Microbiology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Spontaneuos generation
Eyepiece Magnification
-microaerophile-bacterial diarrhea-contaminates alomst 100% of poultry carcass-most common cause of undiagnosed bacterial diarrhea
Cylinder, Rod Shaped

•Neutrophiles (most bacteria)
     - Prefer neutral pHs (between pH 5.5-8.0)
Attaches to host
digests blood clots
What are cloning vectors?
Soluble lectins (carbo-binding proteins)
any deviation from health
moderate T
most known bacteria 
10ºC, 37ºC, 45ºC
Gi tract of warm blooded animals
partially shaded soil in temperate regions
tropical oceans and soils 
bio remediation
sewage, toxic waste
Group of organisms:unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic
How is Kuru spread?
A nucleic acid and capsid
ringworm is caused by what?
How would you treat Cryptosporidium
Affect multiple cell populations (cytokines)
microbicidal; sporicidal with longer exposurefar right of periodic chart
extreme halophiles
require NaCl over 2M;
intracellular K & Cl ions much greater in extreme halophiles than other bacteria to compensate for the extreme salt concentration extracelluarly
What signals a holliday junction?
localized abnormal growth of cells
Micrococcus luteus
CocciG+Staphylo, tetrad, diploNormal skin bacteriaYellow and smooth glossy appearance
Inhibits Nucleic Acid SynthesisUsed only for anaerobic infectious agents, but doesn't damange humans)
single-stranded DNAB19 causes erythema infectiosum▪ low-grade fever, bright red rash on cheeks (“slapped face”; see Fig. 24.25)Adeno-associated virus (A-AV)▪ replication-defective type of parvovirus that requires helper adenovirus
enterobacteriacease are all oxidase what
Protein is assembled by the
Gram +
thick cell wall
stains purple
easily treated with antibiotics
(strep throat)
Group Translocation involves
enzymes and membrane proteins
Lyme Disease
Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochete- no gram stain
Phase 1- bullseye rash
Phase 2- CNS impaired- dizzyness, FACE PARALYSIS
Phase 3- joint pain, arthritis from antibodies
spread by deer tick
vaccine fails 1 in 5, TAKE ANTIBIOTICS as early as possible
device for maintaining the logarithmic growth of a culture by the continuous addition of fresh medium
How large are complementarity determining regions in Ig's?
~10 aa
Covalent modifications of host RNApol, for early, mid and late proteins
nonspecific enzyme that breaks down cell walls in gram-positive bacteria.
Basics shapes of bacteria/archaea
Cocci, rod, spiral
Herpes Simplex
Symptoms: fever, throat pain, ulcerations in mouth and throat, itchy tingling pain, blisters that break leaving painful sores
Incubation period: 2-20 days
Causative agent: herpes simplex virus, usually type 1
pathogenesis: virus multiplies, cell destruction and blisters, immune response quickly limits the infection, stress activates breakouts
Epidemiology: widespread virus, transmitted by close physical contact
Prevention/Treatment: acyclovir, penciclovir, medications that inhibit HSV DNA polymerase
How do you treat limes disease?
distilled beverage
a beverage containing alcohol concentrated by distillation
What disease was eliminated in 1977?
Technique of spreading bacteria thinly over a solid surface which allowed for a single bacterium to be deposited at some sites
cell organelle where rRNA synthesis takes place
a group of potentially interbreeding organisms that can produce viable offspring
ANTI FUNGAL- Binds to microtubules, inhibits mitosis- Useful against ringworm and atheletes foot
criteria for microbial growth
chemical requirementsphysical requirementsO2 requirementssterilityproper temperature
protist that moves with a pseudopod
toxin produced by Amanita phalloides (basidiomycote) targeting the GI tract
Example of ss (-) sense RNA
Orthomyxovirus (influenza)
Define/identify bactericidal
- An agent which destroys bacteria
What is the main component of bacterial cell walls?
synchronous growth
hypothetical pattern of growth during the log phase in which all the cells in a culture divide at the same time
Control for adherence
Transient expression of adhesion molecules and transient production of chemokines
which HPV strains convert to carcinoma
16, 18
protien that splices out introns in mRNA
Aerobic respiration
▪ Glycolysis  TCA Cycle  ETC (O2 is required for ETC to function)Net total with TCA + ETC = 38 ATP (Glycolysis itself does NOT require O2 )▪ O2 is the final electron acceptor in ETC chain; ▪ continued TCA requires continued function of the ETC to regenerate NAD+.▪ metabolic intermediates can be used to make proteins, lipids, carbohydrates▪ Glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + ATP
P. mirabilis living in your gut, taking up space"living together, neither harm or benefit"
Fodder DiseaseLimber-neckWould botulismInfant botulism
Botulism is known to cause:
During which growth phase is metabolism and growth at its maximum?
Log phase
What is Brucellosis caused by?
3 Brucella species
primary wastewater treatment
physical separation of wastewater contaminants usually by separation and setting
IV drug users are associated w/
S. aureus
nosocomial infection
infections acquired from the hospital environment; environmental stresses, immunocompromised patients and antibiotic resistant bacteria add to the prevalence of this type of infection
Temporary Wet Mount Disadvantage
Fluid drifting and evaporation
this cell organelle found in plants that provides nutrients
5 steps in phagocytosis
chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, exocytosis
Conducting Division
Includes nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi.Provides rigid tubes for air to reach lungs
which of the follwoing substances is used for surgical hand scrubs
What is diarrhea?
frequent watery or loose stool
A small, extrachromosomal piece of DNA is called a
What is symbiosis?
we need each other to survive
opportunistic pathogens
cause disease when the host's defenses are compromised.
What are the four stages of the bacterial growth curve?
How do you treat T. solium
Parziquantel or Albendazole
The pol gene codes for
1.  Protease
2.  Integrase
3.  Reverse transcriptase 
Allow immune system to respond to new Ag's without "stale" responses interfering
Turner Syndrome XO
Female, 2n-1=45, 0 Barr bodies99% fetuses die1/2000 females bornwide-set nipplesslight webbing (extra fold of skin) in the back of the neckshort staturecoarse facial featuresslow or little sexual development at pubertypoor development of ovaries -  sterilesymptoms can be treated with hormone therapyonly aneuploidy not related to mother’s age
can use CO2 as sole source of carbon
Incinceration: sterilize or disinfect?
kills prions also by autoclave - 132 C for 1 hour
If a transporter compsoed of a single membrane component is importing H into the cell while exporting N ions out of htecell, what would this transporter be called?
Microbial Nutrition and Metabolism
any substance that is:
(i) absolutely required for the growth of a microbe
(ii) enhances growth of a microbe 
What does yersinia pestis cause?
bubonic and pneumonic plague
the process of removing all water from frozen food under vacuum
in this type of symbiosis, one member benefits and the other neither looses or gains from relationship
Detergents: strong wetting agent and tension reducer, l... the m..
lift the microbe
Agostini Bassi
Showed silkworm disease was caused by fungus
type of mutation that results from exposure to known mutagens physical or chemical that interact with DNA in a disruptive manner
induced mutation
Structural DivisionsUpper respiratory tract
noce, nasal cavity, and pharynx
What is trachoma?
chronic inflammation of cornea and conjunctiva
What is periodontal disease?
inflammation and degeneration of structures that support the teeth (gums and bones)
What are cloriforms?
Aerobic or or facultative anaerobic, GM-, robs that ferment lactose with acid and gas formation. Usually nonpathogentic.
Influenza has what two types of spikes?
H and N
#  of cells it takes you to get sick
What environment does a capnophile prefer?
high levels of CO2
What are fats hydrolyzed to?
glycerol & 3 fatty acids
Who is most at risk for California Encelphalitis virus
Young children
TCR is similar to what of the Ig?
Fab fragment
1 x phosphoenol pyruvate -> 1 x pyruvate
brief metabolic purpose/physiological purpose of ETC
utilize the electrons from reduced coenzymes to generate a proton motive force which is then used to generate ATP via the ATP synthase; electrons successively transferred to molecules with increasing reduction potentials
Medium construction
Defined medium 
exact chemical composition of each and every ingredient is known
Most complicated ingredient: casamino acids

