Microbiology Review 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Idiopathic
cause unknown
Mycobacterium gordonae
=
dehydration
loss of H+
macrolides
inhibit preotein synth
50S
Paragonimus westermani
Findings (Parasite hints):
Hemoptysis
Function: mitochondria
ATP synthesis (respiration)
endospores
highly resistant structureswithstand boiling water70% alcohol for 20 yearsradiationhuman LD50: 500 REMspore LD50: million REMresist drying-recovered from mummieslong-lived - recovered from salt crystal > 250 million years old
silent
does not change AA
Includes pinworms, ascariasis, hookworms, trichinosis
Pinworms
Ehrlichia
Name the bacteria:
-transmission = tick
-no rash
-granulocytes w/ berry cluster organisms
what inhibits flora in duodenum?
bile
Are plasmids crucial for survival?
no
Enterobacteriales
(enterics)
produce "baceteriocins" toxins by aerosola or milk
cyanobacteria
formerly called blue-green algae; procaryotic, pigment-containing, largely photosynthetic unicellular bacteria.
Auger
Red algae makes auger (container/plater) Discovered by Fraw Hesse
name the organism:
G+ rods
aerobic
spore forming

found in rice
MOC: contaminated food

disease: food poisoning exotoxin
Bacillus cereus
Axial filaments
(endo-flagellum)-Bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cells-provide movement for spirochetes
What does Plasmodium falciparum cause?
Malaria
Rickettsia rickettsii
Name the bacteria:
-Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
-transmission = tick
-rash starts on hands & feet (vs typhus rash = starts on trunk) migrates to wrists/ankles, then trunk
-headache, fever
-endemic to East Coast
Virulence factors of S. pneumoniae
CapsuleIgA proteasePneumolysin
Which T-cells help activate macrophages and secrete cytokines?
T-helper cells
How do GN transfer plasmids?
sex pili
Penicillins
A family of antibacterial medications; different groups vary in their spectrum of activity and their susceptibility to beta- lactamases
replication for viruses
attatchment, penetration, uncoating, biosynthesis, maturation, and release
explain the terms associated with bacterias that prefer pH
1. between 6 and 8
2. above 8
3. below 6
1.neutrophiles
2.alkophiles
3.acidophiles
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes contain nucleic acids?
Both
type of microbial metabolite (byproduct of metabolism) formed during the growth phase of the microorganism
primary metabolite
in immunocompromised individual what does microspoidia cause?
chronic diarrhea
Grows best at high pH levels
Alkalophile
fluorescence microscopy
(compound light)ultraviloet or near ultraviolet light and fluorescent-antibody (FA) technique. Useful for diagnostic applications.
indirect method
-aseptic technique is critically applied-many tubes, pipette, timing (secs to min), dilution factor (1:10) (1:100) (1:1000), etc.(+) immediate results(+) only one step procedure, essentially no possible contamination(-) not as accurate because living cells, dirt, fingerprints can contribute to light absorbency
What are Bacterial enzymes that hydrolize hyaluronic acid (a polysaccharide that holds together cells)?
Hyaluronidase
Varro
Writer and scholar,proposed that tiny invisible animals entered the body through the mouth and nose to cause disease.
dx babesiosis
microscopic exam of blood
Giemsa stain

tetrads rare but pathognomonic

maltese cross

rule out coinfection with Borrelia burgodorferi aka Lyme disease
T/F Streptococcus pneumoniae is only found in humans.
True. 26a-8
TB skin tests become positive after ___ wks after 1' infection with M. bacterium
6-14weeks
Ferdinand Cohn (1828-1898)
discovered the bacterial structure called an endospore that is resistant to many environmental extremes, what tyndall was killing, disproving spontaneous generation
Fermentation
A biological pathway that doesnt need oxygen to occur but can occur in its presence. The endpoint can be any other molecule, differs with different species. Number of ATP produced is much less in fermentation than in respiration. . The first step in fermentation is glycolysis, which yields Pyruvic acid.
Binary Fission
1) Cell replicates its DNA
2) Cytoplasmic membrane elongates3) Wall forms, membrane invanginates
4) Wall completely forms
5) Daughter cells separates
Define bacteriogenic
contain genes that synthesize toxic proteins that kill other bacteria
Endoenzymes
break down molecules inside of the cell
What decade did Joseph Lister make the development of the idea that handwashing is important for doctors?
1860
What is germination?
The return to vegetative state.
Use: algaecide in pools, additive to marine bottom paints, inhibits attachment of mussels and barnacles
Mercurials
which classification of protozoa are non-motile and parasitic which produce enzymes that helps to digest their way into host cell?
apicomlexa (sporozoa)
possible locations for bacterial pathogenic factors
-bacterial chromosome

