Microbiology test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Phage involved
CH4 producers
Direct Life Cycle?
hermetically sealed flasks
V. parahaemolyticus
causes gastroenteritis
Vibrio Cholerae
Causes cholera
"heat-loving" microorganismsoptimum growth 50-60 C---> sunlit soil, hot springscannot grow below 45 Cendospores formed by thermophilic bacteria are heat resistant, can survive commercial sterilization
Salmonella enterica
gram (-) facultative anaerobe, reproduces in intestinal epithelial cells
low fever with cramps,  nausea, diarrhea, cramps, poultry contamination
oral rehydration
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
DNA Fingerprinting

Restriction – uses restriction enzymes to cut out certain segments of DNAFragment  – short sequence repeatsLength - Compares fragment lengthsPolymorphism – means “many forms” indicating the fragments cut into different sizes
Super bacterial infection
Common cold
The study of bacteria
shape of bacilli bacteria
Enveloped,- sense, ssRNA, nonsegmentedParainfluenza – causes cold symptoms, bronchitis, croup; Mumps -Inflammation of salivary glands, esp. parotids; later spreads to other organs (MMR vaccine)
guidelines for naming organisms
ninomial system of nomenclature
genus- group of related species
species- group of individuals which can interbreed and produce gertile offspring
2 million species
Human herpes virus 5
cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Define Bacteriostasis
inhibiting, not killing microbes
NRAMP1 means
Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein
anhydride is formed using
two acids
Focal infection
systemic seeding/progression from originally local infection
Neisseria MeningitidisHemophilus Influenza
Disease: MeningitisCharacteristics: Membrane covering brain and spinal cord become inflamed. Primary to children under age 4. Severe headache, sudden high fever, stiff neck.



–Prefer acidic pHs (less than pH 5.5)
synthetic penicillin
antibioticinhibit cell wall synthesisbroad spectrum
Small pox
eradicatedbioterrorism threatrash over entire bodypustules that break openvariola virus
oven used to grow bacteria
Treatment of TB
1.  Rifampin
2.  Isoniazid
3.  Pyrazinadmide
4.  Ethambuol
5.  Streptomycin
composed of two monosaccharides; lactose = glucose + galactose
-lack peptidoglycan***cells walls are S-layer***-large amounts of cystine and proline-resitant to penicillin nad cephalosporin-
Peptide bonds
join amino acids into polymers
infectious disease
disease caused by a microorganism
slime layer
-only in prokaryotes-thinner than capsule-attached less tightly to cell wall than capsule-protects cell against drying, traps nutrients, can bind cells to surfaces or each other
Human MHC I molecules
-Physical or chemical agent that introduces a mutation that changes the microbe's phenotype.
- (agents that cause a mutation)
organic molecule used/needed by the apoenzyme to do the catalysis (Vitamins)
What are the other physical methods?

Chronic lung disease characterized by low grade fever, weight loss and destruction of lung tissue
oil associated with glands especially hair follicles. produced by sebaceous glands and keeps the skin lubricated
breakdown of the normal liver architecture resulting in fibrosis
during this type of transmission, disease is spread through direct contact with and infected person/animal
penicillian derivate called a..
is beta lactam
infectious proteins. C-J disease kuru canibal disease.
in this symbiotic relationship both members benifit and they are dependent on one an other
Cell-wall deficient bacteria
mycoplasma pneumoniae "walking pneumonia"mycoplasma fermentens intercellular pathogen, immunosupressive, found in AIDS
a group of antimicrobials extracted from nature. ( a natural waste product from a MO).
How does enteroinvasive infect?
invades intestinal wall
-prey on other Gm- bacteria-develops intraperiplsmically-froms a spehrical structure called a bdelloplast-oxidation of amino acids and acetate
MacConkey agar
Selective — Bile saltsSelects for growth of gram-negative bacteria Differential — Lactose & pH indicator (neutral red) turns pink
Holoenzymes are made up of:
apoenzyme and cofactor
Describe DNA
- nucleotides composed of repeating nucleotides nucleotides are composed of 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group
Name the 5 enteroviruses
1.  Polio
2.  Coxsackieviruses
3.  Norwalk virus
4.  Echovirus  1-31 & 68-72
5.  Rotavirus (only one w/ dsRNA) 
Cells in cortex
Thymic epithelia and T cells
what does dsRNA indicate 
RNA virus in cell 
Change in nucleotide base sequence of genome
Count Buffon
philosopher - in league- colleague with Needham- "heat of course, destroys the vital force"
Name THE mode of actions

Denature ProteinProtein coagulation
Non-specific chemical combination

Disrupt lip-protein membranes (mostly cell membranes)
Suppress cell wall synthesis
Antimetabolites (competitive/non-competitive inhibitors)
Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
What are the major oxidizing/reducing molecules used in metabolic processes?
Naked: Anatomy
Nucleic Acid: DNA or RNA
Capsid-outer coat (capsomere)
Spikes (not all)
ex: polio
nothing around the virus
Specific Names

