
bacteria that are often a factor in the contamination of equipment and drugs in hospitals
What is the major pathogenicity of pulmonary anthrax?
Exotoxins that produce toxemia which results in capillary thrombosis and cardiovascular shock. Death can occur in a few hours.
For the following anti-viral, name its drug class, and viruses for which it is indicated:rimantidine?
Ion channel blocker (HA). Indicated for Influenza A.13-3
1) adenovirus - associated with upper respiratory infections, common colds2) paramyxoviruses - measles3) herpes simplex virus - varicella zoster (chicken pox)
most common viral causes of conjunctivitis
Define ST toxin of E. coli
=exotoxin that is a major virulence factor
-not destroyed by heat (vs LT)
-plasmid encoded
-Causes diarrhea by different mechanism than LT toxin
What is a good way to prevent ARF?
prophylaxis: treat GAS pharyngitis with PCN for 10 days; since recurrences are common prophylactic antibiotics need to be given
what animals carry yershinia pestis?
wild rodents ( rats, praire dogs, and squirrels)
How can a bacterial pathogen damage a host cell? (4)
Using the host's nutrients
Direct damage
Toxins
Inducing hypersensitivity reactions
What types of hemolysis do the following Streptococcal species exhibit?a) S. pyogenesb) S. agalactiaec) Enterococcus faecalisd) Viridans streptococcie) S. pneumoniae
a) B hemolyticb) B hemolyticc) alpha hemolyticd) alpha or gamma hemolytice) alpha hemolytic
How is Rhogam made? How is it given?
industrial made, given in a shot
How do we distinguish between Group A and B strep?
-both are beta hemolytic strep (complete/clear hemolysis)
1. Bacitracin
-Group A is bacitracin sensitive (ex. S. pyogenes)
What does alpha toxin (C. perfringens) do?
causes lysis of RBCs and other cells
What causes the rate of mutation to be low?
because of cellular repair mechanisms
Keep hair tied back, wash hands frequently, wear surgical gloves to take specimens
How can those who care for patients avoid spreading microbes among them?
What is the difference between a lytic and a lysogenic bacteriophage infection?
lytic-- phage DNA enters host cell, subverts machinery, grows and lyses host cell to release progeny; lysogenic-- phage DNA enters host cell, integrates into DNA (and can be passed on to daughter cells), under proper conditions DNA is excised and phages are generated by subverting host machinery, host cell is lysed to release progeny
What is the difference between an antiseptic and a disinfectant?
antiseptic can be used on the skin and disinfectants are more harsh and can only be used on surfaces or objects
Describe the roles of AMP, ADP and ATP in the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway
ATP is an allosteric inhibitor
AMP and ADP are allosteric activators
Because of the small size of a virus, they contain little nucleic acid and very few ___
Because of the small size of a virus, they contain little nucleic acid and very few genes
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