Microbiology Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
▪ Bacteria▪ Archaea
spntaneuos generation
Protein/carbohydrate structure
-Spirochete-Lyme disease-tick-borne-some protozoa use spiros as flagella-animal or human pathogens-relapsing fever-trasmitted through insect vector-death in 40% infected
animalia/ helmiths
parasiic worms
kingdom Protista
can photosynthesize
can produce oxygen and carbs that other organisms use
have a wide variety of shapes ( strings, beads, round, triangular, diatoms)
can reproduce sexually and asexually
Tuberculosis (TB)
Infects lungs
Streptococcal pharyngitis
strep throat
▪ flagella and/or ameba motion▪ most form cysts and are free living▪ some are parasites
Viral/bacterial DS/SS DNA
beneficial relationships between organisms
wide biosynthetic capacity
- require only a few simple nutrients in order to make all the monomers necessary to assemble cellular components 
multi-cellular, true tissues, photosynthetic, cell wall of cellulose
+ssRNA as their genome
What is necrosis?
tissue death
protein that protects genetic material
2 types?
lives in intestines;
very motile
coliforms: digest lactose
non-coliforms: no lactose
What's the vector for Leishmaniasis?
Can the TCR class switch?
(virus involved in the transfer)
continuous culture
constant environmental conditions maintained and constant removal of wastes; can observe the growth of microorganisms in an environment closer to that of their natural habitat – mimic natural conditions; can also control growth rate by controlling supply rate of a given nutrient
Cyanobacteria only have which photosystem?
noticeable disturbance or bodily function
Occurs in cubes of 8
Sulfa Drugs
Metabolic Analog Inhibitor(Inhibits enzymes in the synthesis of nucleotides which in turn inhibits NA and protein synthesis)
Rheumatic fever
targets heart and joints
pseudomonadaceae are all oxidase what/
Francesco Redi
disproved 'spontaneous generation.' sealed jar with decaying meat to show thatmaggots did not come from meat but were laid by flies
treat systemic infections; have similar mechanism of action as imidazoles
Microbes that use more complex molecules for C are:
E. coli
have pili for motility
abrupt burning pain during urination, urgent sense to pee, cloudy urine
short urethra, sexual intercourse, diaphragm usage
increase fluid intake, pee after intercourse
cranberry juice- has protein that looks like pili on bacteria that binds instead of bladder
enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen
Best function of IgM
Activation of complement
Parasites usually evolve before their hosts
Drugs like penicillin, which are products of or derived from the metabolism of living microorganisms. These agents work to kill or inhibit living organisms.
Bright-field Microscope
microscope that illuminates the specimen directly with bright light and forms a dark image on a brighter background
Anatomy of viruses
1. Complex
2. Enveloped
3. Naked
What is septicemia?
uncontrolled proiferation in blood
conversion of an industrial process from a small laboratory set-up to a large commercial fermentation
Who developed attenuated virus vaccines for chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies?
louis pasteur
Newly formed viruses in host cells
common metabolic products of aerobic spore forming bacteria/fungi
Fungi may form mutualistic associations with
plant rootscyanobacteria
ANTI MALARIAL- Interfere with malaria ability to hurt RBC's through breaking down hemoglobin
a treatment, usually chemical, that results in the vegetative pathogens on living tissue
What is the distinguishing characteristic of cloriforms?
Lactose fermentation.
release of amines from proteins (really smelly!)
During lysogenic phage the Lambda gene ___ is expressed
Which Hepatitis does not have a vaccine?
term for no flagella on a bacterium-cocci rarely have flagellum
facultative anaerobe
bacterium that carries on aerobic metabolism when oxygen is present but shifts to anaerobic metabolism when oxygen is absentEx. E. coli & Staphylococcus
Function of red pulp
Erythrocyte storage/destruction and filtration, main clean-up functions of spleen
HSV 1 causes
Gingvostomatitis (mouth ulcers)
Keratoconjunctivitis (uclers on the eyes)
Herpes labialis (cold sore)
Temporal lobe encephalitis 
counter stain to stain gram negative cells red
Exponential phase
rapid doubling rate; plenty of nutrients and space; few cells are dying
Name the 5 halogen oxidizing agents

Iodine tinctures
Sodium hypochlorite
microbicidal agents
chemical agents that result in microbial death
What is a cluster of histones called?
How is limes disease diagnosed?
signs/symptoms, ELISA, PCR
primary wastewater treatment
physical separation of wastewater contaminants usually by separation and setting
The Membrane inner leaflet for Gram (+) is ____
having little resistance to a specific infectious disease : capable of being infected; determined by species, age, breed, sex, genetic factors, general health, immuncompetence, and vaccination status
Spontaneous Mutation
Natural mutations that result in variance
type of immunity that antibodies donated and does not create memory, does not take a long time
passive immunity
composed of a group of sequentially interacting proteins-important role in innate and adaptive immunity and cell lyse
inflammation of vocal cords in the larynxcaused by viral infection, sometimes physical stressweak, hoarse, gravely voice, sore throat, difficult swallowing
what is the cause of viral encephalitis?
What are the symptoms of cryptosporidosis?
severe diarrhea
If a change in genetic information which specifies a diffrent amino acid is called a _________ mutation
How does EHEC bacteria invade?
right into the cells
the ability of a microbe to establish itself in the host and to cause damage
What is a Photoautotroph?
-it obtains energy by photophosphorylation and makes glucose by fixing carbon from CO2
metabolic pathway
chain of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate for the next
Whos most at risk for HIV
IV drug users
Active vs. passive
Stimulate memory response vs. no memory
Frequency of all X AND Y abnormalities STAR
Antimicrobial chemotherapy
use of chemical agents (drugs or antibiotics) to control infection
What is the DOC for systemic mycosis but not good for zygomycosis?
Types of movement cell inclusions
*MAGNETOSOMES -Membrane bound megnetite granules -confer magnetic property to cells-thought to aid movement to low O2 zones*GAS VESICLES -gas-filled granules enclosed w/in a protein coat -confer buoyancy to cells (similar to BC)-similar to scuba diving BVD
Cardinal Temperatures
Tmin = lowest temperature w/ growth observed
Tmax = highest temp w/ growth observed
Topt = best T for growth (growth rate highest) 
Topt is closer to Tmax 
How is pneumonic plague transferred?
human to human respiratory
perishable food
fresh food generally of high water activity that has a very short shelf life due to potential for spoilage by growth of microorganism
in this type of distribution, the infection has spread from the original point and is infecting more areas
Systemic/Disseminated (spread)
bacillus produced antibiotics such as b..
inhibits cell wall synthesis
g.. p.. b..
gram positive bacteria
Bacteria (Eubacteria)
Most abundant on Earth. Nitrogen fixers and recycle carbon. No membrane bound organelles.
change in phenotype due to change of genotype
Structural DivisionLower respiratory tract
larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli sacs, and alveoli
How is trachoma prevented?
higher living standards, better sanitary practices, health education (in terms of spreading the disease)
What type of infection is endemic dysentery?
food infection
What is their chemistry?

