Microbiology 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Acetotrophic methanogen
Beta propiolactone
itrogenic infection?
physician related
Protoplasmic cylinder, syphilus
syntheticinhibit DNA synthesisUTIs
Inhibits Protein Synthesis
a disease-causing organism.
secreted by the microbe
LMP1 activates ___ receptor
Factors pertaining to AGENT



Every 10 degrees, rate of rxn doubled
time needed for cidal cut in half

•Hyperthermophiles = more heat-loving

–Prefer 80-100 oC (or higher è140oC!)

–Found in geothermal areas of ocean floor
cryptococcus neoformans. inhaling soil/ pigeon droppings. lungs then nervous system.
RNA virus influenza "flu"
Filter Sterilization
no cell wall; pleomorphic; small
causes the fluvaccine:Produced in embryonated chicken eggs, but inefficientComposed of 8 fragments of RNA; requires Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase to be infectious, and their mutations result in many different strains (ANTIGENIC DRIFT); there is danger of the Bird Flu RNA fragments reassorting with the more easily transferable human virual strains (ANTIGENIC SHIFT)
Orchitis is a complication of
extra-chromosomal. molecule of DNA that replicates independently of the chromosome. Each carries gene for its own replication and often for one or more nonessential functions such as resistance to antibiotics.
spread of toxin by blood
An inflammation of the meninges

•Mesophiles = like moderate temperatures

–Prefer 20-45 oC

–Includes most human pathogens
Electron Shell
Contain Negatively charged Electrons.
Process of heating and cooling
Ignaz Semmelweis
Hand washing in hospitals
Protozoan diseases
caused by Pneumocystis carinii
What causes endemic dysentery?
shigella sonnei/flexneri
-acute and chronic gastritis-fromation fo peptic ulcers-related to campylobacter
minor differences (same species!) in cell shape due to nutritional or hereditary differences
Host point of view:
1. incubation
3. illness
4. decline
5. convalescence
Paulinella chromatophora
-an amoeboid that has taken on cyanobacterium
-provides photosynthate to amoeba
- closely related to free-living Synechococcus (cyanobacterial) species.2 Endosymbionts in Plant cells = plastids and mitochondria
Age of complement system
700 million years
Infectious particles made of nucleic acid inside a protein coat
virus is present/detected, but not necessarily multiplying
Factors pertaining to NATURE of organism