mixture of a.a. obtained by acid/enzymatic hydrolysis of milk protein casien

What is tick-borne typhus known as?
rocky mountain spotted fever
What are the general characteristics of S. pneumoniae?
Causes 60-70% of pneumonias
Fastidious nutrient requirements - blood or chocolate agar
the key element of cellular metabolism is A...
this is like a p... b..
ATP is a n....
portable battery
Pure Culture
One that contains a single species of bacteria
Fungal disease of lower respiratoryHistoplasmosis
Resembles tuberculosis, can produce lesions in all organsacquired from airborne spores
what are prion infections in humans?
kuru and creutzfelt-Jakob disese
What are the symptoms of whipworm?
chronic diarrhea, rectal prolapse
Viruses are too small to see witht he electron microscope
Iron is required for:
enzyme function and use in Electron Transport Chain
Describe viruses!
- can have DNA or RNA but not both-they can not be grown on artificial media--have a narrow host range
In the Encephalitis period, where does the rabie virus infect
Cerebellum, limbic or hippocampus
IL-12 deficiencies caused what in all 3 patients?
Recurrent opportunistic infections, some from immunizations
Specific immune signal (classical pathway) = antibody targeting (an antibody which binds to foreign molecules on a cell surface and attracts C1)Innate recognition (alternate pathway) = farther down on the pathway, the C3 form can bind to generic bacterial
two ways compliment can be triggered
Process of binary fission
1. Parent cell enlarges cell wall, membrane, and overall volume; 2. Septum grows inward as chromosomes and cellular constituents migrate to opposite poles; 3. Septum synthesizes through cell center; 4. Cell membrane patches itself
What is polycistronic mRNA?
One mRNA strand that codes for multiple genes
stem cell
a cell that can develop into a number of final cell types
Krebs Cycle, also known as c..a...c....
is a...
2 p... a... m... are metabolized , 6 c...d...m.. are produced
Gives off 3 CO2 (cycle goes t... for each glucose)
= 6 CO2
citric acid cycle
pyruvate acid molecules, carbon dioxide molecules
Exponential (log) phase
Stage of growth in which cells divide at a constant rate
Generation time is measured during this time of active multiplication
Bacteria are all chemoheterotrophic, what is this?
feeding on organic material without photosynthesis: used to describe an organism that obtains its nourishment from organic, as opposed to inorganic, substances and does not require light energy for its metabolism.
What does the outer wall of the tubercle contain?
fibroblasts, lymphocytes, neutrophils
What is their antigenic ability?

