Microbiology Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Inhibitory Fc's
decreased immunity
▪ Obligate intracellular parasites▪ not transmitted by arthropods▪ e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis = eye infection & one of most common STDs▪ also gram negative
cII degradation->Cro-rightward transcription
non cancerous tumor
mass of hyphea
Enveloped, ssRNA, Negative-sense,
gram - cocci
lipid a
What shape is IgM?
fluids and molecules▪ Microvillius extension(s) surround droplet▪ Oil droplets (lipids) can just fuse with or go through membrane (hydrophobic)
genetic characteristic of organism
physical characteristic of organism
Francesco Redi
Disproved spontaneous generation
Linnaean Taxonomic Hierarchy
DomainKingdomPhylum (Division)ClassOrderFamily GenusSpecies
what causes epiglottitis?
haemophilus influenzae
tertiary protein structure
folded (di-sulfide bonds)
interstitial fluid
Fluid leaving the capillaries
What does neuraminidase cleave
Neuraminic acid
Genetic Basis of Immune Reactions
Stationary phase
nutrient/space limitations; sense crowding; death of cells offsets new cell numbers formed by division; ▪ NET viable cell concentration in culture remains constant
ionizing radiation
-high energy particles-very penetrating-forms free radicals from water-peroxides (formed free radicals) formed to do extensive lethal cellular damage-EX: X-ray, gamma ray
Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi that act against other microorganisms
Chains of sugar molecules (Monosaccharides) which create carbohydrates such as Starch, Glycogen, & Cellulose.
Methanogens. Halophiles. Hyperthermophiles. "Ancient bacteria." Prefer extreme environments.
Abnormal hypersensitivity by an individual to one or more substances
Division of Fungi
Zygomycota "conjugation fungi"Ascomycota "the sac fungi"Basidiomycota "the club fungi" "mushrooms"Deuteromycota "no produce sexual spores"
non-protein organic molecules that attach to an enzyme to make it functional
Gram-Negative Cocci

Veillonelle - anaerobic
5-10% cultivable organisms on tongue &in saliva - bad breath, bad taste --
Lytic cycle ends in:
cell death (lysis)
Do enterobacteria form endospores?
most do not
Gram (-) rods, facultative anaerobes, need plasmid for entry to cells
Sonnei- mild diarrhea, fever, travelers diarrhea, self-limiting
Dysenteriae- Shiga-like A B toxin forms mucosal abscesses, severe diarrhea with blood and mucous, fever, cramps
antibiotic therapy with oral rehydration
Ab effector function
Neutralization of microbe, phagocytosis, complement activation
T/F: PCR is rapid, sensitive, specific, and can detect virulence/toxin genes within a bacteria
the chemical substances which the microbe needs for cellular activities
Name the 3 types of tetracyclines

most prokaryotic cellular reproduction is the result of
binary fission
Cold Filtration
*preferred method for sterilizing liquid (no need to worry about thermolability)
- Carried out at fridge temperature (4°C) but RT(23°C) can work too
Sterilize liquid food/beverage: milk, beer, fruit juice (need not be refrigerated!)
Sterilize air: HEPA filters
Membrane filters, w/ pore diamters of 0.35-0.5μm to trap living life forms; 0.01μm to trap viruses