enzymes that are produced inside bacteria but are secreted outside the cell to catalyze reactions external to the cell
What component separates the daughter cells?
"a photosynthetic eukaryote; may be unicellular, filamentous, or mutlicellular but lack the tissues found in plants. plural: algae"
understanding the ___________ aids in control and treatment
best known members are m.. , aka b...
have more lengthy d... stage
mushroom, basidiocarp
dikaryotic (when they have two haploid nuclei)
high asymptomatic fever. then rash herpes virus 7 and 6.
optimum temperature 20-40 degrees C, usually human pathogens
RNA viruses carrying s.s. (+) RNA
depend on autotrophs for performed organic matter for food
What is the inoculum for norovirus?
Anginosus group of oral streptococci
S. anginosus
Two replication cycles:
Lytic cycle and Lysogenic cycle
An inhibitor that interacts with the enzyme's active site and completes with native substrate
Describe an Obligate aerobe?
-requires molecular oxygen.-if inoculated in a tube all the bacteria will be at the top
special category of proteins found in all living organisms, catalyst that controls the rate of chemical reactions in cells
MyD88 pathway
TLR's dimerize, adapter proteins bind to TIR domain of TLR (MyD88 and MAL = adapters), MyD88 interacts with IRAK protein which interacts with TRAF-6 which activates TAK1 which activates MAP kinase and inhibitor of NFkB (IkB) kinase cascades, leads to expression of AP-1 and NFkB transcription factors
After cleavage of C3, C3b interacts with what to form the classical C5 convertase?
Using Recombinant DNA Technology
*Manufacturing of products*Example: Indigo -blue dye, Originally came from plants and mollusks. Genetically engineered bacteria (E. coli) now can make indigo
Eats CO- don't try this at home
some amino acids can be “called for” by multiple different codons/ anticodons
Facilitated diffusion
the use of carrier proteins embedded in the plasma membrane for diffusion, creating channels through which substances pass; rate plateaus above a specific gradient value because carrier proteins are saturated – transporting as many solute molecules as possible
Water and electrolytes
most gastrointestinal infections are treated with
what are nozoconial diseases?
hospital-acquired diseases (patient was not admitted with it)
Koch's Postulates
criteria used to determine the causative agent of infectious diseases.
distribution system
water pipes storage reservoirs tanks and other means used to deliver drinking water to consumers or store it before delivery
Robert Koch
Used Anthrax to developed postulates and prove that specific microorganisms cause a specific disease. Koch’s Postulates were able to discover the cause of 20 diseases from 1875-1900.
exponential growth
the pattern of population increase where the number of cells doubles during each unit of time period
if plot log#s v. time= straight line
synchranous= stepwise
# v. time= curve
Viral Species
Population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche
disease that causes loss of pain perception and deep nodule infections on the face and extremities
gram-positive cell wall
-capsule (not all species): polysaccharide-S layer (not all species): protein-thick envelope: 9 amino acid crosslinks in peptidoglycan , tiechoic acids for strength-thin periplasm-plasma membrane
What organisms are the common causes of Atypical pneumonia?
obligate anerobes
-growth occurs only where high concentrations of oxygen have diffused into the medium- many aerobic bacteria can still growth without O2
Cellular arrangement
a constitutive property of some bacterial pathogens and can be used to aid in identification; Neisseria and Streptococcus pneumoniae form pairs, all other Streptococcus form chains, Staphylococcus form clusters
Hutchinson's triad
deafness, impaired vision and notched, peg-shaped teeth (develops during congenital syphilis)
Example of ss (+) sense DNA
Parvovirus (dog virus)
[Protein Synthesis Inhibitor]Macrolids:
-Reversibly binds to 50S ribosome, which prevents continuation of protein synthesis
-Effective against many G+ organisms and those responsible for atypical pneumonia 
-Good choice for patients allergic to penicillin 
-Resistance can occur via modification of RNA target. Other mechanisms inclue an enzyme that chemically modifies drug as well as alterations that result in decreaed uptake of drug
Give a specific example of an AHL regulated process
-Vibrio FischeriBioluminescenceOR
-Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens Virulence- Erwinia caratovoraAntibiotic and exoenzyme production
Give the makeup of Piconaviridae
1.  RNA
2.  Icosahedral
3.  Nonenveloped
4.  (+) SS nonsegmented 
Structure of TLR
Leucine rich repeat motif (binding), Cysteine rich flanking motif, TIR domain
post-transcriptional gene silencing  function, process 
Post-transcriptional gene silencing is the result of mRNA of a particular gene being destroyed or blocked. The destruction of the mRNA preventstranslation to form an active gene product (in most cases, a protein). A common mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing is RNAi.
Hydrothermal Vents
-resule of tectonic plate movements in the oceans-plates separate-hot fluids spew out~2000m below the sea level-both aerobic and anaerobic chemosynthesis combine with teh sea water to produce reduced fluids that spew out H2S, Fe2+, Mn2+
Cyanide poisoning
– blocks last enzyme in transfer chain of ETC (cytochrome oxidase)
Transmission versus Scanning electron microscopes: differences
electrons are illuminating beam, can be focused to create a high resolution image, useful magnification is well over 100,000x; heated tungsten filament generates a beam of electrons that is focused on a specimen by a condenser; forms an enlarged image on a fluorescent screen; denser region in the specimen scatters more electrons and appears darker in the image since fewer electrons strike that area