Capsule: glycocalyx that is organized and firmly attached to the cell wall 

Slime Layer: glycocalyx that is not organized and only loosely attached to the cell wall
the segment of the agrobacterium Ti plasmid that is transferreed to plant cells
fusion of multiple host cells into single large cels containing multiple nuclei
DNA Function
Genetic Material for all living things.
How can bacteria be controlled?
Sterilization and disinfectants
Suggested Needhams results were due to microorganisms in the air entering the broth.
thick cell wall primarily of peptidoglycan/cell membrane. when stains it retains crysal violet and turns purple
gram positive
Pathogens:the normal microbiota of the human body become pathogenic and produce disease under certain circumstances
opportunistic pathogens
In Nitrogen Fixation, the following are free living and anaerobic:
Clostridium species
the nonprotein component of an enzyme, inorganic metallic ions
-site of ribosomal RNA synthesis -Rich in RNA and often visble under the light microscope
antisense-stranded RNA virus
viral-encoded RNA pol. makes complementary strand of RNA to be used as template for translation of viral proteins
T/F: There is no net increase or decrease in cell number during the stationary phase
Define/identify antimicrobial agent or drug
-antimicrobial agents kill microorganisms or supress their growth. antibiotics
Describe the plasma membrane of prokaryotes and how it differs from eukaryotes.
-phospholipid bilayer-transmembrane proteins embedded-glycolipids-peripheral proteins loosely associated-antigensProkaryotic plasma membrane is much more versatile than eukaryotic (preforms functions such as ATP synthesis that eukaryotes perform elsewhere), do not contain the variety of lipids in membrane that eukaryotes do (esp. sterols), much larger surface-to-volume ratio so do not need these lipids for rigidity
What protein in coronavirus binds to sialic acid
HE protein
Control for integrin activation
Expression of specific chemokine receptors, transient chemokine production
What is lupus?
Multisystem disease caused by IC deposition (both Ab/complement types) on various tissues
Pigments used in phototrophy can be located on:
-thylokoid membranes-chlorosomes-invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane-cytoplasmic membrane
What is silver nitrate ineffective against?
chlamydia trachomatis
chlamydia and gonorrhea
amino acid sequencing
amino acid sequences of proteins directly reflect mRNA sequences and represent the genes coding for their synthesis; determine amino acid sequence of proteins with the same function; 20 amino acids gives more information than 4 nucleotides
Clostridium botulinum
Probably the most potent toxin known is produced by
What is the major promotion factor in E. coli?
What causes strep toxic shock syndrome?
streptococcus pyogenes toxemia
T cell receptor
antigen specific receptor protein on the surface of T cells
Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic supercoiling
Euk-proteins called histones from nucleosomes which form supercoils.  Nucleosomes form chromatin which forms chromosomes.
Prk-Don't use histones, use enzymes.  Topisomerase I and II wind and unwind
high-energy phosphate bonds
conserves the chemical energy released in redox reactions (conserved for cell functions)
these compounds function as the energy source to drive energy-requiring reactions in the cell
Chemically Defined Medium
Bacterial growth medium composed of precise mixtures of known pure chemicals
Generally used for specific experiments when nutrients must be precisely controlled
obtaining pure culture
-streak plate-dilution of culture in broth
culture media
a nutrient material prepared for the growth of microorganisms in the lab
What are coliforms?
gram negative fermentors that produce nitrate and can cause urethritis
A "slow virus" is the causative agent of the disease
What is sanitation?
cleansing to lower the microbe count to a safe level
What type of meningitis is common in youth/young adults?
Meningococcal meningitis
What does P. jiroveci cause?
Nonproductive cough & dyspnea (pneumonia)
In regards to polio what phase include the symptoms:
1.  Flaccid paralysis
2.  Paralysis of all 4 limbs, CN & Muscles of respiration 
Paralytic Polio
How is polymorphism maintained?
Balanced selection from coevolution of host/pathogen and MHC dependent mating preferences
Name the varicella zoster virus vaccine
Oka vaccine, live attenuated
Name the 5 types of protein coagulants

Alkalis and Acids
Salts of Heavy Metals
Where does the energy come from to power group translocation (phosphotransferase system)?
phophoenol pyruvate
A packet of many Merozoites in a red blood cell.
hanta virus pulmonary syndrome
an emerging acute viral disease characterized by respiratory pneumonia obtained by transmission of hantavirus from rodents
Descibe some of the different disciplines that are considered part of microbiology
Bacteriology, parasitology, virology, phycology, mycology, algology
stationary phase
in a tube or flask, with limited nutrients, exponential growth cannot occur indefinately
occurs primarily because: as essential nutrient of the medium is used up, waste by product of the organism builds up to an inhibitory level
there is no net increase or decrease in cell number but many cell functions can continue
cell used to destroy foreign cells by secreting perforins to lyse
cytotoxic cell
the slime around a cell wall used for adherence
What are causes of laryngitis?
strep pyogenes, strep pneumoniae, ciruses
What are the symptoms of candiditis?
thick, yellow, cheesy discharge
Germ Theory of Disease
Given microbe causes given disease (causal relationship)
How is lyme disease transmitted?
Vecotr transmission, spread by deer ticks
What are the final electron acceptors of fermentation?
pyruvic acid (organic molecules)
What types of bonds replace the thioester bond when interacting with antigens (complement)?
Covalent ester (C4b)/amide (C4a)
When does a spore form?
during extreme conditions to ensure survival; germination = vegetative structure during normal cellular processes
What infects the intestinal tract and can go into the blood stream to the heart?
Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci VRE
Lag phase of cell growth
-cells are synthesizing the molecules essential for division -Length may vary: if cells are nutrient starved, longer lag phase, if not shorter.-there is no net increase in the number of cells
Acellular Microorganisms:
Characteristics: A Major class of microorganism Not cellular Made of nucleic acid + protein Obligate intracellular parasites (cannot live by themselves, must depend on a host)
Quorom Sensing
A process used by cells to make sure they are a large enough population to have a biological effect.
substrate level phosphorylation
direct synthesis of ATP or other high energy phosphate in a direct chemical (metabolic) reaction
2 pathogens that neutralize toxic phagocyte products
S. aureus and M. tuberculosis
Where does streptococcus pneumoniae colonize? what age?
throat, 1 mo. - 4 years
How do you treat acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?
debridement, oxidizing agents, metronidazole
Which of the following is true of viruses
contain nucleic acids
What do viral hepatitis infect and what are common symptoms?
Liver cells; causes inflammatory response yielding Nausea (weeks) some vomiting, abdominal pain and jaundice.
What are the starting materials and end products of the Kreb cycle?
starting material: acetyl CoAend product: 2 ATP, 4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2FADH2
For what cells do HLA-E/G provide receptors?
NK cells, effector T cells
What is an idiotype?
The sum of the Ag-binding sequences on an Ig molecule
What does linezolid block during translation?
methionine tRNA - starts every protein
Bacteria growth in a closed system
Exponential phase
Exponential phase:        - sufficient nutrients & optimal genetic potential - Exponential growth phase - Rapid growth at constant rate - Shortest generation time possible