Can necrotizing facitis result in death?
What is the treatment for Streptococcus pneumoniae?
Another sporozoan Toxoplasma gondii aka...
b... d...  
blood disease
"Drug Cocktail"
Highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of AIDS
parent cell enlarges, duplicates chromosomes, form central transverse, and divides into two daughter cells
binary fission
Phylogeny:characteristics to classify bacteria
Morphological characteristicsDifferent stainingNutritional patternRelationship with oxygenBiochemical characteristicsSerological analysisPhage typing
Blocks transcription at ribosome
How do you prevent primary pneumonia?
RNA transcription is catalyzed by
RNA polymerase
Gram -
thin cell wall
a second protective layer
stains pink
difficult to treat with antibiotics
Lithotrophs require what source of energy?
inorganic substances
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
no vaccineMost common lower respiratory tract infection in children
organisms that do use oxygen, include some that must have oxygen
What does Arenavirus (Lassa virus) cause?
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
What cells compose the periarterial lymphatic sheaths (PALS)?
T cells
X-Chromosome Inactivation
Normal development in humans requires only one functional X-chromosomeBarr body is the inactivation of one of the X-chromosomesMales have XY and hence only one X-chromosomeEarly in female development one of the X-chromosomes becomes inactivated and when that cell divides-the same X chromosome remains inactivatedInactivation is randomThus only one x-chromosome is functional – same as in males
This prokaryote has chlorophyll a and b
number of existing cases / total population
Death phase
number of viable cells often declines at an exponential rate; was assumed that detrimental environmental changes caused irreparable harm to the cells; however, some microbiologists think the cells are temporarily unable to grow – viable but nonculturable (VBNC); possibly also programmed cell death
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
The agent of primary atypical pneumonia is:
The end product of the Anopheles sexual multiplication

Agents or chemicals used to carry out disinfection.

èNormally used on inanimate objects

èEthanol, cationic detergents
effluent water
treated wastewater discharged from a wastewater treatment facility
Koch, Robert
Proved germ theory of disease
Discovered anthrax sppores and realized the germ was causing them and this explained anthrax disease spontaneous occurrances
discovered cause of TB
TB Vaccination
AGAR and pure culturing
cause of cholera
Koches postitulates
How antibiotics work
Attacking/breaking cell wall. Attacking ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis.
line of defense that has protective cells and fluids
Peptidoglycan layer
-provides strength and rigidity to cell
Koch's postulates
criteria used to determine the causative agent of infectious diseases.
-only aerobic growth, O2 require in low concentration-low concentration of O2 has diffused into the medium- sensitive to superoxide free radicals and peroxides
What is soft chancre caused by
haemophilus ducreyi
-15,000 Grays of radiation-red or pink due to carotenoids--resistant to mutagenic effects due to DNA arrangement-toroidal ring-only effected by nirtosuguanidine-efficeint in DNA repair
What are fomites?
inanimate objects that can transfer bacteria
What are meninges?
Membranes lining brain and spinal cord. Pia, arachnoid and dura
How would you treat Zygomycetes
Treat the underlying condition
Which virus is the single most important world wide cause of _______ _______
Childhood diarrhea
Name the 6 Arboviruses
1.  West Nile
2.  California
3.  St. Louis, Western & Eastern equine
4.  Colorado tick fever 
5.  Dengue "breakbone fever"
 6.  Yellow fever
What receptor on RBC's picks up immune complexes?
Missense mutations
-a change in a nucleotide sequence resulting in a codon that specifies a different amino acid
factors make it more likely that you will succumb to infection
Due to its toxicity, what is polymyxin B responsible for in hospitals?
light passes throught and you can see through it
Nonessential nutrients
support growth but not required for growth
compounds the cell has the ability to synthesize for itself 
i.e. e.coli can make all 20 of the a.a., extra a.a in media would be for support only 
What are the extracellular virulence factors for strep pyogenese?
streptolysins, hydraluronidase, streptokinases
a region of protein having a defined structure and function
during this stage of viral replication; replication of viral genome; Synthesis of capsid and envelope proteins
Replication and Synthesis
acute infection
having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course of infection
Staphylococcus aureus
A circular bacteria commonly found as part of a person's natural flora
adaptive immunity
the aquired ability to recognize and destroy a pathogen and its products (specific)
a cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane-enclosed nucleus.
What is needed to identify infection of neonatal meningitis?
gram stain
How do you diagnose rotavirus?
direct ELISA on feces
What is a protein?
-organinc molecules that contain C,H,O,N,(S)-make up 50% of a cells dry weight -essential in all cell functions and structures
what is a pathogen?
an organism that causes a disease
Describe peroxygens(ozone, hydrogen peroxide)
-Oxidizing agents which form free radicals
-Used for skin cleaning/Ac units
What are the steps in the lytic cycle in a bacterial cell?
What drugs do you use to treat A. lumbricoides?
Morphology of hemato. active BM
Spongelike reticular network with boney trabeculae, penetrated with many blood sinusoids
What is the proteasome?
A multiprotein enzyme complex with proteolytic activity in cytoplasm (degrade damaged/misfolded proteins)
Basic structure of lipopolysaccharides
lipid A embedded in outer membrane, core polysaccharide and O antigen that project from the surface of the bacteria
In what domains are transcription and translation able to occur simultaneously?
Bacteria and archaea