produces an image from electrons released on an object's surface; hit the specimen with a beam of electrons; when the beam strikes a particular area, surface atoms discharge showers of electrons, which are trapped by a detector; when electron beams strikes a raised area, large number of electrons enter the detector; fewer electrons escape depressive areas and are darker
gall bladder
After recovery from typhoid fever, the carriers may harbor the organism in their
Anoxygenic photosynthesis uses the electrons formed only for what?
The generation of ATP
If lemierre's syndrome travels where it is fatal?
lungs or heart
food poisioning
disease caused by the ingestion of food that contains preformed microbial toxins
Jenner (1798)
Discovered small pox immunity do to cowpox vaccination
a type of division which results in unequal distribution of cellular material newly synthesized in bud and original cell
ameobic encephalitis
ameoba get into mucus membrans then chew through and eat your brain. 100% fatal in 3-5 days. lives on bottom of lakes.
Fluorescent microscope
-image seen due to fluorescent light emitted from object. exposes specimen to ultraviolet, violet, or blue light and forms image from resulting fluorescent light-specimen stained with fluorochromes
What does C. trachomatis increase the risk of due to PID?
Ectopic pregnancy
What are symtoms of malaria?
fever, chills, cyclic sweating
What is a complication of enterohemorrhagic e col?
hemolytic urenmic syndrome
Oncogenes are known to be involved in the production of
what is prophylaxis?
use of an antimicrobial to prevent infection
methods of exit from
the host

skin: sloughing cells, blood, discharge; GI tract: fecal matter; Respiratory tract: mucus, sputum; Urogenital tract: vaginal discharge, semen
What do you use to diagnosis C. neoformans?
India Ink
In regards to influenzae, this protein is inside the membrane and is involved in assembly
Matrix "M" protein
After circulation, where do PMN's go?
Capillary beds for margination
What is an antigen?
A particle/sequence which has the ability to combine specifically with Ab/cell surface BCR/TCR
Agglutination testing / immune precipitation
antibody-antigen cross-links can form -so many interconnected cross-links form that visible clumps are formed
How does Z-ring formation occur?
MinCDE system limits Z-ring formation to the center of the cell – oscillate from one end of the cell to the other; oscillation keeps high concentrations of MinC at the poles, where it prevents formation of the Z-ring; thus Z-ring formation can only occur at midcell, which lacks MinCDE
The secondary transition phase is characterized by the production of?
Secondary metabolites (antibiotics, alternate metabolic pathways, etc)
What is the epidemiology of pseudomonas aeruginoas?
opportunistic pathogen found everywhere, nosochomical infections, very natually antibiotic resistant
Acute Otitis media is more common in
2 yr >
What are antigens?
proteins or carbs that are recognized by antibodies
drugs with great range of activity and targets cell components on most pathogens
broad spectrum