-plasmids

- bacteriophage chromosome
Envelope-
Consists of a combination of liquids, proteins, and carbohydrates. This is the process by which plasma layer becomes the viral envelope.
Nutrient agar:
5g peptone (hydrolysed casein), 3g beef extract, 8g NaCl in 1L water but solidified with 1.5 % agar
Staph saprophyticus
UTi in young, sexually active females
Single-stranded DNA template, primer that anneal to template, DNA polymerase, 3 of 4 deoxynucleotides, and 1 of 4 as dideoxynucleotides are elements for what?
di-deoychain termination reaction
Bacteria Diversity
DNA, added DNA, changes in DNA
major pulm. syndromes caused by what agents
MAC
M kansasii
Which disease require airborne precautions?
Tuberculosis, measles, and varicella22-6
Tinea Cruris
Ringworm infection of the groin is known as what?
Morbillivirus
Measles (Rubeola)
Measles (Rubeola) -> Upper RTI -> Koplik spots in OC  -> Spotty macular Rash -> Brain -> Slow Inf
 
Leads to SSPE (Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis)
Metals as a chemical control
limit mutagenic/ potentially carcinogenic
reacting with proteins
 combing with enzymes and intefere w fxn
Cellular Respiration
Breakdown of glucose into CO2 and H2O
Treatment of Neisseria meningitis--MENINGOCOCCAL meningitis.
Prompt treatment with chemotherapy before identification and Broad Spectrum Cephalosproins. Generally hard to treat.
Synthetic Media
media in which the exact chemical formulation is known.
what is any sequence of 3 nitrogen bases or Nucleotides
Codon
Gamma Rays
Penetrate surfaces easy but take hours to kill microbes Used to sterilize meat, spices, fresh fruits and veggies
Given an example of a facultative organism that respires only
Pseudomonas aeuginosa
this strain escherichia causes diarrheal outbreaks in hospital nurseries and in bottle-fed infants
enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)
Quaternary protein structure
the interaction between several chains of peptide bonds.
Parcentral
Ability to keep specimen in the center of field even when changing powers
cAMP inducers (4)
1. Vibrio cholerae activates Gs2. Pertussus toxin disables Gi3. E. coli heat labile toxin4. B. athracis toxin includes edema factor, a bacterial adenylate cyclase(first 3 act via ADP ribosylation)
What are A special class of DNA-cutting enzymes that exist in bacteria?
Restriction enzymes
What is process when bacterial DNA is transferred from donor to recipient via bacterial virus (bacteriophage)?
transduction
Protein A (S. aureus)
Name the bacterial virulence factor that helps evade host:
Binds Fc region of Ig. Prevents opsonization & phagocytosis
What might a bacteria convert its terminal D-ala residue to in order to become resistant to vancomycin?
D-Ser or L-Lac.4-19
how is viral influenza spread?
droplets from upper resp tract
How soon after the canchre stage does the second stage show up?
2-4 years
Sporulation
The 8 to 10 hour process of endospore formation, can form centrally, suberminally, or terminally.
In the case of proving the cause of an infectious disease with Koch's Postulates does the pathogen need to be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture?
yes
Define VP test
=test to see if organism uses 2,3-butanediol pathway to break down pyruvate
-if acetoin (intermediate in pathway) is detected -> color change
-VP positive
1. Klebsiella
2. Enterobacter
3. Serratia
Classification of organisms according to their O2 requirement
-Obligate aerobes - require oxygen-Facultative anaerobes - grow best with O2 but can survive without-Microaerophiles - likes low O2 concentration-Aerotolerant - grow without O2 but are not killed by it-Obligate anaerobes - cant grow in presense of O2
How can Pseudomonal aerugoinosa use an electron chain that doesn't involve oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor?
it uses nitrate
types of microbial defense strategies to avoid defense mechanisms of body
extracellular capsules, genetic modification of surface antigens and support/provide nutrients for host
Provirus
A provirus is a virus genome that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. One kind of virus that can become a provirus is a retrovirus
standard plate count
serial dilution (setting a series of sterile water blanks, and diluting the bacteria and the pour plate method so that you have individual cells that can grow into pure colonies)
What are vectors?
Animals that carry pathogens from one host to another
What are used to determine which cell contain gene of interest?
colony blots
principles of therapy in neutropenic hosts
initial antimicrobial therapy is empiric
gram negative coverage is mandatory
pathogen IDed, change antibiotic regimen according to susceptibility pattern of organism
recovery of neutrophil count is a major prognostic factor
control of underlying illness important prognostic factor
pts remaining febrile despite antibacterial coverage- begin antifungal therapy
modify therapy according to clinical event
ex: anti Staph coverage if catheter site appears erythematous
Name the gram negative diplococci that cannot ferment maltose.
Neiserriae gonorrheaeCharts after lecture 2
Homosexual or bisexuals-45%
Intravenous drug users-30%
Heterosexual partners of HIV carriers-11%
What type of patients are at greatest risk for HIV in the U.S.?
What are Archea's cellwalls made of?
Pseudomurein, if they have any
what do chromosomes contain and what are they?
genes, segments of DNA
What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell walls?
Prokaryotes: almost all contain peptidoglycanEukaryotes: may be present-chitin - fungi-cellulose - plants
Primary metabolite
Formed at same time as new cells in fermentationEthanol
What is a pathogenicity island?
a contiguous set of chromosomal virulence genes that has been transported from one bacterial species to another
what are some conditions in which vibro parahemoyticus would produce?
diarrhea is toxin mediated
What type of yeast is normal flora on our body?
Candida albicans
After an antigen is entered into a body for a second time, the immune response is called ________
Secondary response
Memory response
What does the host act as for DNA replication?
an incubator
What is the #1 cause of skin and soft tissue infections?
S. aureus
Gram negative bacteria stain _______ because ________.
pink; it absorbs the counterstain, safarin
 