Exotoxins - proteins
Endotoxins - Lipids
What part of a bacteriophage enters the cell?
Only the DNA!
What belongs in the Eukarya domain?
pants, fungi, animals, protozoa
What is a Chemoautotrophs?
- obtain energy from inorganic molecules and CO2 as their carbon source
chemical equilibrium
rate of change is equal in both directions, no net work is done
Spliced mRNA translated into early regulatory proteins ___, ___ & ___
tat, rev & nef
What aa's are present in the transmembrane region of the TCR to give positive charge?
Lysine and Arginine
What was this little due doing in the sulfidogen table in the bacteria chaper? OUT OF ORDER
brief metabolic purpose/physiological purpose of beta-oxidation
break down fatty acids into acetyl-SCoA molecules that can be sent through the CAC for ultimate energy generation; also produces reduced coenzymes
Oxygen Biocidal Forms
O2 + e- --> O2- Superoxide
least reactive
most lethal
stays to damage cell longer
O2- + e- +2H+ --> H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide
H2O2 + e- + H+ --> H2O + [OH-] Hydroxyl Radical
most reactive
least lethal
self destructs to water 
What types of infections can anthrax cause?
cutaneus, iinhaled, gastrointestinal
What are the host defenses to Streptococcus pneumonia?
Mucous and cilia
bacterial chromosome exists f.. in c... without any p... support or s.. m..
freely, cytoplasm, protien, surrounding membrane
Septic Shock
More bacteria in the blood than blood itself
Varicella-zoster virus
(1) Varicella a.k.a. Chickenpox (2) Herpes Zoster a.k.a. Shingles
Where and what is cryptococcus neoformans associated with?
urban settings, pigeon droppings
What causes gingivitis?
anaerobes down in the cracks between teeth and gums
A mutation in which CAU becomes CAC is a _____________ mutation
Who usually uses group translocation?
G+ve and G-ve facultative anaerobes (enterobacteria)
What did Van Leeuwenhoek discover?
was the first to observe microorganisms
What is the major complication of the measles followling one week after the rash appears
Acute postinfectious encephalitis
Which chains are rearr first in B cells?
Heavy, then kappa/lambda
(aromatic rings like phenol) (Fig. 11.12)▪ Mechanism: @ High conc. – disrupt cell wall/[email protected] Low conc. – inactivates enzymes▪ Toxic: many not useful as antiseptics▪ not reliably sporicidal
Differential and Selective culture media
favors the growth of particular microorganisms
How far ahead, in bases, of the lagging strand is the leading strand?
1000 bases, roughly
beta lactam antibiotic
a member of a group of antibiotics including penicillin containing the four membered hetercyclic beta lactam ring
Electron transport system occurs in m..
Cytochromes are.. i...c... cell p... that r... and g...u... electron pairs
iron containing cell proteins
receive and give up
Generation time
The time it takes for a population to double in number
What is hyperbaric oxygen?
forcing oxygen into the tissues which will kill the anaerobes
What is the infection of the bronchi or bronchioles called? of the lungs? the pleura?
bronchitis; pneumonia; pleuritis
What are the characteristics of Trichomonas vaginalis?
Disease STD - greenish discharge, painful, itchy in woman, men are asymptomatic.
Infection of genitals
Mastigophor type
Transmitted thu sexual intercourse
What is genetic engineering?
manipulating DNA in order to make a new organism
How does Alcohol work as a disinfectant?
- protein denaturation, dissolves lipid membranes
How does HIV replicate
1.  RT makes cDNA and then degrades RNA & synthesizes DNA complementary strand
2.  Transported into the nucleus and integrates 
Monocytes produce a natural agonist of IL-1 that does...
Binds receptor in competitive fashion
Memory T cells (both CD4+ and CD8+)
pathogen-specific memory cells are later established; remain long term for future infections
Isolation of Microorganisms
Pour Plate
- not used very often anymore
- flask w/ 30mL of agar maintained at 45C
- diluted sample of bacteria is aseptically added
- swirled and then emptied into a Petrie Dis
- bacteria grow w/ different morphologies at different depths <-- NOT GOOD!
Where are antigens located?
Free in tissue / blood
They are part of the surface of cells and virusesBacteria, yeasts, virsuses, transplanted tissues
X-rays and gamma rays induce e.. and p.. to jump out of m..
aka io... raditation
plastics, spices, preserved meats
electrons and protons molecules
What is the worst case scenerio for measles>
subacute schlerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
What does the core of the tubercle contain?
bacilli within macrophages (inactivated)
What are the characteristics of Giardia lamblia?
Disease giardiasis - diarrhea, cramps, nausea
Infects intestines
Asymptomatic carries exist
Transmitted through contaminated food or water.
Mastigophora type
Two forms trophozoite and cyst
Cyst are hardy infectious form that can live in water for months
Two Trophozoites are produced by excystation which is binary fission of one cyst.
Diagnosis is through direct mount of feces sample, may require multiple because of limited MOs.
Boiling is required to breakdown hardy cyst form. 
What are the two ways leprosy presents itself?
Tuberculoid- self limiting disease (majority)Lepromatous-progressive and disfiguring (minority)
What's the make up of Hep D Virus
1.  (-) ssRNA "circular"
2.  Icosahedral nucleocapsid
3.  Enveloped 
How does complement enhance B cell signaling?
Through interaction with CR2 receptor (while bound to BCR)
What is used to emulsify lipids and protect our intestines?
found in macconkey's medium (G -)
How do you treat propionibacterium acne?
benzoyl peroxide, retin A, or blue light will kill it
What are the mechanical barriers of the mucus membrane?
ciliary escalator: cilia in lower respiratory tract propel dust and microorganisms up the throat
What type of gram stain is clostridium perfringens?
gram positive sprote former
What are the symptoms of chalmydia trachomatis?
clear edudate, less pain and irritation than gonorrheae, lacks neutrophil influx
How does a retrovirus work?
you start with the + rna strand and the RT, which makes a ss DNA
describe the Eclipse period of Rabies
1.  Replicating (1 mn to 1 year)
2.  Find Negri bodies
3.  Hasn't made the jump to CNS 
How can something be an ideal antiseptic disinfectant?
breaks down into oxygen and water, therefore NO TOXIC RESIDUES
hydrogen peroxide
How do you diagnose group a strep?
microscopy (gram + cocci in chains), culture (beta hemolytic), group A carbohyrate
What areas of the body does the mucus membrane line?
lungs, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract
WHat is the normal flora of the reproductive system for females? males?
lactobacillus and skin flora; skin flora
What are 2 examples of Cre recombinase mice?
LysMcre (cre under control of lysozyme promoter, deletions in mac's and PMN's) and Alb-Cre (cre under control of albumin promoter, deletions in liver cells)
What are cellular products that increase MO virulence?
Endotoxins - part of the GM- cell wall (Lipid A)
Exotoxins - toxic proteins that are produces in the MO and secreted. (Some GM+ and GM-)
What are the symptoms of promary syphlis?
chancre (may be in cervix for female), fluid from sore is infectious
What is the difference between a capsule and a slime layer?
A capsule is a coat of mostly proteins that is strongly attached to the cell. A slime layer is mostly sugar, and is loosely attached to the cell
What are the 3 ways that pathogens attack the skin?
1. breach of intact skin (no damage to skin)2. skin manifestation of a systemic infection3. toxin-mediated skin damage
swan-necked flasks
Silver Nitrate
constant in population
Purple non-sulfur bacterium
minimum bactericidal concentrationlowest concentration of agent that results in now growth upon subculture
Inhibits Protein Synthesis
plantae kingdom characteristics
pathologic state of tissue(s)
LMP2 constitutive activates
B-cell receptors
Disadvantage of boiling.
becomes waterlogged
"Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the final and most serious stage of the disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. Symptoms begin when an HIV-positive person presents a CD4-cell (also called T cell, a type of immune cell) count below 200. AIDS happens concurrently with numerous opportunistic infections and tumors that are normally associated with the HIV infection."
Kills microorganisms and viruses
Non-living obligate intercellular parasites
microorganisms that promote health
What is an acute disease?
John Snow
Public Health, stopped cholea
Timing of innate immunity
Within hours
T/F: in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, the host priveds the bacterium w/ ATP which it can use in the energetically expensive process of nitrogen fixation.
Few(3-7%) Large oval or kidney-shaped nucleusVery active phagocytes; immune regulationCirculate only 1-few days  exit into tissues, differentiate into Macrophages
Clostrium perfringens
Disease: Clostridium food poisoningCharacteristics: Enterotoxin causes cramps, abdomain pain and watery diarrhea
Internal membrane system
(pinched off plasma membrane)
•may be invaginations of the  plasma membrane
possible roles: cell wall formation during cell division chromosome replication and distribution secretory processes
•may be artifacts of chemical fixation process
antibioticinhibit cell wall synthesis broad spectrum
Robert Hooke
Coined the term "cells"
-bacteria ultimate goal-cells secrete material to hold to a surface (cells act together)-cells signal to each other (quorum sensing)-protects against dispersion and protects against antibiotics
Acute toxin-mediated disease, toxin produced by LYSOGENIZED BACTEROPHAGElow grade fever, enlarged lymph nodes, membrane will form near tonsilcan lead to myocarditis and low platelet count
What causes norovirus?
huma enteric calicivirus
-straight or slightly curved cemoorganotrophic aerobic rods with polar flagella-absence of gas formation from glucose-catalase positive-OXIDASE POSITIVE-0.5-1.0 micrometer-no spores-no sheaths-never fermentative-H2 or CO sole e- donor-nitrate e- acceptor anaerobically-responsible for breakdown in oxic habitats-
dormant, form can survive adverse conditions
Fastidious gram - rods
complex nutrient requirement
movement toward or away from light
IRF-3/7 functions
Both enhance expression of IFN-alpha/beta genes
Multiple Sclerosis
Immune system attacks nervous systemCovering of nerves (myelin) is destroyedGenetic and environmental componentTreatments are expensive and not well tolerated
small portion of the antigenic substance ▪ the particular part of the antigen molecule that is actually "recognized by" (bound by) specific immune receptors/molecules like antibodies or T cell receptors
Which cephalosporin generation is very soluble and can pass through BBB?
fermentative bacteria
organisms that utilize organic compouds for energy and produce complex end products such as acids, aldehydes, alcohols, H2 gas and CO2 gas.
What is the logarithmic growth equation?
The principle that living organisms develop only from other living organisms and not from nonliving matter
when does colonization of normal microflora begin
at birth
biosynthetic process in which energy in captured and used to construct all the compunds they need to grow and reproduce
clostridium botulinum bac. common in canned goods and honey. toxin paralizes muscles (botox) no vac.
microbes that grow at extreme basic/alkaline environments
Enveloped virus:shape?
helical or polyhedralacquire their envelope by taking part of the plasma membrane of the host cell as they "bud"from the cell ( leave by exocytosis)usually animal virus
absorb nutrients slowly, grow and multiply slowly.  (can take awhile between contraction of disease to the start of symptoms).
What is Salmonella food poisening called?
-composed of species that specialize in anaerobic energy metabolism-extremely versatile at anaerobic respiration using a variety of electron acceptors, including the metals Fe3+ and Mn4+-barrophiles and thermophiles-associated with mineral deposits
Protozoa can reproduce A) Asexually B) Sexually C) either
Bacteria that grow at reduced oxygen tension and do not produce SOD or catalase
Define sterilization
sufficient heat treatment to kill endospores of clostridium botulinum in canned food
How would you get Taenia saginata?
Uncooked beef
Which is heat labile, Ab or complement?
How about hematopoiesis in an embryo?
Yolk sac
Immune System
can identify presence of foreign antigens and destroy it
Can use sulfur as either electron donor or acceptor, sounds "two-faced"
RNA Splicing
enzymes “clip” out introns, and join exons together
mechanosensitive channels
in a hypotonic environment, the mechanosensitive channels will open up and let solutes flow out
Botulism (Botox)
Symptoms: blurred or double vision, weakness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, generalized paralysis, respiratory insuffieciency
Incubation: 12-36 hours
Causative agent: Clostridium botulinum-gram+, spore forming, rod shaped
Pathogenesis: release neurotoxins, survives stomach acid, absorbed into small intestine and carried to blood stream, blocks nerve signals
Epidemiology: ingestion of contaminated (home canned) food that was not heated enough to kill spores.
Prevention/treatment: Education, heating food to boiling for 15 mins prior to serving. Enemas and stomach washing, cleaning infected wounds
global epidemic, a large portion of the world
Asceptic Techniques
laboratory techniques used to minimize contamination (germ-free)
a chemical manufactured on site by combining chlorine and ammonia at precise ratios
fatty acids
long nonpolar hydrocarbon tails and polar carboxyl (COOH) group.
pentose cycle
erythose-4-P + PEP (glycolysis) → chorismate→ aromatic amino acids (PAla, Tyr, Tryptophane)
5th disease
slapped cheeks. human pavovirus B19. flu like symptoms.
hairlike bristles that adhere to other cells
Robert Van Leeuwenhoek
-"father of microbiology"-first to describe how heat can kill microbes
- Conidia enter body, grow as mycelium- Caused by Aspergillius fumigatus- Surgery may be necessary to remove- Can also cause otomycosis in the ear, affects heart- Aspergillus niger used in Beano to reduce flatulence- CAN MAKE MYCOTOXINS / AFLATOXINS
ionizing radiation
gamma rays, x-rayscarries much more energyvery penetratingforms highly reactive hydroxyl free radicalsradicals react with organic cellular components, ex. DNA
the primary stain for the Giminez (Chlamydaceae and Rickettsiaceae), Kinyoun (Nocardia), and Ziehl-Neelsen (Mycobacterium) stains
combine w/ sterols in fungal plasma membrane --> membrane excessively permeable (treats systemic mycoses)
T/F: Viruses may encode for their own enzymes that will destroy its coat
Define/identify chemotherapeutic agent
-Any chemical used to treat cancer/disease. Chemotherapy.
Types of pili
conjugation pili-attaches 2 cells and allows pathway for transfer of DNAattachment pili (fimbriae)-pili that help bacteria adhere to surfaces, contribute to pathogenicity of bacteria
Which protein in SARS gives it hemagglutinating ability
S protein
Timeframe difference of Mac's vs. PMN's
Days vs. hours
transcriptional gene silencing 
Transcriptional gene silencing is the result of histone modifications, creating an environment of heterochromatin around a gene that makes it inaccessible to transcriptional machinery (RNA polymerase, transcription factors, etc.).
Sum of _________ catabolic reactions where energy is derived only by __________
substrate level phosphorylation
Magic Bullet
Specific chemicals able to seek out and destroy specific disease organisms in infected tissues without harming those tissues
What is chemical fixation?
chemical fixatives penetrate cells and react with cellular components to render them inactive, insoluble, and immobile
Staphylcoccal Aureus
Mode of transmission: errant sneeze onto food. Skin infection (pimples, boils, abscesses)
What is the signal to initiate sporulation?
Phosphate chain