Exotoxins - good antigen
Endotoxins - poor antigen
What are the factors that affect kill curves?
Numbers, Environment, Microbial characteristics, Action of antimicrobial
Describe aerotolerant anaerobe!
- cannot use O2 for growth but can tolerate it -when inoculated into a tube will be dispersed evenly
Rev protein is a ___ _____ ______ that binds to ___
RNA binding protein
IL-10 KO mice develop inflammatory bowel syndrome from what?
Inability to turn off inflammation from intestinal microbes
Organic acid (usually one type ex. Lactic Acid), Mixed acids (Lactic Acid, Formic Acid ect.) , Not an acid (Neutral end product)
Other Options for Pyruvate Utilization
Isolation of Microorganisms
Streak Plate Technique
- acts to dilute the inoculum
- growth becomes progessively less dense as distance from the start point increases
- Direction 1 (20-30 streaks)
- Direction 2
    --> rotated 90

    -->extended from stop point of direction 1
nucleic acid probe
a strand of nucleic acid that can be labeled and used to hybridize to a complementary molecule from a mixture of other nucleic acids
Koch's postulates
For an organism to be the cause of a particular disease, the organisms must be observed in all affected animals.When the microorganism is isolated and identified in the laboratory, it must again cause the same disease when inoculated into susceptible animals. The identical microorganism must also be recovered again from the inoculated animals.The identical microorganism must also be recovered again from the inoculated animals.
What is schlerosing panencephalitis?
when males get measles all over their brain (dead tissue in males) - is fatal
What are the symptoms of SARS?
high fever, body aches, mild respiratory symptoms (cough after 2-7 days)
What is an antigen (Ag)?
An MO with exotoxins that stimulate the immune system(IS) to produce corresponding (specific) antibodies (Ab) that will react with the MO and destroy it.
What are symptoms of Rotavirus?
Vomiting and diarrhea for a week or so.
You can get HBV by _____ & contact w/ ______
sex and blood
What type of amino acids are typically part of a B cell epitope?
Hydrophilic (outside of protein complex)
What is XDR TB and what is it resistant to?
Extreme Drug Resistant TB
resistant to INH, rifampin + fluoroquinilone + injectable aminoglycocides
What are the virulence factors of group A strep?
hyaluronic acid capsule, M protein, lipoteichoic acid, exotoxins, and streptokinase
What are the granulocyte cells of the innate immune system? what do they contain?
basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells; granules with inflammatory mediators
What are the virulence factors of gas gangrene?
metabolism (gas prodctoin), toxin production
What does chalmydia trachomatis cause an increased risk for? why?
AIDS, because the recruitment of CD4 lymphs which is what HIV invades
does + sense carry RDRP?
no it must be made from the negative sense strand thats produced.
What's the function of Protease in HIV
Cleaves gag to MA, NP & CA
What bacteria can grow in foods if desiccation is not followed?

Staphylococcus aureus in CEREAL if liquid is added
Salmonella in DRIED POWDERED EGGS if left to sit out for 3 months
What is the epidemiolgy of toxic shock sundrome?
nasal surgeries, tampons in too long
What are the physical barriers of the mucus membrane?
goblet cells release mucus, epiglottis covers trachea
waht are the different kinds of urine specimens?
clean catch mid stream, suprapubic aspirate, catherized specimen (directly out of catheter or bladder)
Why is cobra venom harmful to complement system?
Contains C3 homolog not able to be regulated by Factor I = exhaustive depletion of C3
WHAT are the 4 steps of Koch's postulates ?
The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but not in healthy organisms.

The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.

The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.
The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.
How do you treat BActerial Vaginosi?
lower pH (beacause they like a high pH, which kills of lactobacillus)
WHat does a set of blood culture bottles contain?
bottles of broth: one with oxygen and one without
What are the systemic responses of Secondary Peritonitis
1.  Release of TNF a, IL-1, 6 & INF g
2.  Paralysis of the gut, increase CO, venous dilation 
Viral/Disease control
vaccination -if there is one
who, what, where, when, why
Organisms:multicellular/unicellular eukaryotescell wallsabsorptive nutrition
Trichomonas vaginalis
protozoan lacking mitochondria- uses H2 for energy
yellowish-green discharge smells bad
itching of vagina and inner thighs
males are asymptomatic
STD, moist bath towel, bath tub
growing resistance to anti-protozoan drugs
Block viral replication/transcription▪ synthetic purine▪ blocks DNA synthesis
Chemoautotrophic Betaproteobacteria
Thiobacillus genus
Boiling (10 min)
cytoplasmic membrane structure
Myxococcus xanthus
Gram negative rod-shaped bacteria
H2//O2-Two hydrogenases produce reducing equivalents and ATP
-in pseudomonas family-ferments-sugars to alcohols-spittle beer-used for beverages
these cleave complement proteins
Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis
"the brown algae"
Phaeophyta "kelps"
-not pathogenic except Bdellovibrio
Human herpes virus 1
Cold sores
Adenoviral pharyngitis
45 different types
fever, sore throat, cough, swollen lymphnodes, pus on tonsils, conjuntivitis, self limiting, COULD progress to pneumonia
spread by resp droplets, crowded groups
DONT take aspirin, DONT take antibiotics
Regions of thymus
Cortex and medulla
Feminizing insects-don't ask don't tell; or a liberal agenda?
Name the 3 alkylating agents