 Population composition
Microbes in Population Toughest to kill -- bacterial endospores Other “tough bugs”
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (causes tuberculosis) is very resistant to many antimicrobial agents
State of Microbes “vegetative” growing cells easier to kill
Why is LPS important?
It's a endotoxin responsible for endotoxic shock & contains o-specific oligosaccride
What presents pathogenic antigens to T cells?
Major Histocompatibility complex
The cross septum starts to form at the beginning of DNA replication
How do you contract Shigella and it's presentation?
1.  fectal-oral 
1.  Bloody dirrhea
2.  Fever
actions of microbial control agents
alteration of cell membrane permeability- plasma membrane is target for agents-damage to fluid mosaic modeldamage to proteins-enzymes, vital to cellular activity-shape maintained by weak hydrogen bonds
What are rose spots?
macupapular rash of typhoid fever (diagnostic)
Microbs colonizing the GI tract
esophagus - mostly transients
stomach - small numbers of acid tolerant bacteria such as lactobacilli; helicobacter pylori (alcers)
small intestine - mostly anaerobes

large intestine - highest numbers
mostly anaerobic bacteria, primarily rods
10^11 bacteria per gram of feces
How does a meningococcal meningitis infection proceed?
Begins with cold-like sympotms, advances to meningitis sympotms, skin hemorrhages and in extreme cases death within 24h.
Name two different Spirochetes, and the disease they cause
Borrelia burgdorferi(cause of Lyme’s disease)
 Treponema pallidum(cause of Syphilis)
Where are genes for regulatory proteins (such as C2, Factor H, CR1, etc.) located?
Regulator for complement activation locus
Size of Ig domain
2 beta sheets (3+4 constant, 4+5 variable antiparallel)
T cell receptors
can only bind to epitopes that have been removed from the original antigen structures (processing); the epitopes must be presented to the T cell receptors on host major histocompatibility proteins (presentation)
crosslinking between PG strands
most common - link between D-alanine of one strand and DAP on adjacent strand
another is peptide interbridge - series of GLYs that link them
What are the three kinds of symbiosis?
Commensalism, Mutualism, and Parasitism
what type of dna do most phages contain
double stranded dna
What are antigen presenting cells?
cells that phagocytose pathogens and then present small protein antigens from these pathogens on their surface
done use O2 but can survive in its presence
aerotolerant anarobe
what is oxidase used for?
Divides G-ve bacilli into 2 grps
What is teh gram stain of salmonella typhi?
gram negative rod
What is each individual strand of the mold mycelium called?
Hyphae or hypha
T/F: Low Km = high substrate []
FalseLow km= low substrate []
Give an example of AI-2 or Lux regulated processes
• Borrelia burgdorferi•Pleiotophic protein expressionOR
• Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus mutans•Biofilm FormationOR
• Streptococcus pneumonae and Vibrio cholerae•Virulence
Give the make up of Mump (Paramyxoviridae Rubulavirus).  What other virus shares it
1.  (-) ssRNA nonsegmented
2.  Helical nucleocapsid
3.  Enveloped 
1.  Measles
2.  RSV
3.  Parainfluenzae 
Ubiquitin does what with proteins in the cytoplasm?
Targets them to a proteasome
Mode of action of polyene antibiotics.
Attacks cell membrane by preventing the production of sterols
bacteria dont have steroids in cell membrane so its not effective against them
What is the purpose of ferrodoxin?
Supply electrons to reverse citric acid cycle
The WBC count for viral pneumonia is _____ w/ ______ cells predominate
1.  15000 >
2.  Mononuclear  
What is the reticuloendothelial system?
a permeable network of tissue fibers that connects cells and organs (extracellular space outside of organs)
What is 2nd degree zoster called?
shingels (reinfectino of virus after you already had chicken pox)
What is pneumocystis pneumonia classified as?
fungus, but it produces cysts like parasites
What were the 3 classes of parasites given in the dvd? Give 3 examples for each class.
1. Single-celled/protozoan - Naegleria, Cryptosporidium, Giardia2. Multicellular - Roundworms (Pinworms), Flatworms (Schistosoma-blood fluke), Segmented worms (Taenia-tapeworm)3. Ectoparasite - flea, tick, lice
What's Leading DNA strand
Leading DNA strand – template for synthesis of continuous new strand, 5’ to 3’
What are some disadvantages of a direct microscopic count?
cannot distinguish between dead and live cells, only accurate if large # of bacteria is present
IL-12 receptor deficiency led to what in patients?