 Concentration and Temperature of Agent
Increased concentration and/or temp enhances activity of antimicrobial agent
an enzyme that can degrade proteins by hydrolysis
examples of bacteria with scientific names
Candida albicans
Escherichia coli
Helicobactor pylori
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Rickettsia akari
Salmonella enterica
Staphylococcus aureus
Treponema pallidum
oxidation-reduction reactions
involve electrons being donated by an electron donor and being accepted by an electron acceptor
___ uses H2S as an electron donor forming elemental sulfur as a byproduct.
Focal Length
the distance between the center of lens and focal point
From were does  Chlaymdia gets it's energy from?
Host ATP
death phase
occurs when the number of deaths exceeds the number of new cells formed
what is gastroenteritis?
inflammation of stomach and intestinal mucosa
The transfer of DNA by means of viruses which become incorporated into the host cell occurs during
What is a recombinant clone?
bacteria containing the recombinant plasmid
What type of bacterial meningitis is common among newborns?
Group B Streptococus
How would you treat C. neoformans?
Amphotericin B + fluconazole
Echovirus can cause _____
HINT 4 things 
1.  Asptic meningitis
2.  Manulopapular & vesciluar rash
3.  Conjuntivitis
4.  Diarrhea 
What triggers oxygen-independent killing?
Binding of opsonized bacteria to plasma membrane of PMN's
Where does JC virus infect
myelinating oligodendrocytes in white matter
Function of 0.45 um screen hole