What disease does C. trachomatis (A-C) cause?
1.  Urethritis
2.  PID 
Nitrogen- chemical requirement for microbial growth
-necessary for protein synthesis-found in all amino acids (subunit building blocks of proteins)
What is the virulence of enterotoxigenic e coli?
non invasive cholera toxin
Reye syndrome
occurs in kids w/ flu that are administered aspiring: solicilates elevate fever + vomiting + lethargy
Define/identify therapeutic index
-The therapeutic index of a drug is the ratio of the toxic to the therapeutic dose. A high therapeutic index is good.
term to refer to 2 or more flagella at one or both ends of a bacterium
2 options of TLR4 signaling
MyD88-dependent (use early phase of NFkB, produce inflammatory cytokines), MyD88-independent (use IRF3 and late-phase NFkB, produce IFN-beta/IFN-inducible genes)
What is an epitope?
A specific site on a macromolecule where an immune cell will recognize and initiate a reaction
What makes up ampicillin?
DOC for?
penicillin & amino group
UTI by Proteus mirabilis
Scanning Probe Microscope
Can be used to study surfaces of objects at high magnification by moving a probe over the specimen's surface
Taenia Saginata? definitive host? intermediate host?
-the beef tapeworm -humans (by ingesting the incysted larvae) -cows
What is toxigenicity?
The capacity of a MO to preduce toxins.
What is the result of complement fixation?
lysis of bacterial ccells
Sexually Transmitted Disease 
Disease acquired as a result of sexual intercourse with an infected individual 
What is tetanus toxoid?
vaccine to prevent tetanus against the toxin (not clostridium tetani)
What are the symptoms of giardiasis?
diarrhea lasting weeks, malaise, weight loss, abdominal cramps, flatulence
Describe the cell wall of a bacteria.
Made of polysacharide peptidoglycan.Peptidoglycan - carbohydrate - disacharide consisting of N-Acetylglucosamine and N-Acetylmuramic acid bonded together with beta 1=>4 linkage. These arranged in long chains.-long chains connected laterally with polypeptide bonds that connect NAM to NAM in a staggered pattern (not adjacent NAM) forming sheets/layers-Layers bonded together with peptide bonding as well as teichoic acids (gm+ only)
what belongs in the eubacteria domain?
true bacteria, gram +/-, mycoplasma, acid-fast
Do mycoplasma have cell walls?
no cell wall, just membrane containing sterols-often exhibit extreme pleomorphism because of no cell wall
When would you find negri bodies in a rabies infection
Eclipse period (replicating)
What cathepsins cleave Iip10 to form CLIP?
Cat S and Cat L
What has microwaves been used to disinfect?
Natural pigments found in cosmetics
can Malaria reoccur in a person?
yes- some merozoite will remain dormant in the liver and may reactivate later in life
What's the treatment for mycoplasma
1.  Azithromycin for those w/ no teeth
2.  Doxycycline for older 
How are Binomial Nomenclatures written?
First word capitalized. Italicized or underlined.
Most common flora in the vagina...
Lactic acid producing bacteria and yeast
What type of gram stain is bacillus cereus?
gram positive spore former
Gram-Negative Rods & Filaments