Lack of IFNgamma (treated with IFNgamma injections)
closer on a phylogenetic tree means...
more closely related; distance is a measure of relatedness
Is there a vaccine for group A strep?
no, there is no prevention
Name the levels of Taxonomic Hierarchy (8 levels)
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Does clostridium tetani like oxygen?
no it is an obligate anaerobe (oxygen kills it)
How do you diagnose urethritis due to enterococci?
culture on blood, non-hemolytic, catalase negative (strep), lancefeild group d, do NOT produce nitrate, NO growth on MacConkey plate because it is gram positive
Primary stage of lyme disease?
bull's eye rash at site of tick bite, only in 75% of cases.
How is the classical C3 convertase formed?
C1 complex (mainly C1s2) cleaves C4 into C4a/b, and C4b binds covalently to many nearby surfaces through carbonyl group of thioester bond; C2 binds C4b and C1s cleaves C2 to form C2a/b; C2a binds C4b to form the C3 convertase
2 advancements that led to change from 5 kingdoms to 3 domains
advances in molecular biology - obtaining sequence data, eg
microscopy - morphological and biological differences are much more well known
What is the response of the activated T cell lymphocytes?
Cytotoxicity - TC directly destroys cells by lysis.
Immunoregulation - TH regulate IR.
Alteration of the target (how genes code for or result in resistance)
Genes that alter cell wall or ribosomes so antibiotic does not affect them
What is the purpose of the Enterotube?
To rapidly identify enterics from a single colony.
What's at risk for developing Subactue Sclerosing Panencephalitis
Measles before 2 and latient in the CNS for 6-15 years
Glycolysis is a...
is the b... of g..... into 2 p... a...
generates 2 net A.....
occurs in the c....
breakdown of glucose into 2 pyruvic acides
What is required to use the Enterotube?
Isoloted colony on an agar plate that is selective for GM-
MacConkeys, EMB, Hektoen Enteric
List the host range and specificity of viruses
1) Spectrum of hosts which can be infected2) Specific cell lines
Number of genes and strands in RNA for HIV
4 genes in 2 strands(codes for 9 proteins)
Oncolytic Virus
developed biogenesis
Aedes aegyptii
Yellow Fever
Fluke lifecycle
microscopic>snail>fish>(intermediate hosts)>human (definitive hosts)
Ascaris lumbricoides
Spread via fecal/oral route
Adult worms migrate out of intestines and into lungs
Usually not severe but can cause duct blockage
high wax in wall
Anaerobe, strict fermenter, endospore
used for packing DNA
sulfonamides drugs are
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ)
Taenia solium
Findings (Parasite hints):
brain cysts, seizures
What the gene's code says
Does fixing kill the microbe?
Deposits in cytosol, whichcontain lipids, starch, N, P, or S.Used when nutrients are scarce.
Harmful Effects
causes disease,stagnation of ponds,interfere with food chain,rapid food spoilage,toxic
A non-specific response to injury.
- lacA →
Encodes thiogalactoside transacetylase, whose function is not well elucidated
- Indeed, this gene product is not needed to metabolize lactose
Heterotrophs- Reduced, preformed, organi molecules from other organisms
Energy sources
What does C. tetani cause?
rickettsia, chlamydia
Name the obligate intracellular bugs
The monoclonal antibody being developed against anthrax is:a. Daclizumabb. Raxibacumabc. Ranibizumabd. Cetuximab
b. Raxibucamab18-6
describes the particular attributes of a specific microbe (species or strain) that promote pathogenicity. Virulence can be a quantifiable term (avirulent, mildly virulent, highly virulent). Virulence depends on virulence factors
With respect to resolution in microscopes, which is better, a small number or large one?
Requires exogenous growth factor e.g. and AA or vitamino Bacteria that cannot make all of their nutrients (and require the presence of many amino acids and/or vitamins) are considered fastidious
long, thin protein polymers that provide motility
Total yield or aerobic respiration
38 ATP
Recoils DNA to complete DNA replication
Short wavelength = more energy Classified into 2 types Ionizing and Nonionizing
dinoflagellates of group pyrrophyta produce what?
red tides
What type of cutaneous fungal infection is more common in adults?
The germ theory of disease
Ignaz SemmelwiseListerKochJennerEhrlich & Fleming
Genetic engineering is useful with agriculture? T/F. If false, correct.
the formal system of organizing, classifying and naming living organisms
prevention of HAT
gambian HAT
no zoonotic reservoir
case detection, management