removes ALL eukaryotic cells
SOME prokaryotic pass through
Define type strain
the most intensely studied or fully characterized strain of a given species; it is this strain that receives the overall species name
What enzyme produces cAMP from AMP?
Adenylate cyclase (requires phosphorylation to be active)
Specific Epithet
the second or species name in a scientific binomial
Do you find other people ill w/ viral pneumonia
What is opsonization?
coating bacteria in antibodies so that the phagocytes will recognize them and more easily lyse them
in this stage of the growth curve limiting factors intensify and cells die
death phase
In Nitrogen Fixation, the following are symbiotic:
Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia
neutral pH growth
pH 6.5-7.5most bacteria grow at this pH
What is the strain of E.Coli that causes a shigella-like disease by producing shiga toxin e coli?
enterohemorrhagic strain
Lytic cycle
the process by which a virus infects a host cell and immediately makes more viral particles and destroys the host cell
[Protein Synthesis Inhibitor]Streptogramins:
-Bonds to two different sides on 50S ribosomal subunit
-Acts synergistically through the combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin 
-Effective against many G+ bacteria, especially those resistant to beta-lactams and vancomycin
Name the 2 protozoans that affect the immunocompromised
Cryptospordium parvum
Toxoplasma gondii
Problem with cell lines
Need to reproduce in vivo before publication
What is type III hypersensitivity?
Immune complex mediated tissue injury (Mainly vasculitis/deposition)
What combination of 3 ingredients is used in topical ointments?