Nt = No (2n)
What is the purpose of Koch's postulates?
Koch's postulates (or Henle-Koch postulates) are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease.
Benefits of agar and broth
Nutrients. Oxygen. Water/moisture. Temperature between 25°-38°. pH 6-8. Some require light.
what heat is required for dry heat, for how long
180 for 60 mins
What is teh virulence of salmonella enterica?
intracelular life, attachment and entry (parasite mediated endocytosis)
5 steps in the replication cycle of all viruses:
1. Attachment2. Penetration3. Nucleic acid and protein synthesis4. Assembly of virions5. Release
What are superoxide free radicals?
O2* are formed in small amounts during normal aerobic respiration, highly toxic and unstable- can be destroyed by SOD- SOD turns it into hydrogen peroxide- hydrogen peroxide is converted into water using catalase
How do M's interact with complement proteins?
Use as receptors for cell entry
What are the 4 types of biochemical tests used to detect the presence of organisms in a cell culture?
1. Fermentation of sugars2. Utilization of carbon sources (citrate)3. Deamination of AA's4. Hydrolysis of proteins, DNA, lipid
What alternate sigma factors are used in sporulation?
Pro-sigma-F active in fore-spore and Pro-sigma-E active in the mother cell (both are found in both locations)
During this stage of viral replication, Nucleic acid and capsid assembled into virions
Nucleic acid and capsid assembled into virions
natural killer cells resemble t cells in their ability to
destroy cancer cells and cells infected with intraccellular pathogens; use granzymes and perforin
How do you prevent the avian flu?
vaccine (multivalent killed virus) - has anti-H and anti-N antibodies
What are some reasons for the failure of the enterotube?
Not a GM- colony
Holes not punched
What are the two components of Photosnthesis?
1- conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in ATP 2- Fixing carbon into organic molecules; light independent reactions (Calvin-Benson Cycle)
What does the secretory component of IgA do?
Protects it from breakdown in the lumen
What do archaea use to splice out introns in mRNA molecules?
An endoribonuclease (eukaryotes use a spliceosome)
Why after 6 weeks is a throat culture an ineffective means of diagnosis?
MO abundance is signficantly reduced.
Only blood test for Abs is effective.
WHat are the two forms of rabies?
furious (foaming at mouth) and dumb (paralytic)
Where do you commonly se Giardiasis and why?
Day care centers since it is highly contagious. It alsohas low mortality.
Describe the use of hexachlorophene in the past.
Used to be used in soaps, shampoos, and baby powders
residual action - stays on skin and gets deeper til it becomes neurotoxic
killed 40 babies in france where brains looked like swiss cheese
Inactivation (how genes code for or result in resistance)
Gene codes for an enzyme released by bacteria that destroys the antibiotics
what is a Base Substitution mutation
a single base at one point in DNA is replaced with a different base
What is the path of the toxin during clostridium tetani infection?
eneters the bloodstream, then binds to peripheral nerve cells (
What are the three different chemical reactions? Explain them!
(1) Synthesis Reations A + B --> AB(2) Decomposition Ractions AB--> A + B(3)Exchange Reaction AB + CD --> AD + BC
Antimicrobial Agent
Gram negativenon-photosyntheticspiralan axial filament
Varicella-zoster virus
Herpesvirus- DNA for life
itchy bumps and blisters on face- NO FEVER
older people can get pneumonia
latent in ganglia- shingles when reactivated
spread by respiratory droplets
there is a vaccine- mainly to prevent from shingles
Quorum sensing
microbial “communication”▪ Allows for self-monitoring of cell density (population growth)▪ Secretion of chemical signals – following attachment to a surface, microbe secretes an inducer molecule;▪ more inducer present = greater population▪ inducer molecules can stimulate expression (“turning on”) of specific genes ▪ Genetic activation – when quorum (“critical mass”)is reached (i.e. inducer build-up) changes in gene expression occur.▪ =coordinated expression of digestive enzymes, toxins, etc.
Opportunistic pathogensMetabolically diversePolar flagella
Dry Heat 180C
cell wall synthesis
Yeast (latin name)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Fe+2//O2-Rusticyanin involved in oxidation
the production of pigments
In bacteriology, fimbria (bacteriology) is a proteinaceous appendage in many gram-negative bacteria that is thinner and shorter than a flagellum.
provides motility
Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis
obligate intracellular parasites plasmodium ( cause malaria)
-thermophilic, sulfate reducing bacterium-growth temperature optimum is only 70 degrees Celsius-ether-linked lipids
Enzymes are: A)specific B) general
Staphylococcus aureus
Gram (+) cocci, golden clusters, coagulase positive
Pimples, boils, carbuncles from coagulase, to lance boil- flush with hydrogen peroxide or alcohol
Growing antibiotic resistance, MRSA, VISA, VRSA
Lining of blood sinusoid
Endothelial cells
>(as in increased concentration) cI-integrase-leftward transcription
What is PBP?
Penicillin binding proteins
(quantitative) measure of disease potential
A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.
broad spectrum antibiotics
kill many different microbes
ex: t... such as d...
tetracycline, doxycycline
Cyclic photophosphorylation involves a single photosystem.
the causative agent of leprosy
PARASITE INTESTINE- Caused by Entameoba histolytica- Cysts enter body through water/food contaminated with feces- Trophozoites form, causing pain, bloody stools, fever (amobic dysentary)- Rarely, parasites go elsewhere and can be deadly
the process of methane formation
-pleomorphic-slow growers and fast growers-TB = slow-tight, compact, wrinkled colonies-simple mineral salt media-form yellow carotenoid pigments-classifications: nonpigmented, forming pigment in light, pigment in dark
How does electrophoresis separate fragments of DNA?
by size
growth of bacteria in the blood
organisms that use ready-made organic molecules for food
ID'd by membranous projections, arise from bone marrow precursors
extra chromosomal DNA molecules, often code for resistance
▪ Range of temperatures between with a microbe can grow > 45°C
What replaced hexachlorophene as a disinfectant in hospitals?
Microbial Diseases of Lower Respiratory System:
TuberculosisPneumoniaLegionellosisQ FeverPsittacosis
the removal of suspended particles from water by passing it through one or more permeable membranes or media
Prosthetic valves are associated w/
S. epidermidis
citric acid cycle intermediates
alpha-ketoglutarate→ glutamate family
oxaloacetate→ aspartate family
Maintains a bacterial culture in continuous exponential growth
Process of rendering a patients immune
chains, no endospores, not motile, FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES, FASTIDIOUS, sensitive, normal residents
define infection...
presence or multiplication of pathogenic microbes in or on the body
What is inflammation of the urethra?
glycoprotein on spikes for attaching to ciliated epithelial cells
study system of bodily or host defenses tuned to prevent infection
protein which cause other proteins to go bad
Group A Strep
S. pyogenes
this strain has 2 endotoxins
superantigen and protease- breaks down protein to destroy tissue
fever, confusion, tense and discolored skin from swelling
breakdown of tissue and muscle, shock
remove tissue surgically, amputation, no reponse to antibiotics
Influenzae Virus contains a nuclear capside w/ _____
(-) ssRNA
TRAM pathway
After TLR dimerization, TRAM/Trif bind TIR domain and then interact with TBK1 which activates IRF-3
Cytokines affect a large number of cells in a cycle
T/F: Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an obligately phototropic bacterium. It cannot survive in the absence of light b/c it cannot genrate ATP under these conditions
Outer membrane in an archae? What's wrong with this picture?
Name the 4 types of semi-synthetic penicillin

