Microbiology Test I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pin worm
Viruses:causing cancer
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
obligate anaerobe bacilli, waxy lipids on cell wall resistant to phagocytes
can reproduce in macrophages
Stage 1- infection, multiply in macrophages, caseous center, bacteria may remain
Stage 2- caseous center enlarges and bacteria reproduce, tubercole ruptures releasing bacilli, infectious cough results
attenuated bovine vaccine, take antibiotics
▪ polymorphonuclear – characteristic multilobed nuclei▪ named for abundant cytoplasmic granules which stain by Wright Stain procedure
Amoebas move by
Autoclaving (steam sterilization)
unixellular eukaryotic organism
-only in prokaryotes-protective structure outside of the cell wall of the organism that secretes it-typically consist of complex polysaccharide molecules arranged in a loose gel-each chemical composition is unique to strain that produces it-protective mechanism
Tetra-ethers, high-temperature, no wall no problem
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Disease: TuberculosisCharacteristics: Chronic lung disease characterized by low-grade fever, and destruction of lung tissue
binomial nomenclature
genus and species
Inhibits Nucleic Acid Synthesis
inflammation of the sinuses
Bible of Bacteriology
Bergey's Manual
Inhibitors interact with the allosteric site on the enzyme (not the active site)
*Plasmodium vivax
complex life cycle, migrates and multiples in liver
infects RBCs- Ring Stage
multiples in RBCs- burst and release more progeny
fever and chills, vomiting
Anopheles mosquito- feeds at night
Passive immunity
Only give pre-made Ab's
These guys provide "natural gas"
What causes necrotizing fasciitis?
streptococcus pyogenes
Symptoms: Diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting, some people can have no symptoms at all
The scientific study of parasitism.
Lister: used p.. to sterilize
chemical methods are used to lower microbial populations and kill most p..
Common milkborne pathogens
mycobacterium tuberculosis, salmonella, strep and brucella
Division I: GracilicutesClass III: Scotobacteria: non-photosynthetic bacteria
SYNTHETIC ANTIBIOTIC- Block DNA Synthesis in bacteria
-grows anaerobically-able to use elemental sulfur both aerobically and anaerobically-Aerobically uses elemental sulfur as electron donor-Anaerobically uses elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor-grows at temperatures from 65 degrees up to a max of 95 degrees, optimum
-Gm- coccus (unusual)-Gonorrhea and Meningities
what is a nosocomical infection?
hospital related
How does tularemia proceed?
Skin infection->lymphatic system->lymph nodes->further spread. grows in macrophages.
an electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation
Activating cytokines from mac's (for NK/Th1 cells)
Same Chemical formula, same functional groups, different geometry
needs oxygen, but requires reduced levels of oxygen
Desiccation: sterilize or disinfect?
at best, disinfects!
Q Fever
Prevalent in livestock especially dairy cows, goats, and sheep due to a parasite . Humans get it by ingesting unpasteurized milk and by inhaling aerosols of microbes in dairy barns.
common procedure used to induce mutation in lab
genes that receive transposon will undergo a knockout mutation (early start or stop codon)
termed insertion mutation
the practice of restricting the movement of individuals with highly contagious serious infections to prevent spread of the disease
What's the treatment for bacterial pneumonia
involves glucose oxidation to pyruvate and the donation of hydrogen atoms (H + e) from NADH + H to pyruvate or a derivative of pyruvate
only 1 oxidation producing NADH and 2 SLP to make ATP
uses 2 ATP to start pathway, produce 2 more at 2 SLP steps above: 2 net ATP produced
rate is fast because little energy made
no oxygen, so no Krebs (TCA)
no ATP from OP. NADH is used to re-reduce pyruvate or a derivative
EM pathway/gycolysis = good example
A disinfectant that is non-toxic enough to be used on skin
Bacterial toxins which are liberated only when the bacterial cell is destroyed
enzyme causes blood plasma to coagulate
what are some human TSE's?
Creutzfedt-Jakob disease
What is leptospirosis caused by?
leptospira interrogans
Guillain-Barre syndrome
autoimmune disease results in paralysis, nerve damage and coma (associated w/ the flu)
THEY ARE NOT LIVING ORGANISMS or CELLS!small particles that exist at a level of complexity somewhere between large molecules and cells
2 strands but they are not complementary
comes with RT enzyme
Mycoplasmal Pneumonia
Mycoplasmal Pneumonia
no cell wall, fried egg morphology
causes walking pneumonia, 2-3 week incubation
spread by close contact
antibiotics must target 70s ribosome bc no cell wall
How does rotavirus differ form the rest of the enteroviruses
Mast cells
Effector cells of hypersensitivity and allergic reactions, found in all tissues of body
High TNF
Septic shock, low cardiac efficiency, vessel clotting, liver problems, lack of glucose replenishment, loss of weight from low appetite
T/F: caretenoids are pigments that absorb light in teh 800-1000 nm range to help gather the light energy
promotor strength
Short half-life, high rate of transcription
What does polymyxin E (Colistin) treat?
otitis externa
Internal organization of prokaryotes
plasma membrane (permeability barrier, metabolic activities), cytosol (absence of other organelles), ribosomes (free floating; protein synthesis), nucleoid (generalized location of genetic material), DNA chromosomes (genetic material in nucleoid), inclusions (storage), possibly capsule, slime layer, s-layer (protection), possibly ciliar/flagella (motility)
Ionizing radiation
render target molecule more reactive by making it ionized γ-ray or β-ray 
Sources: X-ray machine, cathode ray tubes, radioactive nuclides
ionized water formed hydroxyl radicals which damage organic molecules (very reactive) 
γ-ray emitters: 60Co and 137Cs