polymixin (fights G-)
bacitracin (fights G+)
The function of compatible solutes is to:
-increase internal soulute concentration(Alcohols, carbs, AAs)
acute infections?chronic infections?
-rapid onset, run a short period of time-develop slowly and run over a relatively long period of time.
Slime layer
A slime layer in bacteria is an easily removed, diffuse, unorganised layer of extracellular material that surrounds bacteria cells
The function of the slime layer is to protect the bacteria cells from environmental dangers such as antibiotics and desiccation. The slime layer also allows bacteria to adhere to smooth surfaces such as prosthetic medical devices and catheters
What is clonal expansion?
when antigen specific b cells greatly increase in number upon infection
parts of the lymph system
spleen, lymph notes, bone marrow, thoracic duct, left subclavian vein, thymus, tonsils
How do you prevent streptWhaococcus pneumoniae from infecting?
vaccine (polysaccahride or conjusgate for young)
What organisms acquired virulence genes from other bacteria?
e. coli (otherwise just normal flora)
The region of the DNA which acts as a switch to turn transcription on or off is called the
What are some basic mechanisms of microbial control agents?
-Alteration of membrane permeability
-Damage to proteins 
-Damage to nucleic acid
Summarize the life cycle of Malaria
1.  Transmitted by bite
2.  Invades liver & divide
3.  Schizonts rupture in bloodstream
4.  Invade RBC
5.  Rupture RBC 
What is the mouse MHC loci and where is it located?
H2, ch 17
A given MHC molecules has what type of specificity?
Broad but selective
Name 4 types of multiplying bacteria associated with suppression of cell wall synthesis

Clostridium perfringens (gas gangrene G+)
Staphylococcus pyogenes (G+ cocci)
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus, G-)
Treponema pallidum (syphilis, G-)
Why does inflammation occur?
To dillute, wall off, or destroy a tissue invader; causes leakage
Mycoplasma pneumonia has a ____ onset fever of ____
1.  abrupt
2.  < 39 C 
Why are viruses considered non-living?
Cannot reproduce without host. Cannot do any cell processes.
How do you diagnose gas gangrene?
clinical signs, isolate bacteria and conduct toxin typing
What is acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?
tissue damage due to inflammatory response of your body against your teeth
What are six S. aureus enzymes?