are growth factors synthesized by the body?
Ammonia acceptors 
Ammonia carriers (donors)
- volatile --> must convert

Acceptors: picks up ammonia 
α-ketoglutaric acid
L-glutamic acid

Carriers: can serve as donor in biosynthetic rxn

L-glutamic acid

Ammonia acceptor + NH3 = ammonia carrier
Francesco Redi
Italian biologist and physician. Worms found on rotting meat came from eggs of flies not s. generation by covering jars with gauze
an inactivate or weakened pathogen or innocuous pathogen product used to stimulate protective immunity
this allows pathogen to remain in/on host
Species of protozoa can transform into protective bodies called c.....
normal flora
aids in digestion, helps prevent infections, provides nutrients
12 hours
The generation time of mycobacterium tuberculosis is...
Triazoles (fluconazole)
Inhibition of fungal sterol synthesis (which alters the cell membrane structure and function)
+ssRNA retroviruses use ________________ molecules to direct the synthesis of mRNA
ds DNA ( double-stranded
A motility structure attached to the cells walls.  Too small to see under a regular microscope.
Which strain of influenza are most major disease outbreaks from?
2 antiegen bidning sites, involved in allergic reactions, CH4 contains mast cell binding fragment, distribution=blood and lymph, binds to mast cell surfaces
hemorrhaging on skin --> dark purplish spots
A bacteria that will tolerate the presence of oxygen but does not utilize it for growth
Aerotolerant anaerobes
What is the etiology of malaria?
Plasmodium, a protozoan
Why is Giardia significant clinically?
Causes Giardiasis
1.  Ab. distentsion
2.  Foul smelling fatty diarrhea 
 3.  Can lead to malabsorption, Vit B12 defincency
aerotolerant anaerobes
organisms that survive in the presence of oxygen but do not use it in their metabolismEx. Lactobacillus
Structure of integrins
alpha and beta chains (heterodimers), families based on beta chains
Which molecule would not generate an immune response in very distant animals, cytochrome C or corneal tissue?
Cytochrome C
WHo is the Father of Microbiology?
Anthony von Leeuwenhoek
What are carbapenem resistant to?
bacterial beta lactamase enzymes
Define species
a collection of strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other species
cause of food poisoning
Clostridium perfringens has recieved notoriety in recent years as an important
DNA Replication
DNA replicates to make second copy (identical)
replication is bidirectional
the 2 strands are unwound and separated; free, unbound nucleotides match up to newly separated bases of parent (template) strand
each new strand of DNA consists of one parent strand and one daughter strand
Gene Therapy
To replace missing or defective genes in human cells.
common source epidemic
an epidemic resulting from infection of a large number of people from a single contaminated source
Edward Jenner
English Surgeon who created the Small Pox Vaccine: He observed that young women working as milk maids got cow pox but then never got small pox. Jenner used cow pox virus to create a small pox vaccine.
What do granulocytes fight?
multicellular parasites and mucosal pathogens
two branches of specific (adaptive) immunity
humoral response
cell mediated
Membrane structure:Chromatium
a peptidoglycan cell wall with an outer membrane
a spiral shaped bacteria that has an axial filament
the removal of microbes from a limited area, such as the skin around an injection site-usually removal by an alcohol soaked swab or soap and water
What are the non gonorrheae STD?
Chalmydia trachomatis, syohalis
Ecology and Industrial Issues
-found in alcoholic jouces-CaCO3 plates-incomplete oxidation of organic compounds-synthesize cellulose
The Pe promoter is activated by the __ gene product
[Cell Membrane Integrity Interferer]Polymyxin-B:
-Damages the cell membrane
-Binds membrane of G- cells, which alters permeability 
Is ER found in prok, euk, or both?
eukaryotes only
What's the makeup for Coronavirus
1.  (+) ssRNA nonsegmented
2.  Helical nucelocapsid
3.  Enveloped 
Cationic proteins cause...
Disruption of outer membrane of G- mainly (poking holes in membrane)
Bio Technology
the use of alteration of cells or biological molecules for specific applications. EX: Wine and Bread making (Yeast fermentation)
What is the purpose of Taxo P
identifies Streptococcus pneumoniae 
(sensitive to bile)
E.coli in Water
-belongs to the coliform group w/ characteristics of: - facultative anerobes - G- -non-endospore formers -bacilli (rod shaped) w/random arrangement - ferments lactose sugar to produce gas
More Translation
in response to each codon, tRNA brings its anticodon (ribosomes direct the binding)
tRNA binds to P site then A site
P site and A site attach through peptide bond then detach from tRNA
translation terminates at stop codon
immobilized enzyme
an enzyme attached to a solid support over which substrate is passed and converted to product
A group of 20 or more Amino acids linked together.
theory of biogenesis
current belief that all living things are derived from pre-existing living things
immunity results from the actions of cells that circulate through the __ and __
blood and lymph
How do you diagnose ringworm?
microscopy (skin scrapings), culture (takes weeks)
What stage of whooping cough do most people get diagnosed?
paroxymal stage
What is leukocyte esterase?
enzyme produced by neutrophils (PMN's in urine indicates infection) - determine by dipstick method
What is phage typing?
a specific phage infects only specific species and strains of the species so it helps to classify bacteria
Why can transposable elements cause mutations?  How do they contribute to the spread of drug resistance?

A transposable element is a genetic sequence that is mobile

Transposition: the ability of a genetic sequence to move from one location to another

Insertion sequence: the simplest type of transposable element, contains a gene for the enzyme transposase

Transposon: a transposable element that contains the genes for transposition, and one or more other genes as well

Transposable elements ONLY REPLICATE when in a plasmid or a chromosome

The insertion sequence is copied

The copy RANDOMLY inserts itself into the bacterial chromosome or into another plasmid

The original copy stays in the same place, but the ability to move around plasmids or chromosomes affects the genetic makeup of a cell

This random shuffling can disrupt the cell’s replication and cause spontaneous mutations