ethylene oxide
infection in the bronchiole respiratory passage
Microbial Genetics
How microbes inherit traits
Require oxygen for metabolism...
can live only in the absence of oxygen...
can live in the prescence or absence...
grow best in low oxygen environments...
Bacterial photosynthesis does not produce oxygen
Families of Viruses:express their genetic info as RNA at some stages in their replication cylces
LRT FUNGUS- Usually in immunocompromised- Caused by Cryptococcus neoformans- Found in soil and pigeon droppings- Inhaled cells penetrate lungs, rarely get into blood stream and hurt brain / meninges
-a methane-producing prokaryote; CH4 is produced by either reduction of CO2 with H2 or from vertain organic compounds-anaerobes
-old name blue-green algae-oxygenic photosyntheseis-Z scheme-chlorophyll A-phycobilins-heterocyst (round, seemingly empty cells, along a filament or an end of one)
What is a gentically identical bacteria containing the gene of interest in a vector?
What is the treatment for anthrax?
anabolic metabolism of the pyruvic acid that is produced in glycolysis
Location of new protein synth, proliferation
Define conjugation
Process of genetic recombination between two organisms via a cytoplasmic bridge between them.
inhibits DNA gyrase/helicase ( DNA unwinding enzymes) stopping transcription
Give an example of a fluoroquinilone
Necrotizing Fasciitis
Very rare flesh-eating disease, streptococcus bacteria spread deep within the fascia, fibrous sheets of the connective tissue surrounding muscles and binding them to one another.
kingdom Animalia
have some type of mouth
reaction between antibody and a soluble antigen resulting in a visible insoluble complex
A hacking cough is characteristic of
the second most abundant element, comes in 2 forms: organic and inorganic
mostly is in inorganic form
Processes that utilize energy stored in ATP to synthesize and assemble the subunits (building blocks) of macromolecules that make up the cell
Protein substance developed by the body in response to the presence of an antigen that counteracts the antigen 
Mycobacterium avium
common secondary infection in AIDS
malaris is carried by what?
anopheles mosquito
What is inflammation of the ureters?
calcium compound in bones, teeth, etc.
life forms arise only from other living things of the same kind
Whats a vector?
such as fleas, rodents, flies
mechanical- no repro
bioloigical- repro in vector
Vulvovaginal candidiasis
Candida albicans
normal flora in vagina, overgrows with antibiotic use
symptoms from inflammatory response
(-) ssRNA from influenzae has ___ segments
Which is higher in MHC regions, non-altering aa substitions or altering aa substitions?
3 types of cytokines
autocrine (self), paracrine (neighboring cells), endocrine (systemic)
T/F: Azotobacter vinlendii produces a slime layer that surrounds the cell in order to protect its nitrogenase form oxygen. This slime layer increases in thickness in low oxygen concetrations (2.5%) and decreases at near atmospheric oxygen concentrations
insect disease, no cell wall, helical shape
What are the 4 generations of cephalosporins?

molecules used by some microbes to help scavenge for iron molecules
Essential Nutrients
Source of Nitrogen
form bacteria needs
form that exists in environment
ways to assimilate
storage needed 
Needs reduced form:
NH3, NH4+1
Exists in environment as oxidized form:
NO3-1, N2
Cell needs to reduce nitrogen to use/assimilate it
(1) direct utilization of reduced nitrogen
NH3 --> NH3
 (2) Assimilatory nitrate reduction
NO3-1 --> NH3 
(3) Assimilatory diatomic nitrogen reduction (N2fixation) 
N2 --> NH3 
changed to ammonia to use 
must change to nonvolatile and store
α-amino group of L-glutamic acid
Υ-amide group of L-glutamine 
Bacteria outnumber cells in the body by
the portion of a processed antigen that is recognized by MHC protein
in this type of reservoir, pathogens like Clostridium can persist outside of animals
reproduction through m.... , sometimes s....
mitosis, sexual
multi or uni-cellular - non motile, absorb nutrients, cell wall chitin
Treatment used to decrease the number of microbes in an area, usually skin
Morpholines (amorolfin)
Inhibition of fungal sterol synthesis (which alters the cell membrane structure and function)
Disvision Gracilicutes:Class?
Class I: Oxyphotobacteria ( the cyanobacteria)Class II: AnaxyphotobacteriaClass III: Scotobacteria: non-photosynthetic bacteria
Bottom yeasts result in the production of:
How do you diagnose SARS?
chest x-ray, ELISA
2 major antigen binding sites, minor circulating antibody, distribution=blood and lymph, B lymphocyte surfaces
painless ulcer w/ raised margins and hard edges that develops during syphilis (1st stage)
Enzymes regulated by addition or deletion of small organic molecules
Modification of enzymes
[Metabolic Pathway Inhibitor]Sulfonamides:
-Group of related compounds called sulfa drugs 
-Broad spectrum 
-Inhibits growth through competitive inhibition of the enzyme that aids in the production of folic acid 
-Structurally similar to para-aminobenzoic acid, which is a substrate in the folic acid pathway 
-Humans cannot synthesize folic acid, highly selective toxicity 
-Resistance is due to plasmid which codes for enzyme with a lower affinity to the drug
Where in the GI does Cryptosporidium attach to?
Small intestine
shrinking of a cell with separation of the cell membrane from the cell wall, resulting from loss of water in a hypertonic solution
Why use mice?
Breed rapidly, large numbers of progeny, large numbers of genetically characterized strains
What is the signaling dimer needed by BCR's?
T/F: some archaea utilize a very simple system containing one protein called bacteriorhodopsin and its pigment to generate a proton motive force using light energy.
Factors pertaining to ORGANISM

Kind of organism
G+ vs G-
Spores vs Vegetative

Previous history of organism
Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy
combines two beams of plane-polarized light after passing through a specimen; their interference is used to create the image
Nosocomial pneumonia
main causes of pneumonia that occurs in the hopsital
how to get toxoplasmosis
-raw/undercooked flesh of the intermediate host-cat feces
Cell Theory
all living organisms are composed of cells and arise from preexisting cells.
the portion of an antigen that is recognized by an immunoglobulin or a T cell receptor
Quaternary Structure
Aggregation of two or more polypeptide chains.
What is another name for neutrophils?
polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)
5 classes of antibodies 
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
Scanning electron microscope
-coated with metal-used to observe external structures and morphology
aseptic technique
techniques that dont accept the entry of unwanted contaminants
organisms that use light as source of energy and carbon dioxide as their chief source of carbon- algae,
When do you see antibodies for syphilis in the blood?
secondary stage
Factors that regulate the oral flora