may constitute nearly 25% of flora in a healthy mouth
proporties may double w/gingivitis &PDD
include both facltative &anaerobic species
most infections involving gram negative rods are mixed infections
many associated w/development of PDD
porphyromonas & prevotella - abscesses, pulmonary &ear infections, wound infections chronic sinusitis, peritonitis - among major cause of PDD
What is the difference between potential energy and kinetic energy?
Potential energy is the energy stored within a system, and kinetic energy is the energy in motion. (A rollercoaster stopped on the top of the track is full of potential energy, but the energy is kinetic when it begins to move and travels down the hill)
You give the mumps vaccine at infants age _____ and the second dose is recommended at ____
12-15 months
4-6 years of age 
what's the function for p53
induce expression of WAF 1 and causes cell cycle arrestz by inhibiting cyclins and cdks
Food Borne Illness
Why do we still have Problems?
 mishandling of food and food products
Centralization of food production
Antibiotics in feed
foreign trade
Environmental Contamination
How is specific immunity defined?

Its varies from person to peron
It is aquired
Involves T & B lymphocytes and Macrophages
Specific to certian forgien substances (not general)
Host must have prior contact with MO (exposure)
Protection or Immunity from future exposure often occurs (Memory)
antigen-stimulated b cells do what in antibody production
multiply and differentiate to form antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory cells (primary antibody response)primary exposure IgM
What are the 2 vaccines for poliovirus? which one isnt used anymore and why?
salk (injection of inactivated) and sabin (oral, live attenuated); sabin isnt used anymore because the live attenuated polio virus changed into its active form in some cases and caused polio
How do you diagnose chancres?
culture on special media, or PRC for certain strains
Describe an enzyme and its function
-An enzyme is a protein molecule which acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions. Enzymes work by binding to a certain substrate, to which is is specific to, triggering/speeding up a reaction.
How do lymphocytes exit the blood
Through use of CD markers in High Endothelial Venules
What are the three things coded for by genes?
mRNA (proteins), tRNA, and rRNA
list kochs postulates in order
1) The microbe must be present in all cases of the disease2) The microbe must be isolated from the patient and grown in pure culture.3) The same disease must be caused when the pure cutlure is introduced into a second, healthy host.4) The microbe must be isolated from the second host.
What are the virulence factors for pseudomonas aeruginosa?
exotoxin A, dense biofilm in CF patients
What is the treatment of S. aureus infections?
Abscess - open lesion, remove pus
Systemic - long term IV or oral therapy
how can replica plating be used to screen for mutation in the cell?
I.) stamp a velveteen covered block onto plate with colonies that are suspected mutants
II.)Stamp a full growth medium and a minimal growth medium
III.) only the mutants will grow on the minimal plate.
What is the cellular immune system of the adaptive immune response mediated by? How?
t cells; control of immune response and directly lyse cells
What is the treatment of S. pyogenes infections?

Penicillin or derivitive

RF or AGN - no treatment, treat and prevent primary infection
What are the functions of b cells that take place in the germinal centers?
1. b cell proliferation 2. production of plasma cells 3. isotype class switching 4. somatic hypermutation 5. production of memory b cells
What do dissimilative SRB's do with their sulfate?
Use it as a TEA (SO4) - this kind of organism will show the black precipitate
oxidizing agents
allergic reactions; worms
Electron Microscope invented?
Streptococcus pyogenes
G+ coccus
Facultative Anaerobe
Causes streptococcus pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, sinusitis, and Otitis media
Produces many exotoxins and enzymes (streptolysins)
Can spread causing rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease
chem. synthesized drug
1. imidazoles--> inhibit sythesis of ergosterol (cream)
2. Triazole--> inhibit synthesi of ergosterol; increased in used for infections
halophile, alkalinophile (soda lakes)
Gram Negative membrane
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Endotoxin
acyclovir used primarily against
strep pneumo, viridans strep
alpha-hemolytic bacteria
What does Leptospira Interrogans cause?
How do bacteria reproduce?
binary fision
Specialized structures within a cell.
Where are the genes located?
Due to increase blood flow
Mutagen-Induced repair mechanism
photoreactivation(light repair)
SOS repair
DNA Polymerase
mismatch repair
excision repair
carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, trace elements, organic growth factors, oxygen
AB blood is universal (donor/acceptor)
Strongyloides stercoralis
Name the helminth/worm:
-Larvae in soil penetrate the skin
-intestinal infection
-causes vomiting, diarrhea, and anemia
Tx = -bendazoles or ivermectin
Classify Streptococcus pyogenes according to the following:GramSpore forming capabilityCatalase testmotilitymorphology
Gram positivenon-motilenon-spore formingcatalase negativecocci arranged in pairs or chains
Reducing media
A culture medium containing ingredients that will remove dissolving oxygen from the medium to allow the growth of anaerobes.
more than 1 at 1 pole
rearrange the host cell cytoskeleton to “cradle” the bacterium into the cell - can lead to host signal transduction.
Cellular Immunity

Cellular Immunity
1.  T cytotoxic cell binds to target

nAll cells express epitopes of cellular proteins

nInfected cells also expressepitopes of infecting agent

nTCR binds to foreign epitope

2.  T helper cells provide cytokine signal to activate TC cell
3.  Activated T cytotoxic cells multiply

nForm clone of activated CTL (cytotoxic T lymphocytes)