Because viruses can mutate so readily and in so many different combinations, a slight alteration can cause a drug to be ineffective
What would you use treat HBV.  Why?
Inferferon alpha
Stimulates antibodies to Hep B surface antigen 
Why do primary follicles stain darker?
More nuclei in resting cells
Number of Human Chromosomes
Humans have 2N=46 chromosomes – 23 pairs
What is a soap used against G+ staphylococci and streptococci? What does it contain?
Phisohex (3% hexachlorophene)
M protein
located in the cell wall and pili of streptococci. Encouraged adherence to pharynegeal (throat) tissue. Retards phagocytosis (white blood cells that try to kill the bacteria). Over 100 specific types of M protein have been identified.
What can severe sepsis lead to?
inflammatory response leads to decrease in blood pressure aka hypotension
How would DNA vaccines work?
genes for pathogen proteins are injected into the muscle. Pathogen genes are expressed and induce an immune response.
What is the function of Interferons?
inhibiting viral replication by inducing changes in infected cells
Similarities and differences of E. coli and K. pneumoniae
1.  Gram (-)
2.  Lactose Fermenters
Differences E. coli is indole (+)
What is needed for malaria to finish its life cycle?
mosquito and human
How is PID gotten?
gonorrea attaches to sperm cells and travels
Ecology and Isolation of Methano and Methylo trophs
aquatic and terrestrial environmentsMETHANE!!narrow badn at oxyclinemineral salt medium 80% methane 20% air
Historic impact of Yellow fever
helped build panama canal, Walter Reed and colleagues determined relationship with mosquitos
What's the function of Hemagglutinin Activity (HA)
1.  Attaches to sialic acid receptors
2.  Fuse w/ the cell membrane 
Hilar region is where what happens?
Arteries enter and efferent lymphatics exit
Describe the assembly phase of smallpox
Occurs in the cytoskeleton, comet tails form through the cytoplasm to the cell surface
where are slime layers, s-layers, and capsules located in gram negative and gram positive bacteria?
gram neg: outside outer membrane
gram pos: outside peptidoglycan
WHat are symptoms of endotoxic shock?
increased heart and respiratory rate, weakened pulse, dehydration, cold extremities, decrease in temp
WHat is natural immunity?
it is aquired through the normal life experiences of a human and is not induced through medical means
steps that cause apoptosis
-Tc cells bind to target cell -on contact, granules in T cell migrate to contact site-degranulation occurs
What is the blood-brain barrier? What is it's purpose?
specialized capillaries and vesicles (less permeable); prevents passage of molecules into the meninges or brain
How is trichinosis transmitted?
eating pork or flesh of garbage eating animal
waht is the prodromal stage?
you have symptoms, but not specific to any certain disease
What does C. neoformans produce to protect from phagocytes?
Melanin and it has a capsule
On what cells are CII molecules expressed?
DC's, B cells and Mac's (Pro-APC's)
A certain bacterium has the following components in its ETC: cyt, cyt c, cyt a. In what order would these 3 proteins be in the ETC starting w/ the protein tha would receive the e- first?
cyt b, cyt c, cyt a
How are we remembering the order of the 3 genetic elements of the archaea promotor?
Brent oughta be in it.
What is invasiveness?
Capacity of a MO to enter the host and spread.
Where in the GI tract does Shigella invade and its pathogenesis?
1.  Distal colon
2.  Destroys cells
3.  Ulceration and production of pus 
What organism has the urease enzyme? what is this?
helicobacteri pylori; takes urea and turns it into ammonia
What amino acids are involved in the polypeptides of peptidoglycan? Which one is unique to bacteria?
1. L-alanine2. D-alanine3. D-glutamic acid4. D-amino pimelic acid *
What are the 2 important functions of a bacterial cell wall?
-maintains shape of cell-prevents the cell from bursting when fluids flow in/out
IL-12 component deficiency led to what in patients?
Lack of IFNgamma (treated with IL-12 injections)
How does a person catch Ascariasis?
By ingesting the ova from a fecally contaminated source.
Through mitosis, which is when...
a s... c... reproduces two d.... c...
which develop into highly resistant s...
normally, spores form on or in specialized structure called s.... or tip of hypa called c....
a single cell reproduces two daughter cells
develop into highly resistant spores