Coagulase - coagulates plasma and blood, antiphagocytic

Hyaluronidase - digests hyaluronic acid (cell cement), spreading factor

Staphylokinase - digests blood clots

DNase - destorys chemical structure of DNA

Lipase - digest lipids on skin, helps skin colonization

Penicillinase (Beta-lactamase) - penicillin resistant.
Why can prokaryotic cells produce 38 ATP from from the oxidation of one glucose molecule while eukaryotic cells can only produce 36?
-Since eukaryotic cells have a mitochondria, 2 of the ATP are spent crossing the mitochondrial membrane. Prokaryotes do not have a mitrochondria.
what are the symptoms of Rubella?  What glands get swollen?
1.  Fever for 24 hrs
2.  Erythematous macropular rash
3.  Cervical lymph nodes (back of the neck) 
What's the difference in chicken pox infection and shingles
Shingles lesions are on a dermatome
What is µ (specific growth rate) in the growth equations?
log(Nt-No)/(change in time) OR k(.301)
adaptive immunity or antigen specific immunity
the acquired ability to recognize and destroy an individual pathogen or its products and relies on previews exposure to the pathogen or its products.
t-cytotoxic cells (CTLs or Tc)
are T cells that directly kill cells that display surface foreign antigens (LYSE)
what are the different types of viral encephalitis?
eastern and western equine encephalitis, st. louis encephalitis, LaCosse Encephalitis, Venecuelen Equine, WEst Nile virus
What is Type IV allergic contact dermitiis?
Allergin is poison ivy/oak, jewelry, latex
Causes swelling and redness
Produces IR with Tcells which release cytokines with damage tissue.
Describe how enzymes are controlled by inhibition(allosteric regulation):
-Enzyme activity can be controlled by allosteric regulation in two ways.
1) Allosteric inhibition - When enough of a product is made, a negative feedback signals the allosteric inhibitor the bind the the allosteric(non active site) area of the enzyme. This makes it so the active site becomes distorted, and the substrate cannot fit into the site, therefor ending the reaction. 
2) Allosteric activation - A signal (either feedback/feedforward) signals that more of a certain product needs to me made, so an allosteric activator is singaled to bind to the allosteric site of the enzyme, which makes the active site un-distorte, so the substrate can fit into it and more reactions can take place.
how does RNA capping assist in forming ribosome complex and production of protein 
Ribosome can reginze capping site and initiate synthesis of protein 
How does photosynthesis work, on a basic level?
Photons elevate the energy in a low-level electron in PS2, the electron is elevated and passed off to PS1, then it is elevated more and sent to either NADP+ to fix CO2 or back to PS1 for more ATP generation
How does the P.E look for mycoplasma
1.  Degree of illness is nothing
2.  Hear rouse
3.  walking pneumonia 
define a vehicle in terms of infection
an inanimate substanece within or upon which infectious agents may be delivered to a suspectible host
What is the detection method used for S. pyogenes?

Rapid Ab test for gropu A, C-carbohydrate
Blood Agar Plate (BAP) - beta hemolysis
What is the maximum range in controlling bacteria and what is its significance?
253.7 nm and it is the maximum absorption of DNA
What types of cells are important in the early phases of infection? WHy? the later phase?
neutrophils (attack quick and try to stop the infection before it is established), macrophages (phagocytose pathogens and worn out immune cels and activate the adaptive immune response)
What is the alcohol effect on a Gram negative bacteria?
damages the cell wall (killing the bacteria)
What are the chemical barriers of the mucus membrane?
vagina and stomach: low pH, tears and saliva: lysosome
Measurement of Bacterial Growth - Turbidimetric Measurement -
more cells in test tube

more cell mass in test tube

more light scattered

less light detected
all around
Serratia marcescens
typically cause skin infections;
serious occur in compromised hosts
Lecture 17
Molecular Mimicry
Worked on Pasturization
Natural Passive?
Placenta, breast milk
The development of disease
Transmission electron microscope-- used to observe fine details of cell structure-- require elaborate specimen preparation
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
transport network
classes are grouped into...
Gram +
Catalase -
Beta hemolytic
Bacitracin insensitive
S. agalactiae
Oncogenic Virus
Cancer can form(tumor)i.e. HPV
Very stable - Conventional disinfection does not inactivate prions
Only 4 proteins!maturation, coat, replicase, lytic
collective name for chemical reactions occuring within a cell
Enterococcus identification:

-Grows in which 2 selective medias?
-Positive for which biochem test?
-Difference between faecium and faecalis?
Enterococcus identification:

-Grows on bile/esculin agar slant (turns black).

-Grows in 6.5% salt

-PYR + (just like Strep pyogenes, but enterococcus is GAMMA hemolytic!)

-E. faecium ferments arabinose (faecalis is negative for arabinose)
Simple microscope
microscope with one lens
invasion and multiplication of microorganism in or on a host
Listeria monocytogenes
Name the bacteria:
Acquired by ingestion of unpasteurized milk/cheese and deli meats (or vaginal transmission during birth)
-characteristic = tumbling motility via "actin rockets"
-can cause amnionitis, septicemia, spontaneous abortion, granulomatosis infantiseptica, meningitis in neonates & immunocompromised, mild gastroenteritis in healthy individuals
true or falseall immunogens are antigens, but not all antigens are immunogens
cardiac deaths freq in systemic diptheria...heart, nerve and kidney cells = destroyed
Facilitative diffusion does/does not require energy.
does not
smaller than viruses; contain protein but no nucleic acid; ex. mad cow disease
produce cytokines that are primarily associated with antibody production, especially IgM & IgE; activates eosinophils.
Haemophilus Meningitis
Haemophilus influenzae- thought that it caused influenza, but actually the virus debilitated individuals then they got the flu. Childhood disease- 6 mos to 2 yrs
Yeast converts sugar to carbon dioxide that is trapped in the food matrix
Louis Pasteur
Father of modern microbiology, refuted spontaneous generation by a series of experiments
Most animal viruses have ___
an envelope
What organism is associated with metachromatic staining?
discrete infection that blocks the entry of immune system cells
- heat-loving bacteria- extreme high temp- optimum growth temp 50-60*C-optimum temp 121*C=245*F
What Inhibit DNA synthesis in protozoans?
More potent than an antiseptic (usually microbicidal) whic is used mainly on inanimate objects.
causative agents of nosocomial UTI
gram negative bacilli
Is primary or secondary HSV lesion associated the more severity and longer duration?
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
A progressive neurological degeneration of the cerebral cortex, white matter and brain caused by measles.
Reducing Media
Made for Anaerobic bacteria. Uses Sodium Thioglycolate which reacts with oxygen and removes it from the media. Provides an anaerobic atemosphere for the growth of anaerobic bacteria
Normal Microbiota
Although continue to add transient microbiota, most of resident microbiota initially established in early months of life.
large, complex cells with a nucleus that contains multiple chromosomes surrounded by a membrane and cytoplasm containing ribosomes and membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts, golgi bodies, etc
missense mutation
mutation that results in incorporation of a different amino acid
Define enteric bacteria
=gram negative bacteria associated with the GI flora or disease
Normal flora
Bacteria that normally inhibit the body - nonpathogenic, some produce vitamin K (enterobacteria) - may be resident or transient
UV light - non ionizingIonizing radiation
Ultraviolet Light
what is the bacteria which causes legionnaires disease
Another name for capsule or sugar coat.
Ignaz Semmelweis
Known for antiseptic and aseptic technique but was considered a lunatic and placed in an asylum.
-Sac fungi-Septate-Produce ascospores and frequently conidiospores
-Aspergillus (opportunistic, systemic mycoses)-Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum (systemic mycoses)-Microsporum, Trichophyton (cutaneous mycoses)
Disinfectionthe destruction of vegetative pathogen on non-living objects and surfaces (bleach)
Antisepticsthe destruction of vegetative pathogen on living tissues
Which bacteria is able to survive phagocytosis?
Transposon Tn1546
Helps staff build resitance to vancomycin by coding enzyme that build cell wall with reduced D-alanine.
HIV related infection: cryptosporidum
clinical features
usually causes persistant diarrheal disease
can also cause acalculous cholecystitis