rhodesian HAT
cattle zoonotic reservoir
vector control
veterinary control
Which S. pyogenes constituent is mostly responsible for molecular mimicry, avoiding immune recognition?
Hyaluronic capsule
fever, rash, may have nausea/vomiting, leukocytosis, strawberry tongue, bumpy/red tongue
scarlet fever
Liquid Growth Media
-organisms can move about freely-useful for studying the growth characteristics of a single strain of a single species (pure culture)-good for examining growth kinetics and microbial biochemistry at different phases of growh
polar vs. non-polar
water soluble vs. water repelling
Pioneered the idea of a filterable virus - non bacterial pathogens which were small enough to go through filters.
Define transgenic
organisms that contain genes from another species to improve food quality and productivity
are viral subspecies designated by a number?
Stretches of DNA that code for protein
Exogenous Fever
A foreign bacteria produces a toxin.
Ethyl Alcohol and Isopropyl Alcohol - antiseptics - 70-80% aqueous solutionsMOA: precipitate proteins and solubilize lipidsUse: human skin antisepticEffect: kills vegetative cells but not sporicidal - low tissue toxicity bacteriacidal only!
what classification of eucary are a diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that contain chlorophyll?
name the obligate intracellular pathogens
All Rickettsiae

All Chlamydiaceae

All viruses

mycobacterium leprae

some protozoa
Viral structure determines:
Host range (types of hosts)
T/F: It is theorized that rheumatic fever could be the result of antibodies to Streptococcus pyogenes that cross-react with patient cardiac tissue.
-toxin binds cholesterol in the host cell plasma membrane and forms a pore
-water influx causes cell lysis
What type of restriction do eukaryotes have?
Viruses that attack and kill specific kinds of bacteria.
isolation (standard precautions, purpose, types)
purpose- protect patient and self
standard precaution- routinely consider all body fluids and moist surfaces as potentially infectious
airborne precautions
droplet precautions
contact precautions
Name 3 virulence factors for Streptococcus pneumoniae.
PneumolysinIgA proteasePolysaccharide capsuleSlide 11