 sporangium, condidiophore
What is the normal flora of the LRT?
sterile - because the ciliary escalator keeps stuff out
Describe the role of chemical energy sources in metabolic pathways
-An energy source is a compound broken down to release energy. A variety of compounds are available, the most common being glucose.
-Harvesting energy requires a series of coupled reactions, such as the oxidative-reduction reactions
Is there any direct phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in anoxygenic photosynthesis?
No, it requires the generation of a PMF
What kind of immune response does the CNS have?
reduced because it cant inflame becaue inflammation causes tissue damage (this also hapens inthe uterus)
How many CDR's are present on TCR's?
3 on each (alpha/beta) chain, a 4th on the outside of the beta chain (used by super-Ag's)
What is the purpose of using FTA-abs test/dark feild microscopy?
to confirm the syphilis in the patient by observing the spirochete
like 25C
staphylococcus aureus
localized infections-furuncles(boils)-coagulase (clot former)
Prevents peptidoglycan synthesis
What causes gastroenteritis?

Are Viruses prokaryotic, eukaryotic, or acellular?

Antigenic variation...?
alter surface proteins
Can't see through it
Developed the first vaccine
rheumatic fever
streptococcal infections (usually Streptococcus pyogenes)usually children (4 to early teens), often following strep throatan autoimmune disorderarthritis, fever, joint nodules, valve damagemay lead to heart or kidney disease - or death
An organism of microscopic size.
Diptheria Vaccine
Tetanus Vaccine
Corynebacterium diphtheria and Clostridium tetani
Both are toxoid components for children and adults
Class 1, replicates in cytoplasm
Vessel for industrial fermentationpH, temp, aeration watched
asymmetrical, shallow lesions, damage nerves--results in local loss of pain reception
include rusts, common mushrooms; reproduce asexually or sexually, Fungi
G+ spore-forming ANAEROBESecrete very powerful exotoxins and enzymes.
B. anthracis
(gram + rods) anthrax
NTM lymphadenitis (epidemiology
mainly in developing world
mostly in kids age 1-5
rare in adults
most common in head and neck areas (usually unilat. with few systemic symptoms)

MAC accounts for 80% in US (number two cause in M scrofulaceum)
cause of diptheria, acute toxin-mediated upper respir tract infection
corynebacterium diptheria
treatment of disease with chemical substances
common in GI and genitourinary tractsNGU, vulvovaginitis, thrushinfection through sexual transmission, antibiotics, cancer treatments, pregnancy, douching, anything that disrupts vaginal pHmost common fungal STD
the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template.DNA is transcribed to make RNA (mRNA, tRNA and rRNA)
a bacterial enzyme that destroys phagocytes, thereby preventing phagocytosis.
Population of cells carrying a specific gene
Pressure from fluid and increase blood. Nerve endings send message to brain.
Which infects humans, avian or mammalian biovar of Chlamydia psittaci?
A common morphology of bacteria composed of a rod-shaped cell.
1st plant virus discovered
Tobacco Mosaic Virus
use of DNA technology to differentiation between very closely related organisms
GI and GU tracts
-low pH
-normal flora
L. pneumophila
Legionella (gram - coccobacillus) pneumonia with multi-system effects. Legionnaires disease.
What is the most recognized infectious cause of immunodeficiency?
Name the antibacterial agents that inhibit cell membrane function (2)
PolymixinDaptomycin4-5, 4-30
Ring trophozoites are seen in a peripheral blood smear of what disease.
Where do amino acids polymerize and become long polypeptides?
What are locations of endospores (3)
terminal,subterminal, central
Bacteriostatic against many Gram + and most atypical pneumonia. Binds to 50S preventing the continuation of protein synthesis. Used for patients with allergy to Beta- Lactam drugs. Resistance is due to inactivating enzyme
3 catagories of microbes
Pathogens, Opportunist, Normal Flora
Acute, contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract Secondary complicationoften Haemophilus influenzae
define transposons
=sequence that behave like insertion sequences flanking other genes
-can flank anti-biotic resistance genes
-don't need homology with host dna
which 5Kclass can eat and decompose almost anything?
how many genera of microsporidia can infect humans?
Membrane-associated electron carriers are found here in