salivary factors
ion content
oxidation-reduction potential
co2 o2
organic components

host diet
Example of ds DNA w/ RNA intermediate
Hepadnavirus (hep B)
[Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor]Flouroquinolones:
-Inhibits actions of topoisomerase DNA gyrase, which causes DNA to supercoil
-Broad spectrum 
-Resistance due to alteration of DNA gyrase
term to refer to two flagella, one at each end of a bacterium
The (+) ssRNA genome of Coronavirus is ______ & ________
How do microbes evade oxygen-dependent killing?
Production of superoxide dismutase/catalase, inhibition of respiratory burst/phago, blocking of NADPH recruitment, granule targeting to plasma membrane
Barr Bodies
Discovered by Mary Lyon in 1961Seen on edge of nucleus
Only on females not males. Often uses as sex test
Describe germicidal scrubbing.
it is a labile (easily removable; unstable)
residual action of the germicide: sticks to skin and continues to work
has lower bacterial number bc bacteria can't multiply
Bacillus megatherium
G+ large bacilli. The cells appear in long chains. Forms endospores which are resistant to UV
Living cells must accomplish two general tasks to multiply:
DNA replication
DNA expression (transcription - DNA to RNA, translation - RNA to protein)
reverse translation
the mental process of using a codon table an the amino acid sequence of a protein to obtain a possible sequence of the mrna or the gene that encoded the protein
Diauxic Growth
Happens when there is more than one quality source for energy.  Has an exponential phase, a short lag phase and then another exponential phase.
What does the RES do?
connects blood capillaries to lymphatic system, provides a niche for immune cells that reside in the tissues (attack various invaders of these tissues)
phagocytes recognize a pathogen using ___
pattern recognition molecules (PRM)
Body sites without normal flora
spinal fluid/brain,
bladder (urine is sterile),
lower respiratory tract (lungs), muscle,
How do you diagnose whooping cough?
signs/symptoms (lymphocytosis, whoop), culture on special media (mercury like on Bordet-Gengou), Rapid serological test, PCR
What is infection of the kidneys? what can this lead to?
pyelonephritis; sepsis
what is an endogeneous disease?
one contracted from one's own flora
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Caused by a coronavirus; high mortalityvaccine Under development, although there have been no outbreaks since 2007Found in Chinese cats
What are the symptoms of Toxocara canis?
1.  Eosinophilia
2.  Fever
3.  Hepatospleenmegaly 
Another important complement property
Keep the immune complex soluble and not clogging arteries
Anatomy of the Y Chromosome - SRY
sex-determining region Y gene
Discuss the properties of cathode rays.

High intensity electron beams
Any electric insulator stops them
Non-penetrating, but if they do, they STERILIZE
Blocked by glass
Symptoms of Scarlet Fever:
Strep throat accompanied by a skin rash. Usually only get scarlet fever once because body makes antibodies against the toxin called Antitoxin
What are the symptoms of brucellosis?
undulant fever (spikes at night)
How would cancer vaccinations work?
expression of mutated or inappropriote proteinsin tumors result in new epitopes that can be recognized by the immune system.
Which cells release inflammation mediators? what are the inflammation mediators?
mast cells and macrophages; cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators
What differentiates H. pylori from C. Jejuni biochemically?
H. pylori produces ureas
WHat is cryptococcus neoformans?
fungal disease that is inhaled and spreads to CNS and meninges
How do you diagnose cystitis?
supra-pubic aspirate (draw urine right out of bladder so it doesnt get contaminated with organisms of the urinary tract) - should be strile
Ecology and Isolation of Streptomyces
-primarily soil-odor of soil from production of geosmins-alkaline and neutral soil favorable -well-drained soils
What is the life cycle of Malaria-Plasmodium?
-Sporozoites-live in mosquito, enter blood and germinate in liver cells.-Merozoites-grow in human host, gro in RBCs, when a RBC bursts fever is triggered.-Ringed trophozoites- merozoite orecursers in RBCs
IFN g cases vasodilation & edema resulting in
1.  Rhinorrhea
2.  Pharynx, larynx swelling
3.  Trachea/bronchi inflammation 
Function/location of Lymphocytes in cutaneous immune system
Mainly CD8 gamma/delta T cells in intraepidermis, CD4/CD8 alpha/beta T cells
How does parovirus cause anemia?
Lyses precursor cells in the bone marrow
basic process of presenting antigens to t-cells
recognized by dendritic cells (derived from macrophages), which bind and phagocytose the microbes - now known as antigen presenting cells, which migrate to lymphoid organs to present the antigen to t-cells; antigens remain presented on the surface of the antigen presenting cell
What is fungemia? viremia?
fungi in the blood, virus in the blood
How does HIV evade vaccination?
infect activated CD4+ T helper cells by binding CD4 with chemokine receptors on their surfaces
This system is located on all cells except RBC and is used for self recognition
Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC)
Where does Nersseria Meningitis colonize?
throat and nasopharynx (then can go into blood)
What are the viral infections of the digestive tract?
mumps, rotavirus, norovirus, hepatitis,
What is a latent disease?
attacks and then the symptoms go away, but the virus doesnt go away, so the symptoms may come back later
Name the 3 things that make up the cell wall of Candida albicans
Mannan, glucan & chitin
What is a complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay?
An assay that uses complement to check for lysis by Ab against cells of a particular HLA type (important in transfusions, etc.), lysis = Ab present for that HLA molecule (trypan blue is taken up by dead cells)
Define "dimorphism" and list the five dimorphic fungi that cause disease in humans.
-dimorphism: fungi that produce two types of thalli (two shaped)
 -Five dimorphic fungi that cause disease in human:
1) Cocciciodes immitis
2) Histoplasma capsulation
3) Blastomyces dermatitidus
4) Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis
5) Sporothrix schencili
What is the lag phase?
The inital phase of growth with no visible growth happens - they are adjusting to their environment to optimize growth
What two virulance factor does the MO posses?