Sore throat
What are the sx of secondary syphilis?
How do Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetania cause their symptoms of disease?
they produce toxins
A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
If you have 40 strains the pangenome is all the genes of those 40 strains
Strep pneumonia
If it is encapsulated it is pathogenic. The capsule is responsible for the pathogenicity.
What atoms, besides hydrogen, are usually involved in hydrogen bonds?
oxygen and nitrogen
What does D mean in bergeys
25-75 react/dont react
the idea that mitochondria and chloroplast in eukaryotic cells evolved from bacteria is known as
the endosymbiotic theory
define temperate phage
due to latent infection; modify properties of the host cell phage
Define: reverse transcriptase
an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; an enzyme that synthesizes a complimentary DNA from an RNA template
Alcoholic fermentation
a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste product
What are sequelae?
specific conditions that follow an illness episode, such as heart valve damage after a bout of strep sore throat
3 Diseases caused by Neisseria meningitidis
1. Meningococcemia2. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome3. Meningitis
What 6 things can E. Coli cause?
newborn meningitis
hospital acquired pneumonia
What uses probes to detect DNA sequences in restriction fragments separated using gel electrophoresis?
southern blotting
What family does Rotavirus belong to?
Reoviridae (ds, nonenveloped, segmented RNA viruses)
T/F. Fungi's motility varies by species and in dimorphic fungi it may vary depending upon the environment in which the organism is found.
False. Fungi are nonmotile.9-2
mutations in genes encoding H or N spikes, happens constantly to allow virus to avoid IgA Ab. *may involve only 1 aa
antigenic drift
Microorganisms allow humans to...
prevent food spoilage; prevent disease occurence; and led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in medicine and in microbiology laboratories.
unique aspects of archaeal membranes
a. Membranes are built using isoprenoid subunits b. Ether linkage rather than ester linkagec. Some are monolayers of 40 carbon linked lipids (B)d. More stable for high temperature ??? Maybe not
What is the primary genetic material in a given spiecies of a virus?
Define bacteriophage
= a virus that infects bacteria
-phage genome can be DNA or RNA
-2 types of infection:
1. lytic
2. lysogenic (only some bacteriophage capable)
What is an action that bacteria will take under unfavorable conditions as a survival mechanism?
Endospore formation
What is the general appearance of Enterobacteriaceae cultures?
dome-shaped, gray, smooth
Cyanobacteria differ from purple and green phototrophic bacteria because cyanobacteria?
produce oxygen during photosynthesis
Simple diffusion
a net transport of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
agent that physically remove microorganisms from a limited area of the skin
what a good degermer does
What type of bacteria is streptococcus agalactiae? How does it metabolize? How do you obtain it? What are its virulence factors? What is the clinical manifestation?
Gram positive
Facultative anaerobe
Vaginal colonization
Neonatal meningitis, neonatal pneumonia, neonatal sepsis
What is the largest group of chemical mutagens?
alkylating agents
pt with fever and neutropenia: clinical approach
rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial therapy manditory
fever may be the only symptom
predict ID of causitive agent is difficult
perform thorough physical exam
baseline studies
labs: CBC
live, renal function tests
blood and urine culture