cell membrane
inner mitochondrial membrane
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and releases energy for the body in the form of ATP
Metachromatic granules- phosphate reserves
polysaccharide granules- energy reserves
Gram Positive color
stain is purple or blue.
What are protoplasts?
Cells without the cell wall
3 attenuated organisms for vaccines
Smallpox, MMR, varicella
What type of hypersensitivity is asthma?  anaphylaxis?
both Type I
This two component regulator in Salmonella causes production of enzymes that modify LPS so it no longer binds antimicrobial peptides.
What is PrmA/PrmB?32-4
ex. pimples, boils, abscessesdisease remains localized to one site
local or localized infection
What are prebiotics?
Substances that are intended to promote the existing beneficial bacteria within the host (i.e. gut flora)
hypertonic solution
[solute] is higher than cell's []; water exits and cell shrinks
Beta Lactam Drugs
Bactericidal against a variety of bacteria, inhibits penicillin binding proteins. Beta-lactamases causes resistance
function of hexoses?
sugar molecules reponsible for cell wall production and E reserve
E . coli quick facts
Gram negative bacillusLac positive
Steps of translation
1. Two ribosomes subunits, tRNA wi/anticodon UAC, and mRNA molecule assemble.2. First tRNA binds to start codon3. First amino acid is transferred by the ribosome4. After ribosome joins two amino acids w/peptide bond, first tRNA leaves the ribosom5. Ribsome then moves along mRNA6. Peptide bonds are formed between amino acids7. Ends when one of three nonsense codons is reached
Cell wall has a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan sandwiched between the cytoplasmic membrane and an outer membrane
What sets Stenotrophomonas maltophilia apart from Pseudomonas?
it is oxidase negative
what is the 1 known type of microspora?
-the space between plasma membrane and the peptidoglycan layer
periplasmic space
Advantage of sexual reproduction?
more variety, double chromosomes, could survive catastrophe
conversion of raw sequence data into a list of the genes present in the genome
What is A cytotoxic autoimmune disease where antibodies attach to receptors on teh thyroid gland that are teh normal target cells of teh thyroid-stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland?
Graves disease
What type of mutation occurs from amino acid substitution?
missense mutations
What does diphtheria toxin do?
Inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis.
composition of epidemiological triad
host interacts with agent and environment
envir. w/ agent and host
agent w/host and envir.
vector intersects all these
Used to study ID's
Biodefense for 800.

This is the component of Bacillus anthracis produced toxin that vaccinated individuals make antibodies against.
What is protective antigen?18-5
Candida Albicans 
(opportunistic infection)
This is the most common causative agent of candida? 
Casimire Davaine (1812-1882)
shown that the blood of infected animals contained rod shaped organisms
virus is carried within a host cell for extended periods of time; will cause progressive damage to the cell, but will not kill the cell
persistent infections
Non gonoccocal urethritis. Type of Mycoplasma T- Mycoplasma (T =Tiny colonies). Similar to gonorrhea but discharge is variable. Compactions: Low sperm count and sperm motility. Spontaneous abortion.
What is a catalyst?
material that changes the reaction rate w/o being altered itself. It lowers the energy of activations needed before a reaction can proceed
What is the name of bacterium that has lost its cell wall called?;
A protoplast
What are some enzymes commonly produced by Clostridium?
collagenase, protease, hyaluronidase, DNAse, lecithinase, neuraminidase, toxins
Yersinia enterocolitica:

-What agar?

-Classic clinical symptoms? Why?

-Causes sepsis in which 2 scenarios?

-Can grow well at what low temp?
Yersinia enterocolitica:

-What agar?
CNI agar (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin)

-Classic clinical symptoms? Why?
RLQ pain mimic appendicits. Because of mesenteric lymphadenitis.

-Causes sepsis in which 2 scenarios?
1. Iron overload syndromes
2. From transfused pRBC's

-Can grow well at what low temp?
4' C (Which other organism grows at 4' C?)
Yersinia enterocolitica:

-What agar?

-Classic clinical symptoms? Why?

-Causes sepsis in which 2 scenarios?