nAll have same specificity

nSeek out target cells

4.  CTLs recognize and bind to Ag-bearing target cells

nrelease perforin

nrelease granzymes

5.  Perforin inserts in target cell membrane

nPerforates cell membrane

nTarget cell undergoes programmed cell death

6.  Some activated T cells form memory T cells

nIf Ag reappears

qmemory T cells reproduce quickly

qprovide long-lived cellular immunity
simple enzyme
consist only of a protein
Define gene?
The fundamental unit of heredity.
Gaseous Agents
Cross-link to functional groups Denature proteins and inactivate nucleic acids Used in hospitals and dental offices Hazardous: explosive, poisonous, carcinogenic
what classification of protozoa moves by means of cilia?
What is a fungal infection called?
inhibits microbial growth
-refridgeration, deep freezing, lyophilization
Haemophilis Influenza
-Virulence from polysaccharide capsule (B is worst type)-Gap in immunity in kids 6 months to 3 years-Aerosol transmission-Culture on chocolate agar-Causes meninigitis, epiglottitis, Otitis media, Pnemonia, sepsis-Treat with ceftriaxone; Rifampin prop
How do plasmids transfer information in nature?
focal infection
an infection confined to one anatomical spot but where infectious materials will spread to other parts of the body
alternate pathway
part of the complement systemmost commonly activated by microbial surfaces or cell components (ex. lipopolysaccharides)generates early innate response
Give the generic names of 3 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
bubonic plague may disseminate into lungs, causing ____*very infectious, highly fatal
pneumonic plague

Emerging Disease
Newly Identified Diseases that are becoming more prominent.
sugars/carbs (function)

structural role (cell membrane and surface)
breakdown for energy
stored for future use
Put the idea of Abiogenesis to rest.
differences between disacchardie trisaccharide, oligosacrracaride, and polysaccaride
different numbers of carbons
Can the viral envelope become covered with "spikes"?
Recombinant DNA
DNA that has been artificially manipulated to combine genes from two different sources
Two types of T Cells
Inflammatory-T helperT suppressor-suppresses immune response
Lytic overall
absorb, penetrate, early rna, early proteins, shut down synthesis, destroy chromosomes, form nucleotides, replicate itself, build structures (head and tail), stuff dna in head, put phage together and lyse the cell
Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma:

-Special feature of cell wall?

-Culture and transport media require what substance?

-Special technique to read agar plates?

-Name 3 main species and associated diseases:
Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma:

-Special feature of cell wall: Absent!
No cell wall. Only have cell membrane with sterols.

-Culture and transport media require: Sterols

-Special technique to read agar plates: must read plates under microscope to see tiny colonies. What do Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis colonies look like under microscope?

-Name 3 main species and associated diseases:

1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae - atypical/walking pneumonia
2. Mycoplasma hominis - female GU and neonatal/peripartum infxn
3. Ureaplasma urealyticum - female GU and neonatal/peripartum infxn (also spontaneous abortion)
Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma:

-Special feature of cell wall?

-Culture and transport media require what substance?

-Special technique to read agar plates?

-Name 3 main species and associated diseases:
What do Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis colonies look like under microscope?