γ-ray used to sterilize: 
Tissue grafts: cartilage,tendon, skin, heart valve
Drugs: chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, atropine, vaccines, ointments
Medical & lab supplies

Robert Koch
German physician, developed science of medical microbiology, pure culture techniques, initial rules for cause and consequence of disease
somatic hypermutation
the mutation of immunoglobulin genes at rates higher than these observed in other genes
During this type if viral replication, virion attaches to cell surface receptors
Water Molds
presence of flagellaed s... or z... that develop through m... in the s...
Phytophthora infestans
spores, zoospores
mitosis, sporangium
responsible for Irish poatoe famine 'Black '47'
what are the outcomes of the complement pathway?
FtsZ proteins derive their energy from the breakdown of
Bacitracin (topical use only)
Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis
an inanimate ( non-living) objects involved in disease transmission
a fomite
What do antigenic shifts of influenzavirus lead to?
major epidemics
bacteristatic agent
an agent that inhibits bacterial growth
Lysogenic cycle
type of viral infection that results in a period of dormancy before causing lysis or destruction of host cell
Macroelements become components of
lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
How is rocky mountain spotted fever spread?
vector transmission.
What's the treatment of Malaria?
Chloroquine phosphate (some resistance)
Quinine sulfate
Quinidine gluconate 
obligate anaerobe
bacterium that is killed by free oxygen
Destruction of C3/C4 prevents what?
Binding to cell surface
The sum of a humoral immune response, based on multiple B cells involved, multiple specificites, affinities, etc.
swan neck flasks open to the air; concluded that animalcules are in the air, not spontaneously generated
Name the 2 types of sulfonamides