-Can grow well at what low temp?
(Which other organism grows at 4' C?)
What type of bacteria only grow without oxygen?
Strict (obligate) anaerobe
name 2 grps of antiviral drugs
-nucleoside & nucleotide analogs-interferons
What is immunity brought on by T-cells binding to antigens?
Cellular immunity
What type of test is an ames test?
qualitative test
What is being tested in precipitation testing?
patient's serum for antibodies
What are the two components of edema toxin?
Edema factorProtective antigen18-5
H. influenza: virulence factors II
Endotoxin (LOS): adhesion to resp. epithelim
Promotes inflammation and sepsis in invasive disease
IgA Protease
Pili and afimbiral adhesions
Ability to obtain iron from heme and trasnferrin
Genetic transormation
All life can be classified into three domains _________.
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Koch's postulates
1. organism is present in all cases of the disease2. organism can be cultured3. organism must be able to produce infection even after several generations of culture4. organism must be received from an infected animal and cultured again
What does b. antracis edema factor do?
Acts on calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase, stimulating the enzyme and --> edema
How do facultative organisms make ATP?
1. Ferments ONLY
-no electron transport chain
-have superoxide dismutase
-ex. streptococci
2. Ferments & respires
-use electron transport chain
-ex. E. coli
3. Respires ONLY
-no enzymes for fermentation
-under anaerobic conditions can use terminal electron acceptor other than O2
-ex. P. aeruginosa
Human Papilloma viruses (HPV)
cause benign or malignant tumors in cells of the epidermis and the mucous membranes, particularly of the oral cavity, larynx, anogenital areas or skin
what carrys out the specialized transduction?
temperate phages ONLY (NOT virulent)
An operon is:
An Operon is a sequence of adjacent genes that function coordinately under the joint control of an operator and a repressor
amounts of ATP (____) produced during glycolysis is a result of:
(4) substrate level phosphorylation
What kind of photosynthesis do the purple and green sulfur bacteria utilize?
Anoxygenic photosynthesis, converting H2S instead of H2O
congenital HIV (ID, when children show symptoms)
most pregnant women are asymptomatic
can only be ID by serology
mainly IVDA or sexual partners of abusers

children who are untreated asymptomatic usually develop symptoms by one year of age
For the following anti-viral, name its drug class, and viruses for which it is indicated: palivizumab?
Monoclonal antibody. Indicated for RSV.13-3
Which cells does HIV target?
The Aids virus destroys T4 lymphocytes (T-helper cells)
What are the nitrogenous bases of DNA?
Adenine - Thymine
Guanine - Cytosine
What happens to the chemical bonds in a decomposition reaction?
chemical bonds are broken
When does DNA replication take place?
Replication takes place before the organism divides. It is catalyzed by enzyme DNA polymerase. DNA polymerase breaks hydrogen bond;strand opens up catalyzes new strand of DNA between original strands two new strands are identical to each other and identical to original.
What are some general characteristics of Fusobacterium species?
pale staining, slender, Gram- rods with tapered ends, normal flora of oral cavity, GI tract and vagina, do not have capsule but have very potent LPS, have butyric acid as principle metabolic end product
The accumulation of H+ on one side of the membrane, results in the generation of a:
pH gradient
eletrochemical potential
Where can PCR be useful?
To detect the presence of infectious agents in situations where they would otherwise be undetectable
What are some of the symptoms of allergies and what causes the majority of symptoms?
rash, itching, redness, increased mucous discharge, pain, swelling, and difficulty breathing from the release of mast cell chemical mediators on target organs
What is unique about the hepadnavirus genome?
Incompletely double stranded DNA. Uses reverse transcriptase for replication.11-17
How would one stan a capsule/glycocalyx? Include stains used.
Negative stain with two dyes: Basic (poitive)stains organism, acidic(negative) stains background. Halo between is the capsule
What do the polysaccharides in the cell wall of a prokaryotic gram positive cell do?
they group the bacteria into medically significant subgroups (Mycolic Acid)
a repressible gene is usually controlled by
an inducer molecule that binds the promoter and keeps it in the \"on\" state
MACA: what is the normal habitat and transmission sites for Lactobacillus acidophillus?
a. ubiquitous
b. vagina
c. intestinal tract
d. oral cavity
e. epidermis
a. ubiquitous
b. vagina
c. intestinal tract
d. oral cavity
also: acidic pH
What is reverse transcriptase?
an enzyme that makes DNA from an RNA template
Name 6 viruses for which passive immunization is available.
HAV, HBV, VZV, Rabies, CMV, and RSV.13-5
What does listeria monocytogenes do to succeed in a host?
Forms actin rockets to spread  to other cells and evade host defenses.
How could chlamydia exhibit molecular mimicry?
-thought to possibly have a role in developing atherosclerotic plaques of heart disease but not strong evidence
-chlamydia from respiratory infections infects macrophages -> infected macrophages travel through blood and interact with endothelial cells -> chronic inflammation
-injection myosin fragments with similar homology to chlamydia epitopes into mice also caused inflammation in heart
What are some examples of two component regulators?
toxR protein senses when cholera toxin is in the small bowel, Salmonella phoPQ senses low Mg and turns on virulence genes
Why are plasmids normally selected to work with recombiant DNA?
They can use the same restriction enzymes as the ones used to cut out the DNA wanted to be replicated; therefore sticky ends can be placed together
What is the spectrum of quinolones?
As a general class it can be effective for G pos or G neg.4-9
What is the Glyoxylate Cycle and when is it used?
The Glyoxylate Cycle is a modified TCA cycle in which the decarboxylation reactions are bypassed by the enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthatse; it is used to convert (2)acetyl-CoA to succinate and other matabolites (oxaloacetate). It is used in orgs using acetate as sole C source.
What are the two origins of replication in F+?
origin of transfer (T) and origin of replication
T or F Viruses contain many enzymes in their capsid
False. Viruses contain a few enzymes in their capsid
T or F: Fecal leukocyctes are found in the diarrhea of a person infected with cholera
F - the bacteria does no real damage to the epithelium, it just makes the cells secrete a lot of water.
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