Ureaplasma urealyticum: steel wool/brillo pad colonies
Mycoplasma hominis: fried egg colonies
C. Diptheriae is associated with what pigment
Lower fungi, live in water, cause disease in frogs
antigenetic drift
antigens gradually change amino acid composition*only influenza A
-toxin removes charged head group from phospholipids in the membrane
-destroys membrane integrity, causing cell death
Which nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines?
Thymine and Cytosine
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish botanist, developed a general classification system for all living organisms.
Structure of actinomyces
non spore forming gram positive bacilli
form branching filaments
facultative and strict anaerobes
not acid fast
grow slowly in culture
Those in bold differentiate them from Nocardia
Which DNA virus family does not have an icosahedral capsid?
Helicobacter Pylori
What bacteria causes 90% of stomach and duodenal ulcers?
(fig 2) depicts the structure of _________, which is a thin structure lying inside the cell wall and enclosing the cytoplasm of the cell. It consists primarily of phospholipids and proteins.
plasma membrane
restriction enzyme
an enzyme that cuts specific sequences of DNA
the first infection in a healthy host which predisposes the host to a secondary infection
Staph Aeureus
Bacteria frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a healthy person, that can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis) and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, Toxic shock syndrome (TSS), and septicemia.
Where did Rene Dubos extract antibiotics?
from soil bacteria
What are some examples of Acellular Vaccines(only parts of bacteria with AD site)
Meningococle meningitis
Shigella dysenteriae
invasion of intestinal cells using a type III secretion system and an exotoxin (inhibits protein synthesis)
capsids purpose?
serves to PROTECT and INTRODUCE viral genome into host cell
Which of the following is an intracellular parasite? A. rickettsia B. mycobacterium C. bacillus D. staphylococcus E. streptococcus
A. rickettsia
uptake of naked DNA into recipient. reproduced by recipients machinery. dna homology necessary.
Clostridium botulinum-mechanism-what it causes
-produces a lethal neurotoxin that blocks the release of ACh at NMJ-Causes flaccid paralysis from ingesting preformed toxin (adults) or spores in honey (babies)
What is The process of identifying microbes through the use of numbers assigned to certain characteristics of the organism?
Numerical identification
What composes DNA?
a suger (deoxyribose) molecule, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group
Which is the only DNA virus that does not replicate in the nucleus?
What enzyme does vancomycin inhibit?
Peptidoglycan synthase. It is responsible for polymerizing the peptidoglycan.4-19
3 effects of Macrophage activation
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen speciesIncreased phagosome-lysosome fusionUpregulation of MHC class II expression
incubation period for mono...may be complicated further by...
4-6 weekssplenomegaly, CNS involvement, pericarditis, hepatitis
facultative anaerobes
like and grow well with oxygen, but can survive through other means if necessary
at a site that spread from a focal infection
Virulence factors of Group B strep
(strep agalactiae)1) capsule (antiphagocytic)2) c5a peptidase (inactivates complement)
What is peritrichous flagella?
=flagella are all over the organism
-Example: Eubcateriales
What is the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from high water concentration to low water concentration?
What organism is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia?
Strep. pneumoniae
4. Virulence plasmids
- E. coli
- ENT plasmids traveler’s diarhea
Pure culture
A culture containing a single kind of microorganism
recombinant DNA
the DNA resulting when genes of two different organisms are mixed
What 3 things can clostridium botulinum cause?
Cranial nerve palsies
Muscle weakness
Respiratory paralysis
What is the name of the knockout mutation caused by genes that receives transposons?
insertion mutation
Mechanism of establishing humoral memory
need helper T cells
long lasting immunity provided for by
long lasting plasma cells (bone marrow)
secrete Ab of highest affinity