dx- examine stool for ova, parasites
Name two bacteria that invade the cell using a membrane ruffling method.
Unclassified poxvirus
What is the causative agent of molluscum contagiosum?
Differential Media
Make it easier to distinguish colonies of the desired organism from other colonies growing on the same plate.
Where is the peptidoglycan found in a GN cell wall?
Systematics (Phylogeny)
The study of evolutionary history of organisms
Staph saprophyticus details
causes UTI; expecially cystitis in young women
What is osmosis?
movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
Basic dyes
Carry a positive charge-- are more commonly used for staining -- stained the negatively charged components of sales, including nucleic acid and many proteins-- methylene blue, Crystal violet, saffranin and, Malachite green
What are some common storage granules?
poly-≤-hydroxybutyrate (storage form for lipids), glycogen or starch (storage form for sugar), polymetaphosphate AKA volutin (a storage form for phosphate)
organisms are acid-fast because of a unique lipid in their cell walls that bind to the basic fuchsin. the lipid is:
a. techoic acid
b. dipicolinic acid
c. lipopolysaccharide
d. mycolic acid
mycolic acid
What is another name for a hookworm?
Necator americanus
Q: For most helminths the definitive host is what?
A: Humans.
1) direct method2) indirect method
methods of counting bacteria
What is the degree or extent of pathogenicitiy?
What is the regulation of something after it has made protein?
allosteric control
H. influenzae
Name the bug w/ the special culture requirements:
chocolate agar w/ factor V (NAD+) & factor X (hematin)
( ) allow T cells to stick to endothelial cells. migrating cells then emigrate between cells
Which of the following organisms is NOT associated with pneumonia:
a. Staphylococcus aureus
b. Streptococcus pneumoniae
c. Hemophilus influenzae
d. Klebsiella pneumoniae
e. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
e. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
molluscum contagiousum
What virus can be treated by freezing, electrical cautery, and chemical agents; can be cleared by the immune system?
Universal precautions
treat all specimens as if they are infective
The attachment of a virus to a host cell is a highly specific process involving the interaction of proteins/glycoproteins on surface of virus with receptors (proteins/glycoproteins) on surface of a susceptible host cell. Only after attachment has occurred can virus or its genome penetrate host cell.
Insertion Sequence
short 1-2kb DNA segments with a short 15-50 bp inverted repeats at the ends. no detectable phenotypes except transposition.
Compare LT and ST toxins
=both toxins produced by enterobacteriaceae
LT toxin
-acts like cholera toxin
-constituitive stim. adenylyl cyclase
-cell secretes: Cl, Na, H20
ST toxin
-elevates intracellular cGMP
-cell secretes: Cl
coliform test that employs liquid culture medium in test tubes, in which samples of drinking water are added to the media.
MPN. most probable number
What are common late onset GBS infections (5-30 day olds)
bacteremia and meningitis
the helices and sheets of amino acids form a protein's
a. primary structure
b. secondary structure
c. tertiary structure
d. quaternary structure
secondary structure
Spontaneous generation
the theory, now known to be invalid, that plants, animals and microorganisms arose suddenly from non-living materials under certain environmental conditions
enqyme that chemically modifies bases within a restriction enzyme recognition site and thus prevents the site being cut(typically methylation)
ORF (open reading frame)
What is transformation?
A procedure during which cells can take up DNA from the surrounding environment
What creates millions of copies of given region of DNA in a matter of hours?
polymerase chain reaction
smallpox tx
vaccine up to 96 hrs post exposure and prior to appearance of rash can prevent disease severity
no effective tx
supportive care
Name 5 medications that would suppress T-cell function.
Tumor necrosis factor antagonists
Anti-lymphocytic antibodies
Cytokine inhibitors (cyclosporine)
Anti-metabolites (azathioprine)
CC 3-6
For what E. coli infection are antibiotics actually contraindicated?
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)21-12
treat sick, immunize, isolate diseased persons, id and try to eliminate reservoirs, educate public about transmission and sanitation procedures - these are attempts at what?
ways to control epidemic disease
Pleomorphism vs. monomorphism
Do a vew bacteria adapt to their environment in many shapes and forms or are their many bacteria with limited variability in form and functionThe latter, monomorphism was shown to be true by use of pure cultures
plasmids and bacteriophages
Many toxins are carried on mobile DNA elements
Course of MTB infection
1) Inhale droplet of 1-3 bacilli2) bug ingested by macrophages in alveoli3) If phage is activated, bugs die in the phage. If NOT, bugs multiply and explode phage4) released bugs taken up by new phage5) infecte phages then A) migrate thru lymph to nodes, where they disseminate; B) make IL-12 that stimulates TH1 response; C) present MTB antigens to elicit a cell mediated response6) cell mediated response occurs 2-8 wks after infection; recruited phages form granuloma that seals off infection (but you now have Delayed-type hypersensitive response7) latent bacilli in granulomas can reactivate with a vengence due to age, HIV, malnutrition, etc.
what is a hydrolysis reaction?
a decomposition reaction in which chemicals react with the H+ and OH- of a water molecule.
DNA polymerase adds new base pairs 5' to 3'leading strand - continuouslagging strand - okazaki fragments requiring sealing with DNA ligase
The Central Dogma
what stage of lyme disease are you in if it has been 2-8 weeks after the rash formed?
stage 2
what is used as a counterstain in acid fast staining?
methylene blue
refers to the process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents.
Ex) Bleach, antibacterial, autoclave
Spontaneous mutations can occur from what 3 actions?
base substitutions, removal or addition of nucleotides, and transposable elements
dx visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar)
fine needle aspiration of spleen
90% sensitive
hemorrhagic complications