direct specific dx test at most likely sites of infection
Which disease require contact precautions?
MRSA, C. difficile, VRE, eteritis, rotavirus, HAV, RSV, lice and scabies22-6
infectious proteins called prions
What are the causative agents of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)?
Insect Pest control (baccilus thuringienssis)
specific non chemicaluse bacteria to stop ONLY INSECTS from hurting a plant
The prevalence rate measures
number of people with disease/ number of people in population
What is the pathogen that causes Food poisoning?
E. coli 0157:H7
What do lysosomes do?
They digest worn out organelles and their own cellular contents.
What is an example of a bacteria with a short stationary phase?
Neisseria gonorrhea
what are some causes of chlamydia psittaci?
parrot fever (psittacosis)
primarily the disease of birds
habitats transmission through via aerosol of dried bird feces
Q: The complication of congenital syphilis known as Hutchinson’s triad includes…
A: Interstitial keratitis, notched incisors, and eighth nerve deafness
What does arythromyocin do?
binds to 50s subunit prevent protein synthesis in bacteria
What are 6 characteristics of living system?
1) metabolism, 2) Reproduction(growth), 3) Differentiation, 4) Communication, 5) Movement, 6) Evolution
Which of the following organisms do NOT undergo antigen variation?
a. Trypanosoma cruzi
b. Borrelia burgdorferi
c. Campylobacter
d. Bordetella pertussis
e. Plasmodium falciparum
a. Trypanosoma cruzi
Brucei does. Cruzi does not
What color is the GN and GP after the iodine? (Gram Stain)
GN: PurpleGP:Purple
genome replication pathway in -RNA virus
incoming viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase transcribes a +RNA strand that is translated by host ribosome into proteins and is used as a template for -RNA genome production.
What do Haemophilus influenzae and Bordetella pertussis have in common?
1. causes diseases of childhood
2. gram negative rods
3. fastidious (tough to grow)
4. spread by droplets
glycolysis --> 2 ATP + 2NADHno incorporation of krebs or electron transportpossible molecules of ATP = 2final: organic moleculesend: ehtanol, butanol, lactic acidfaculative anaerobes, aerotlerant anaerobes and olbigate anaerobes
Bacterial Energy Production: Universal features
what diseases are caused by both enterobacter aerogenes and enterobacter cloacae?
UTI and Respiratory tract infection
how does it work? Phenol
Denatures proteins, Benzene rings w/ -OH group, chemically modified now, sucrets, cresols.
Which strand has a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the number 3 carbon of the sugar?
three prime (3') end
Name 6 ways that pathogens get around GI tract defenses.
Ingested in large numbersAcid/bile resistance (e.g. O antigen)Protected in food when ingestedProduce urease to raise pHSeek shelter under mucusAdherence15-8
suspected TB patients must be in room with ___ air pressure, use ___ masks
negative air pressure, N95 masks
DNA exist in the shape of a twisted ladder known as _______ discovered by _________ and ________
double helix, watson, crick
How does the exfolatin cause Scalded skin syndrome?
-exofoliatin= toxin produced by S. aureus
-causes skin to slough off
What are type 1 pili good for?
expressed in stationary phase, allow enteric bacteria to colonize the gut; able to be regulated; mediate phagocytosis by PMNs;
A type of slime mold that forms into a plasmodium.
Acellular Slime Mold
What is the function of "heat shock"?
to enhance the uptake of DNA
"Hepatitis for 500."This is the only Hepatitis virus that does not have an RNA genome.
What is HBV? It is Incomplete dsDNA19-3
why is the DNA tightly coiled?
to allow for storage within the cell, otherwise it would be too big
What is step #1 in endospore formation?
The sport septum (invagination of the plasma membrane) begins to isolate the newly replicated DNA and a small portion of cytoplasm. This results in the formation of 2 separate membrane bound structures.
name the strain of ecoli that is has a toxin that is dependent upon lysogenic conversion by bacteriphage. this toxin is closely related to shiga toxin (hemolytic uremic syndrome)

MOT: undercooked hamburgers
enterohemorrhagic e. coli (EHEP)
What is the definition of an acellular vaccine? a subunit vaccine?  Give examples
vaccine based on the select component that carries the antigenic derterminant:
acellular - bacteria (ex. pneumococcus, meningococcus)
subunit vaccine - viruses (ex. Hep B)
Know the overall cell cycle, with respect to the initiation (oriC and DnaA) and finishing (ter)
o Origin (oriC) is the site of the initiation of DNA replicationo Terminus (Ter) is the site of termination and resolving the two sister chromosomeso DnaA protein is the first to bind to origin, and its concentration regulates when the replication is initiated dnaA mutants can’t initiate replication, and overexpression of DnaA causes too many forks to appear
What are some prime features of Prevotella melaninogenica?
usually lives in oral pharynx and GI tract and/or vagina, grows black on a special type of blood agar, virulence factors include collagenase, leukocyte inhibitory factor and a capsule, 10-25% of strains are penicillin resistant
What are the two steps in the tiered approach to laboratory diagnosis of infection with Borrelia?
EIA or IFA for anti-flagellar antigen, and if positiveWestern immunoblot procedure 17-12
DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to which end? and why?
to the 3' end because it has a free hydroxyl
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