Name a disease caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.  What is its major virulence factor?
 
UTI, and pneumonia
 
Major v. factor:  Capsules
Name 3 species of mycoplasma that can cause disease in humans
1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
-respiratory disease
2. Ureaplasma urealyticum
-GU infections urethritis, epididymitis
3. Mycoplasma hominis
-GU infections, pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, postpartum/postabortal fever
karl woes and norman pace proposed the three-domain system for classification of living organisms based on the comparison of
ribosomal RNA gene sequences
in what ways can viruses be transmitted?
inhaled ddroplets, food/water, direct transfer from other infected hosts, bites of vector, transplacental, sexually transmitted
What are the three general categories of viral morphology?
Helical Viruses, Polyhedral Viruses, Complex Viruses.
What are the 2 forms Griffith discovered that S. pneumoniae existed to discover DNA-mediated transformation?
Encapsulated, virulent form and Non-encapsulated, avirulent form
A bone marrow transplant patient is at risk for developing respiratory tract infection.  What type of infection would you be most concerned about?
Opportunistic pathogens: fungal and viral pneumonia with exogenous pathogens (P. jiroveci, CMV)
Describe the functions and composition of the cell wall
Responsible for the shape of the cellPrevents cell from rupturing when water pressure is greater inside than outsideProtects interior of the cellSITE OF ACTION OF SOME ANTIBIOTICS
All of the following are major shapes of bacteria except:
1. conical
2. Bacilli
3. spiral forms
4. cocci
5. pleomorphic
=conical
-cocci = spherical
-bacilli = rods
-spiral forms = comma-shaped, S-shaped, or spiral shaped
-pleiomorphic= lacking a distinct shape
What does streptolysin S (SLS) do?
oxygen stable, made in presence of serum, causes beta hemolysis, structurally similar to other Gram+ bacteriocin, nonantigenic, one of most potent cytotoxins known, important factor in pathogenesis of invasive infections such as necrotizing fascitis
List the RNA's and the range of their BP size
tRNA 70-95bp
rRNA 120-4200bp
mRNA 100s-100,000s bp
Do both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have introns?
no, prokaryotes do not because they can't get rid of them
HBsAG may be found...a. As free particles in serumb. On the surface of HBVc. Within the nucleocapsid of HBVd. As polymers in serume. b and cf. a,b, and dg. all of the above
fAs free particles in the serumAs polymers in the serumOn the surface of HBV19-4
Cross Bridge Peptide and Tetrapeptide side chain
two types of peptides that link 50-60 units of alternating NAM and NAC together to form the carbohydrate backbone of the cell wall
Why is Louis Pasteur's discovery of the process of fermentation important?
Gives us understanding on how things that require fermentation are created.
How to determine if gram neg rod ferments, oxidizes, or assimilates glucose?
Oxidative / Fermentative (OF) Sugar Reaction. Two tubes with glucose and green/yellow indicator. One tube covered by oil. Describe what you will see in the following:

Oxidize glucose?
Ferment glucose?
Assimilate glucose?
How to determine if gram neg rod ferments, oxidizes, or assimilates glucose?
Oxidize glucose: NO tubes yellow.
Ferment glucose: Both tubes yellow.
Assimilate glucose: Only tube w/o oil yellow.
Which vaccines are included in routine immunization for infants and children?
Age 0-6yrs: Hep B, rotavirus, DTP, H flu b, pneumococcal, polio, influenza, MMR, Varicella, Hep A, meningococcal
 
Age 7-18 yrs:  DTP, HPV, meningococcal, pneumococcal, influenza, Hep A/B, polio, MMR, varicella
What is the overall product at the end of glycolysis?
4 ATP; 10 NADH, 2 FADH
What is special about the capsule of S. typhi?
covers C3 binding sites on its LPS
You culture an enteric on a MacConkey agar plate. It grows clear colonies at 24 hours. Which of the following could NOT be this organism:
a. Shigella dysenteriae
b. E. coli
c. Proteus mirabilis
d. Morganella morganii
E. coli. It is lactose positive and would not form clear colonies. It would be red.
21-5
How is the host range of a virus determined?
By the virus's requirements for its specific attachment to the host cell and the availability within the potential host of cellular factors required for viral multiplication
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