Filamentous hemagglutinin - attaches to tracheal cells causing binding and colonization

Petussis toxin - helps in adhesion and interferes with the metabolism of epithelial cells causing excessive mucous.
Name the Toxins of EHEC and their modes of action
1.  Inactives ribosome 60s
2.  Blocks protein synthesis
What is a consequence of mumps?
orchitis (swollen testes in males past puberty)
What are endospores? How many genera of bacteria produce them? What 2 did we see in lab? What is the unique compound that makes them so resistant)
Response to environmental stimuli that allows bacteria to what for better conditions.-5 genera-Clostridium, Bacillus-Dipicolenic acid
Describe some inner workings of tube worms (what they take up and what bacteria oxidize)
•Worm uptakes CO2 and H2S using hemoglobin protein 
•Bacterial symbiont is a sulfur oxidizer
•Makes organic matter for worm
Which TCR genes are located adjacent to each other?
alpha and delta (delta is within alpha)
What are neutrophils and what do they do?
they are white blood cells (leukocytes) and they can counteract small amounts of toxins.
What happens in Type I diabetes?
get a t cell mediated response for beta isolate cells leading to the destruction of those cells (the person can no longer make insulin)
What are the characteristics of the microbe mycoplasma pneumoniae?
no cell wall, plasma membrane with sterols, doesnt grow well on regular media
What the fuck are the 5 steps of viral replication for both animal viruses and bacteriophages?
1. Adsorption – Phage is adsorbed onto bacterial cell wall 2. Penetration – Phage penetrates bacterial cell wall and cell membrane. Phage DNA injected 3. Biosynthesis – The phage DNA directs the cell’s metabolism to produce viral components – proteins and copies of phage DNA 4. Maturation – Collar, sheaths, and base plates have been attached to heads. Tail fibers are added last. 5. Release – Bacterial cell lyses, releasing mature phages.
a skin rash on the palms and soles
The diagnosis of tuberculosis is aided by
What is the difference between viral and bacteria conjunctivitis?
viral you have red eyes but no pus
does Euk have shine daug seg?? what does it have instead?? what effect does this have???
No shineo daug sequence ; however it has capping, 

§ Shine-Dalgarno sequence:a short stretch of nucletodies on a prokaryotic mRNA molecule upstream of the translational start site (AUG) theat binds to ribosomal RNA and thereby brings the ribosomes to the initiation codon on the mRNA 

If the hep B surface antigen is in the blood for more than 60 days, what can result?
fatal liver disease (liver cirrhosis), increased chance of liver cancer
cyt-, cyto-
Prostate cancer marker
Bubonic Plague
Yersinia pestis
persistant organic pollutants
Enveloped or naked: Hepadnavirus.
Amino acid biosynthesis: 2-Oxoglutarate
 Glutamate Glutamine Arginine Proline
Bacterial Conjuctivitis (Pinkeye)
Haemophilus aegyptius
Word association:

Lancet-shaped diplococci
Strept. Pneumo
an organism that disease
Norepinephrine fx
excitatory (generally) or inhibitory
-release machine and completed product
What determins cell shape?
Murein Sacculus
Once phagocytes recognized the pathogen they must use
Ph for Fungal media
5.5-6.0 PH
soft tissue infections
streptococcus pyogenes-strep throat-have afimbrial adhesins-exotoxins-m proteins=autoimmunity
inhibit protein synthesis
tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, erythromycin, aminoglycasides, macrolides, oxazolidinons, lincosamides
a) flaming - Bunsen-burner incineration; denatures proteinsb) dry heat sterilization (hot-air)
Bacteremia that causes a systemic
immune response to the infection.
MOA:  inhibit protein synthesis by blocking translocation, bind to 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit
USE:  URI, pneumonias, STD (gram positive cocci), streptococcal infections in pts allergic to penicillin. Used to treat Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia, Neisseria.
Generalized Transduction
All bacterial genes are transferred
ABC transporter
"ATP-binding cassette" tranporter- a super family of energy driven transport systems that are critical for transporting nutrients, always against the gradient
Basteria and temperature
Mesophile: growth 20-55 C
Thermophiles: growth at > 55 C
Psychrophiles/ Cryophiles: growth
Single cell eukaryotes capable of motion.
drift accounted for in yearly vaccines.Killed more people in the shortest period of time.Segmented genome recombination from alternate sources possible.
Define trachoma
=preventable blindness caused by infection with Chlamydia trachomatis
-chronic follicular conjunctivitis that progresses to conjunctival scarring -> cornea abrasions -> blindness
-seen mainly in kids in under-privileged populations
Alexander Flemming is credited with the discovery of ______.
grow either aerobically or anaerobically
Obligate anaerboe
Define: archaea
domain of prokaryotes lacking peptidoglycan in cell wall
Is a complete, infectious viral particle composed of nucleic acid and surrounded by a protein coat that protects it from the environment and is a vehicle of transmission to other host cells.
*breaks down the protective mucous coating of the respiratory tract*assists in viral budding and release*prevents viruses from sticking*participates in host cell fusion
Metabolic Diversity
Phototrophsorganism that obtain energy from light
Are all genes subjected to regulation?
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Causes Otitis media, sinusitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia
Most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children under 2
It inflames the bronchioles and restricts air to alveoli
During replication of the virus, expression of the fusion protein at the cell membrane can result in the fusion of neighboring cells and the formation of multi-nucleate cells (syncytia)
What molecular component of the cell envelope is Chlamydiae missing that most other bacteria have?
Peptidoglycan 16-5
toxins that destroy WBC, produced by some Staphylo and some Strepto species
Importance of Normal Flora
Health--provide dietary nutrients (e.g. vitamin k, B-12)
Bacterial antagonism: (normal vs. normal and normal vs. transient): -Nutrient competition (iron and oxygen) -Production of antimicrobial substances (organic acids, oxidative byproducts, antibiotics, fatty acids) -Stimulate immunity
What type of organisms fall under Prokaryotes?
common form of energy storage and strcutural support
the study of the cause of a disease
a fat digesting enzyme produced by certain contaminating bacteria in milk.
what is essential for all life forms?
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have DNA that is associated with histones?
give an example of an erythrovirus
parvovirus B19
What is tracheal cytotoxin?
tetrapeptide derived from peptidoglycan; used by Bordetella pertussis and causes cioliostasis and inhibition of DNA synthesis, eventually cell death;
Define: lichen
a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium
having two flagella, one at each end
normal flora of the Colon
Bacteroides species (anaerobes)Clostridium species (C.diff)Fusobacterium speciesE.ColiProteus speciesPseudomonas aeruginosaenterococcus speciesother bacteria and yeast
-a group of detergents derived from the ammonium ion-disrupt cell membranes of bacteria-odorless-colorless-stable-easily diluted in water-non-toxic-works well against G+ bacteria-tasteless*does NOT work against G- bacteria bec of outer cell membrane
What are some commercial products that are synthesized from chemically synthesized genes?
Which strand is synthesized DISCONTINUOUSLY in pieces as DNA polymerase moves AWAY from the replication fork?
the lagging strand
Which DNA virus family does not have an icosahedral capsid?
If you do not clear HBV after infection, what is the probability of you presenting with chronic hepatitis?
acq thru bite of infected rat fleacauses bubonic form of plaguesymptoms: rigor, severe headache, high fever, cough, hard breathing, sputum very frothy and projectile!
Yersinia pestis
-What our bodies make in response to viruses-Broad-Only works within species
What is generation time?
Average time needed to double bacterial population. 
Determined during log phase growth
Inflammation is our body's
reaction to injury or infection
Generation Time
time required for a complete fission cycle which increased the population by 2
Avg. time 30-60 minutes
What is a mesosome?
=Invagination of cytoplasmic membrane of a prokaryote
-found in gram-positive bacteria
Total # of cases in population at given time-cross sectional
Conjugation and transfer of an F plasmid from an F+ donor to an F- recipientR-plasmid carries genes for antibiotic resistance
Selective Advantage
what are some characteristics of escherichia coli?
enteric rods
facultative anaerobe
motile peritrichous flagella
ferment lactose
name the C. Diff. toxins
Toxins A and B
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substance
Gram Stain:
developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884 – differentiates bacterial species into two groups based upon the physical and chemical properties in the cell wall of bacteria.
What is opsonization?
Enhancement of phagocytosis by coating with C3b
Clostridium tetani
Gram: +
Shape: rods
Location: manure
Disease: tetanus
Misc: DPT vaccine/produces endospores
Septic shock
also referred to as endotoxic shock because
endotoxin often triggers the immune response
that results in sepsis and shock. Since gram-positive
bacteria and fungi can also trigger this adverse immune
response, the term septic shock is more appropriate
killed organism vaccine: examples
virus: inactivated polio, rabies, hep A, influenza
bacteria: typhoid, pertussis
Which adhesin protein is associated with pyelonephritis?
P-pili or Pap pili2-11
air is passed thru HEPA filter and room is under positive air pressure, visitors must wear gown and masks, proper handwashing - level of precautions
reverse isolation
Complex media
Media that is made up of nutrients including extracts from yeasts, meat, or plants, or digest of proteins from these and other sources.
NAD+ and NADP are
derivatives of nicotine acid or vitamin B. Both function as electron carriers.
What kind of plasmid codes for the synthesis of sex pili
Gram -
Name some emerging diseases.
-AIDS, Flesh eating disease, Anthrax, Food poisoning, Toxic Shock Syndrome, and Lyme Disease.
What do vacuoles do?
they are temporary storage for biological molecules and ions, bring food into cells, provide structural support and store metabolic wastes.
proteus sp
swarm on surface of moist agar in concentric pattern
what diseases are caused by helicobacter pylori?
peptic ulcer disease (10-20%)
gastric carcinoma
other parasitic infections transmitted by ova
Toxocara canis (visceral larva migrans)


Taenia solium
normal flora of the vagina
childbearing yrs: Lactobacillus species, yeasts, strep speciesPrepuberty/post-meno: Colonic flora and skin flora
What does sepsis cause?
Bacteria in blood stream; septic shock
What chemical does Acetobacter and Gluconobacter fix?
Ethanol to acetic acid
the name of an organism and is often abbreviated by a single capital letter.
Name the 5 bacteria that most commonly cause ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Acinetobacter spp
Enterobacter cloacae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
CC 3-3