specific memory B cells (secondary lymphoid organs)
resting, non dividing cells
few in blood
Give important characteristics of tuberculoid leprosy.
Th1 responseLepromin DTH positive on skin testCD4>CD8 at lesion siteLow bacteriaGranuloma formation and nerve damage29-12
Blacklegged (or deer) ticks
What is the vector of Lyme Disease?
Why would rhogam be given?
Mom: RH- child: RH+During pregnancy mixing, mom makes antibodies. Rhogam:gamma globulin antibodies. Rhogam given before her own antibodies can be made.
The alternative path requires...
Four different molecules to land on the surface of the pathogen.
What does electron microscopy permit the viewing of?
internal cell contents or ultrastructure
How many layers of peptidoglycan does a gram negative cell wall have?
one or a few
What metabolic test differentiates between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
N. meningitidis can oxidize glucose and maltose to acids; N. gonorrhoeae can only oxidize glucose to acid
what class of mastigophora causes African sleeping sickness? and how is it transmitted?
trypanosoma brucei
transmitted by the tsetse fly
Q: If you looked to the classmate sitting next to you and you saw they had malignant pustules, you would immediately think they were infected with what?
A: Bacillus anthracis.
What is it called when A drug that kills harmful microbes without damaging teh host?
Selective toxicity
% of bacterial species that have been cultured
0.1% or less
The _____ RNA of influenza virus is replicated in the ______. (In the first blank describe the RNA)
negative sense single-stranded, nucleus
What are staining problems for gram stains? (5)
-need young cultures-some bacteria stain poorly-Decolorization timing is critical-Potential artifacts
Metabolic Pathways
1.  linear pathways
2. cyclic pathways
1. product of one reaction serves the substrate for the next.
2. starting molecule is regenerated to initiciate another turn of the cycle
Name 2 media types that pathogenic Neisseria will grow on
-very picky!
1. Chocolate agar
2. Thayer Martin media
-chocolate agar + bunch of antibiotics that kill other pathogens
What does Exotoxin A do?
induced by iron limitation, binds to receptors and enters host cytoplasm and ADP-ribosylates EF2, leading to inhibition of protein synthesis; convergent evolution with diptheria toxin, destroys cells during corneal infections
what are some symptoms of legionella pneumophila?
gradual onset of flu-like symptoms
fever, chills, and a dry cough as part of the early symptoms
can spread to GI tract and the CNS
Q: Of the four forms of Plasmodium sp. which is most common in the USA?
A: Plasmodium vivax.
What is another name for a gene coding for a gene product?
Open Reading Frame
Which is more severe:a. Primary HSV infection in transplant patientb. Reactivation of latent HSV infection in transplant patient
a. First time infection of HSV19-10
raccoons, skunks, bats, and canines
What are the most common animals that carry rabies in the U.S.?
Chemical Defenses in Innate Immunity
Skin- fatty acids in sebum; low pH; low moisture; high salt; lysozome; interferonsRespiratory Tract- lysozome; salt in tears; interferonsGastrointestinal Tract- low pH; bile salts; gastric juices; lysozome; interferonsGenitourinary Tract- low pH; interferons
Name 4 enzymes of S. aureus that can tunnel through tissue
1. hyaluronidase
-break down connective tissue
2. staphylokinase
-lyses fibrin clots
3. lipase
-degrades fats and oils
4. protease
-destroy tissue proteins
What is the mainstay of Chlamydia treatment?
macrolides and tetracyclines; must be used for >10 days; in non-compliant patients a long-acting macrolide (e.g. azithromycin) is drug of choice
Describe the B. Anthracis capsule
a poly D-glu capsule (IE: the ONLY bacteria with polypeptide capsule)
Lac operon: What is Z, Y, and A?
Beta-galactosidase (cleaves lactose), permease, and transacetylase (use unknown).
What is the Positive Predictive Value?
PPV = TP / (TP + FP)*100%
The probability that positive test results are correctly positive
What happens when a flagella rotates clockwise? counterclockwise?
clockwise - causes bacteria to stop and tumblecounterclockwise - propels bacteria forward
What is the percentage shape and function of IgA antibodys
13% Dimer, Cluster or group antigen, found in mucus membrain and milk
2) Frame-shift mutation is a
change in the ORF that changes all the downstream amino acids
How is tetanus treated? Is there a vaccine?
Antitoxin – tetanus immune globulin (TIG); PCN or TCN and removing infected tissue; Vaccine – 5 doses during infancy/childhood with boosters every 10 years
What is the major characteristic of the gram+ cell?
Peptidoglycan wall, it may weigh up to 50% or more of the dry weight of the cell
the nucleic acid of a virus will be what type? linear, circular, or segmented?
can be circular, segmented, or linear
What are the 3 types of infection caused by Francisella tularensis?
Skin infection at site of bit or abrasionGI infection after ingestion of contaminated meatInhalation (only requires 10 to 50 organisms)18-7
What does conjugation between Hfr and F- cells result in?
only a portion of the F factor being replicated and transferred - F- remains F-
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