Bactrim = Sulfamethoxazole + Trimethoprim
evidence for endosymbiotic theory
double membrane in mitochondria and chloroplasts – one from organelle, one from host that engulfed it; mitochondria and chloroplasts both possess their own DNA and ribosomes; genome of Rickettsia powazekii is more closely related to modern mitochondrial DNA than modern bacteria
layers that cover both the brain and the spinal cord.
Nitrogenous Bases
Adenine (A) - purine
Guanine (G) - purine
Thymine (T) - pyrimidine
Cytosine (C) - pyrimidine
Spontaneous Generation
the idea that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter
the occurrence of a large number of cases of a disease in a short period of time
Tertiary Structure
Double Helix gains its 3D shape, Protein folding due to hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic/hydrophilic want to be on the right sides causing this fold & 3D shape. Disulfide bridge of Cysteine also contributes.
Cell Mediated 
* T cells directly attack
* it distinguishes between self, vital 
Do Animal viruses have an envelope?
Yes, may be
make their own food. self heater/ self nourisher
enrichment culture
a micro. growth medium designed to grow to large detectable numbers from an initially small inoculum-bacteria present in small numbers can be missed- usually liquid and provides nutrients and environmental conditions that favor the growth of a specific microbe but not others
What is PID?
infection of pelvic organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries)
Methanotrophic Symbionts of Animals
-relationships with mussels and sponges-hydrocarbon seeps on teh seafloor, places where methane is released-mussel gills consume methane where TYPE 1 Methanotrophs are located
Ol and Or promoters inhibit the transcription of __
the cro gene
When the effect of a combination of drugs is neither synergistic or antagonisitc, it is said to be:
-an Additive
Describe the plasma membranes of eukaryotes.
-phospholipid bilayer-many lipids (especially sterols which add rigidity to membrane)-small surface to volume ratio-not very versatile
Hep D virus codes for 1 ___ that generates two proteins by ___ ____
Alternative C3 convertase (C3b) dissoc caused by...
Factor H, DAF, CR1
Helper T cells
Assist B cells in making antibodies Without Helper T cells  the immune system is greatly compromised
What inhibits the incorporation of mycolic acid into the TB cell wall?
Ethambutol & INH (Isoniazid)
Staph Aureus
G+ small cocci. The cells appear in grapelike clusters. Non-endospore former. Sensitive to UV light
synthesis of a strand of mRNA from a DNA template
mRNA carries coded info from DNA to ribosome
secondary metabolite
a metabolite excreted at the end of hte primary growht phase and into the stationary phase
James Watson & Francis Crick
determined the structure of DNA.
recombinant DNA
manipulation of microbes to take on a human gene
??t lymphocytes recognize the __ antigens through cell surface ____
peptidet cell receptors (TCRs)
What is tinea pedis?
athletes foot (ringworm of the foot)
What is the virulence factor of strep pneumo?
thick capsule
contains C, H, and O (H:o = 2:1); include mono-, di-, and poly- saccharides
What do restriction enzymes do?
cut chromosomal DNA at specific points
Explain transformation (lateral gene transfer)

A change in an organism’s characteristics because of the transfer of genetic information

Think of ‘naked’ or ‘free DNA’ coming in from the outside
Naked DNA is DNA released from an organism often after the cell has been lysed

DNA uptake can only occur at a certain stage of a cell’s growth cycle and competence factor is released
Competence factor: a protein release into the medium that helps facilitate the entry of DNA

When competent factor is used in one culture to treat a culture that doesn’t have it, the cells in the culture being treated become competent and they can now take up DNA fragments
NOT ALL bacteria can become competent so not all bacteria can be transformed