bone marrow aspiration
intradermal leishmanin skin test
look for macrophages containing amastigotes
What's the Kirby Bauer Method?
Also know as the Standardized Disc Susceptibility Test
Paper disc are impregnated with different antibiotics and placed onto agar plates containing an organism.
Zones of inhibition will form where bacteria can't grow. The size of the zone reflects its susceptibility (resistance) to the antibiotic
Can you cure a cow with mad cow diease? What is the procedure?
No, incinerate cow
commonality b/w DNA and RNA structure, function
has a pentose- cyclopentane ring
function pentoses: backbone of nucleic acid DNA/RNA
What are the 2 types of flagella?
1. Peritrichous flagella
2. Polar flagella
Note: you can use the flagella stain to distinguish among bacteria
Normal microbiota protect the host by
occupying niches that pathogens might occupyproducing acidsproducing bacteriocins
What are the symptoms of Campylobacter infection?
fever, diarrhea, abdominal cramping; diarrhea can be diffuse and blood is found in stool by second or third day, tends to last 4-5 days
What type of test is used instead of india ink pred when testing for miningitis?
Cryptococcus antigen test
How do bacteria use cell wall components to invade host cells?
Certain bacteria have chemical substances in their cell wall that attaches to the hosts cell wall and also helps resist phagocytosis (Sometimes called fimbraiae)
Epidemiology of malaria: groups most at risk

children (most deaths due to malaria are children below five)

pregnant women
What are some of the exotoxins of S.aureus.
Hemolysins (gamma hemolysin - leukocidin that is toxic to neutrophils)Panton-Valentin Leukocidin (MRSA)Exfoliative toxins (toxic to skin cells)
What is abortive transduction?
Some of the cells that acquire the DNA from the phage do not incorporate it into the genomeo This DNA is linearized in the cytosol and can be maintained, but not replicated into daughter cellso If growth requires expression of genes in this cluster it makes a tiny colony, where all cells present require this single cell to help others survive (such as inactivation of antibiotic) o Motility phenotype allowed solid evidence for this phenomenon
Name 2 tests for lactose fermentation applied to enterobacteriaceae
1. EMB test
-eosin methylene blue agar
2. MacConkey Agar
What does the Voges-Proskauer test do?
detects the use of the butanediol pathway; detects a color change caused by acetoin (an intermediate); formic acid from this pathway can be converted into CO2 and H2 if the bacterium has formic dehydrogenase
the groups of bacteria are mostly based on what??
morphology and physiological forms and function
Alpha and beta interferons
cell attacked by a virus. Bind to receptor on neighboring cells. They trigger the production of antiviral proteins within the host cell. Affinity for DS RNA so they are most effective on those types of viruses.
What type of resistance is involved in S. aureus resistance to oxacillin?
Change of PBP (Target modification). This is in MRSA.7-3
What is an advantage of using oildegrading microbes in biorediation of enviromental oil spills, as opposed to using chemical or mechanical techniques?
transforms toxic chemicals in oil into harmless byproducts. Does not just displace into a new locationdisrupts the enviroment and ecosystem less
What is the key feature to diagnose meningitis due to N. meningitidis?
1. skin lesions
-start as petechiae and become purpuric and eventually necrotic
-due to endotoxin (LPS/LOS) -> vascular necrosis and hemorrhage into surrounding skin
what is the epidemiology of naegleria fowleri?
1985-1986 24 eye cases were reported to the CDC
contact lenses wearers
home-made saline solutions
How is beer made? (The starting material)
1. malting - predigesting of barley grains. 2. Mashing - malt + water 3. Removal of wort or liquid 4. Addition of humulus lupulus (flavor) 5. Filtering of fluid, add yeast 6. Frothing subsides, yeast shifts metabolism to fermentation 7. Alcohol production begins.
How do double bonds affect fatty acid chains of membrane lipids?
If the chain is unsaturated (contains one or more double bonds) and the double bond is cis it creates a "kink" in the oleic acid so that the chains don't pack as tightly and the membrane is more fluid-some side chains can even form cyclopropane which will stiffen the membrane, this is usually in response to a stress like starvation or acidity.
What are some characteristics of the Group B strep?
AKA S. agalactiae, split up based on surface polysaccharide capsular Ags, don't produce large zones of hemolysis (do present orange pigment), normal vaginal/intestinal flora in 20-30% of adults, can gain stepwise access to bloodstream
What is the indole test? What is the procedure?
It tests an organisms's ability to break down Tryptophan, forming indole
1. Inoculate tryptone broth with bacterial isolate overnight at 35 degrees
2. Add Kovac's reagent and shake (to split off the idole)
3. A positive test is formation of a red ring at the top of the medium
Explain why NADH and FADH 2 are so important to the respiratory process?
E.T.C. NADH and FADH2 are oxidated contributing the electrons they have carried from the substrates to a “cascade” of oxidation – reduction reactions. Energy from these reaction is used to generate a considerable amount of ATP.
What are 3 versions of drug combinations used in anti-retroviral therapy?
2 NRTI + 1 PI2 NRTI + 1 NNRTI2 NRTI + Integrase inhibitor30-5
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