How do complement proteins enhance: phagocytosis?
Activated proteins coat pathogens and encourage opsinozation
Gram Positive Bacterial Cell Wall
Contain many layers of peptidoglycan and Teichoic acid
What are the specifics of Yersinia pestis?
Virulence factors:  Capsule, resistant to serum killing, Lipid A, etc. (pg. 334)
Vaccine:  Yes for plague
Treatment:  antibiotics, but penicillin not effective
G -, facultatively anaerobic rods
How does tetanus toxin work?
-terminal spores get into injury
-C. tetani is obligate anaerobe and grows as redox potential drops
-metalloprotease that degrades proteins for docking on surface of Neurotransmitter vesicles -> blocks NT release from presynaptic neurons -> disinhibition of motor neurons -> spastic paralysis
-able to get into SC by retrograde axonal transport
What is the primary cycle of Carbon assimilation used by autotrophic bacteria?
The Calvin-Benson Cycle
What does Clostridium difficile cause?
25% of diarrhea associated with antibiotic therapy, 95% of cases of pseudomembranous colitis, growing concern about increase in serious diarrhea and colitis by C. difficile
This group of bacteria are
alpha hemolytic
found in human oropharynx
MOC is bloodstream during dental procedure

causes sub acute bacterial endocarditis and dental caries (s. mutans)
Viridans group streptococci ( non-lancefield streptococci)
obligate intracellular organisms
"when it's Really Cold, you must stay inside"Rickettsia, Chlamydia
What is a syndrome?
A specific group of symptoms that always accompany a particular disease
Pseudomonas aeruginosa morphology, culture
Gram negative rods in pairs and singlesDoes Not ferment carbohydrates; Obligate anaerobeBlood Agar (BAP)- brown colonies, semi clearingMacConkey Agar- colorless colonies lactose-non fermentingNutrient Agar- blue-green colonies
What are the two reasons microbiologist feel that breathing is a terribly risky activity? (hint: they both involve breathing)

Breathing in exogenous flora (from sneezes, coughs, etc)= inhalation
Breathing in endogenous flora= aspiration
how does Group A strep defend itself?
resistant to phagocytosis, produces streptokinase that breaks down fibrin clots, and streptolysins that kill tissue cells, RBC and protective leukocytosis
What are
Plasma cells?
B lymphocytes (B cells)?
T lymphocells (T cells)?
Plasma cells - protein factories that make huge quantities of antibodies during an immune response
B cells - make and secrete antibodies
T cells

Cytotoxic T cells - insert perforins into foreign cell, causing it to burst

Suppressor T cells - slowly turn off immune response when it's done its job

Help T cells - produce lymphokines
Gram-Stain of a bacteria.
Stain is determined by nature of the cell wall biochemistry. Gram positive will stain purple. Gram negative will stain light pink.
What is the bacterial nucleoid?
the region in a bacterial cell containing the chromosome.
What is a common secondary problem caused by infection with group A strep?
glomerulonephritis due to Ag-Ab complexes
Higher organisms are arranged into taxonomic groups on the basis of evolutionary relationships. Why is this type of classification only now being developed for bacteria?
Most microorganisms do not contain structures that are readily fossilized, making it difficult to obtain info on the evolution
Culture Mediumany nutrient substance that can support microbial growth
Requirements for a usuful media1. Must supply physical+chemical requirements for growth2. It must be able to be sterile3. Must be able to be incubated
MOA of these drugs is that they block cell wall synthesis by inhibition of peptidoglycan cross-linking
Penicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, imipenem, aztreonam, cephalosporins
What type of condition would predispose to aspiration pneumoniae, and abscesses with endogenous flora (anaerobic streptococci, Fusobacterium)?
CNS injury (traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy)This would inhibit mechanical protection20-3
How cytotoxic T cell is activated
-TH0 binds to MHC2 on antigen presenting cell-SIGNAL 1: T cell receptor binds to antigen,CD4 binds to MHC2-SIGNAL 2:(constimulation)CD28 on T cell bind B7 on APC, cell is activated to TH1 or TH2
What was the first tuberculosis vaccine made with?
Attenuated strain of m. bovis (the "BCG" vaccine)
What does the study of microorganisms include?;
The study of Bacteria, viruses, Fungi, Algae, and Protozoa
Who is at risk for a Klebsiella pneumonia? What might it look like?
alcoholics and hospitalized patients, sputum looks like red currant jelly
Single cell plants; can be seen only through the use of an e- microscope; require living tissue for laboratory growth and study; adaptable to different environments.
smallest microorganism that cause infection only seen with electron microscope.
What are some of the theories of the pathophys of allergies?
increased IgE production, increased reactivity of mast cells, and increased susceptibility of target tissue to allergic mediators
How is malaria and yellow fever - controlled/prevented?
control source of transmission - mosquitoes
Gas Sterilization. Types, Uses, on what?
Ethylene Oxide: Kills by Alkylation on plastics, electronics, and rubber items. Must be mixed as it is explosive.ClO2:Fumigate closed rooms for Anthrax.
Are pathogenicity islands the work of phages or plasmids?
no-- they are virulence genes not associated with a known mechanism
Means/Techniques to Control Spread of Infectious Disease
- Confining pathogens to one area i.e. private room, keeping doors closed, etc.- Using personal protective equipment such as cover gowns, face protection devices, air filter respirators, gloves.- Disposing of contaminated linen, equipment and supplies following guideline and supplies following guidelines that prevent transfer of pathogens to others.-Using infection control measures to prevent pathogens from spreading when transporting laboratory specimens or patients.
What are the 4 beneficial effects of anti-retroviral therapy?
Increased CD4 T cell countDelay in progression to AIDSPrevent CV disease from chronic inflammationProlong survival30-5
All of the following are found in the outer membrane of a gram negative bacteria EXCEPT
1. lipoprotein
2. permeases
3. porin
4. LPS
-these are found in the cytoplasmic membrane in both gram negative AND gram positive
Q: Of the three types of diseases caused by Leishmania which is most severe?
A: The visceral (or systemic) form: Kala-azar.
Name 2 high risk groups for meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis.
1. Infants 6 months- 2 years old
-not able to produce own Ab yet
2. Army recruits
Why is LT less severe than cholera toxin?
LT is not secreted, LT must be cleaved by host cell protease, but V. cholerae produces its own protease
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