DNA entry depends on factors such as:
Modifications of the cell wall

Formation of specific receptor sites on the plasma membrane that can bind DNA

DNA exonuclease and DNA transport proteins are also needed

DNA can be taken up from almost any source as long as they are ‘close relatives’ and competent
Which 2 hepatitis viruses are transmitted via fecal-oral
Hep A and Hep E
Why do secondary follicles stain lighter?
More cytoplasm in active cells
Male Karyotype
1 through 22 are autosomesX and Y are sex chromosomes
22 pairs of autosomes + 1 pair of sex chromosomes =23 pairs total
females    44 autosomes2 sex chromosomes (XX) = 46 total     
Males44 autosomes2 sex chromosomes (XY)46 total   
What disease dies within minutes in dessication?
Treponema pallidum - Syphilis
Upper Respiratory system consists of:
nose and throat (pharynx), including the middle ear and auditory tubes.
How do you diganose yersinia pestis?
direct fluorescent antibody, culture, PCR
How does Neisseria Gonorrhoeae evade vaccines?
produces proteins that activate inhibitory receptors on the surface of T cells which supresses T cell function
What leads to activation of the classical pathway?
antibody binding to pathogen
What does Shiga toxin do?
1.  chloera like
2.  inactives 60s ribosome 
3.  Inhibits protein synthesis 
How does malaria affect epstein barr?
impairs immune response to it
What does the dipstick method look for?
leukocyte esterase and nitrates
Ecology Isolation and Culture of Nitrifying Bacteria
-soil and water-high ammonia content-mineral salts media
What is the etiology for septicemia?
Often nosocomial, arises from another infection often a gram negative problem.
What are the symptoms of Nonparalytic polio
"Aseptic meningitis"
Stiffness & pain in the back & neck 
What do growth factors such as erythropoietin do to stem cells?
Drive differentiation and prevent apoptosis (allow survival)
What's the symptoms of monkey pox
Pustular rash, fever and respiratory symptoms and differs from smallpox with lymph node swelling
Difference in bacterial/archaeal cell envelopes
archaea often have an S-layer and only an S-layer comprising the cell wall
What bacteria wont grow on articial medium?
rickettsia rickettsii and borellia burgdorferi
Ciliates are a diverse group of h... p...
Have hairlike cilia with same __ + __ arrangement as flagella
heterotrophic protozoa
9 + 2
T-helper cells: 2 subset
plays a crucial role in B cell activation and antibody production
What kind of spore stain is clostridium tetani?
gram positive rod, spore former
What are the symptoms of Hepatitis A?
malaise, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, chills
what is a focal infection?
spread by blood, but specialized in a focus on tissue
What stain would you use for P. jiroveci?
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (dark oval bodies)
what response do major histo. Ag's cause?
Rapid rejection (within 14 days), production of Ab and cytotoxic response
Which statment below is incorrect about ATP generation using the ETC
O2 must be present to generate ATP
define worms definitive host?define worms intermediate host?
the host within which the adult stage occursthe host within which the larval stage develops
Of the three MO examples what are there invasiveness and toxigenicity?

Clostridium botulinum - 0, Invasiveness; High, Toxigenicity

Treponem pallidum - High, Invasiveness; 0,Toxigenicity

Streptococcus pyogenes - moderate invasiveness; moderate toxigenicity
How do you diagnosis H. pylori?
Presence of uclers and urease breath test
What does enteroinvasive e coli cause?
travelers diarrhea (food born in areas of poor hygeine)
In DNA replication, the lagging strand is formed
in short segments called Ozaki fragments
How does bacteria's surface to volume ratio benefit it?
-large ratio=no internal part of the cell is very far from the surface so nutrients can easily and quickly reach all parts of cell
What does IFN-1 do to target cells?
Tell infected ones to die, tell uninfected to secrete enzymes which block viral replication
exotoxins are given different names based on what?
based on which tissue they damage the most
During stationary, cells are running out of n...
__ or __ days
ran out of n..
nutrients, 1 or 2 days
ran out of nutrients
What is a lot of pus characteristic of?
strep pneumo (it's a pyogenic coccus)
What are some factors that affect enzymatic activity?
-Enzymes function is a narrow range of environmental factors. Some factors which affect enzymatic activity are:
1) Temperature- Increased temperature increases the speed of the reaction, while extremely high temperatures makes enzymes non-functional.
2) pH - Enzymes function best at a pH just above 7 (neutral to slightly basic)
3) Salt concentration - Enzymes function best in lower concentrations of salt
What determines the location of the FtsZ ring?
The oscillation of the MinC and MinD components on the poles of the cell (FtsZ cannot exist where MinC and MinD are)
What is the gram stain of mycobacterium leprae?
it wont gram stain because they have waxy lislipids that repel stain, so if you acid fast stain it you see it ROD shaped
If CD3 is not expressed, what is prevented?
Expression of the TCR at the cell surface
How are the result of a TSI slant to be interpreted?
Yellow is acid, Red is alkaline. 

R/Y - Ferments glucose only.
Glucose is consumed and amino acids acids are used for energy which oxidize change pH.
Y/Y - Ferments glucose, lactose, and/or sucrose
R/R - does not ferment any sugar (double check for growth)
(G) Bubbles and cracks - CO2 gas production.

Black precipitate - H2S is produced.
H2S reacts with ferrous sulfate which makes black precipitate.
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