Microbiology- Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Synergism
cooperation
spirilla
curved rods
Ionizing Irradiation
Sterilization
rod or bacillus
cylindrical
Nanoarchaeum
"parasite" of Ignicoccus
Prokaryotes
“pre-nucleus” (Bacteria, Eubacteria, & Archaebacteria: also called Extremophiles b/c they love extreme environments like no oxygen or deep ocean vent environments).No Nuclei/Nucleus, No Organelles.Have DNA/Chromosomes.Only Single celled.Smaller than eukaryotic cells.All Prokaryotes are microorganisms!
5 carbon sugar
deoxyribose
Enterotoxigenic
(watery diarrhea)▪ secretory diarrhea (secrete salts, water follows)▪ microbes do not invade host tissues (do damage from outside)e.g. cholera (Vibrio cholerae)some E. colisome Shigella
gram - rods
 
2 types?
enterobacteria
 
fastidious
Ig alterations
VDJ recombination/somatic hypermutation, secreted vs. membrane-bound, isotype switching
AZT (azidothymidine/Zidovudine)
Block viral replication/transcription▪ thymine analog▪ blocks Reverse transcriptase
Growth factors

•Organic Growth Factors
   - organic compounds    - essential cell components (or their pre- cursors) that the cell cannot synthesize because of the lack of synthetic enzymes    - must be supplied by environment if cell      is to survive and reproduce
 

•Amino acids

–needed for protein synthesis



•Purines and Pyrimidines

–needed for nucleic acid synthesis



•Vitamins

–function as enzyme cofactors

–only a small amount is required to sustain growth
 
MRSA
Methicillin Resistant Stapylococcus aureus
Thermoacidophiles
heat and acid lovers
What causes coccidiomycosis?
coccidioides immitis
Aseptic technique
designed to reduce/prevent introduction of infectious agent in a medical setting (wound treatment, surgery)
Measles
koplik's spots on lips/cheeks.Can cross placenta!!!
Rotavirus can be trasmitted by
fecal-oral
Pseudohermaphroditism
SRY is functioningBlock in testosterone synthesis (on an autosomal chromosome)
Testes usually present (internally)Female internal structures disappearNo external male structures (penis)Child appears to be femaleAt puberty adrenal glands start functioningMasculinization occurs 
Enzyme
biological catalyst (usually proteins)increase the rate of a chemical reaction▪ is NOT a reactant (substrate) or product▪ is NOT consumed as part of the reaction
BLEACH
MOST EFFECTIVE, FULL SPECTRUM AGENT
genome
gene
genetics
genomics
complete set of genetic info
functional unit of genome
study of transfer of genes
study of sequence of DNA
Ignaz Semmelweis
Started “Hand Washing”.Semmelweis believed that chances of a infectious disease is higher if a surgeon didn’t wash their hands. He believed that by washing your hands you prevent the transmission of germs. Washing hands to prevent germs was non-existent before the 1900s. (Semmelweis’s theory was that women giving birth would contract infectious diseases from their physician’s dirty hands).
Example of a "super bug"
MRSA
Contamination
Transmissions of microorganisms from person to person or from object to person and vice versa
Influenza
caused by variety of viruses
catabolism
chemical reactions that release energy
Clostridium
-found in soils-makes endospores-food poisoning--BOTULISM--most potent biological poison-1mg = >1 million rats dead-tetanus-pyruvate-->solvents-ATP throuh substrate level phosphoryl.-sugars--butyric acid
Types of viral shapes:
Helical and polyhedral
What type of epidimeologist monitor disease across the us an world?
surveillance
How would you treat P. jiroveci?
TMP/SMX
Adaptive diversity
Large, rearrangement of gene segments
Crohn’s Disease
Weakened protective covering (mucosal wall) of digestive tractInflamationAbdominal painDiarrheaSome medications may help (antibiotics and others)
diapedesis
migration between gaps in capillary endothelial cells
What causes aplastic anemia?
 
What kind of agent is it?
Chloramphenicol
 
Nitrobenzene derivative (inhibit protein synthesis)
Toxic intermediates
-result of metabolic reactions involving oxygen -Superoxide: O2 + e- --> O2--Hydrogen peroxide: O2+ e_ + 2H >> H2O2-Hydroxyl radical : H2O2 + e- +H --> H2) + OH-Water: OH + e- H+ --> H2O
Rich Media
contains essential and nonessential nutrients
 
Microbes can grow faster
- supplies many biosynthetic end products
- energy required to make biosynthetic end products
- cellular energy can be devoted to growth instead 
 
microbes will grow auxotrophically 
What causes necrotizing facitis?
streptococcus pyogenes toxemia
during this period, pathogens replicate symptoms of disease
Incubation period
flagella
long, hairlike organelles that permit independent motion
Target for Gp120
CD4 protein on T-helper
long thin helical structure composed of protein flagellin
filament
Class Archaebacteria Description?
unusual cell wallsno peptidoglycan
Monobacturms
BETA LACTUM ANTIBIOTIC- Active against rod gram negative
How is tuberculosis transmitted?
by respiratory droplets
Nonenveloped viruses are released from the host cell by
lysis
Capsid
The protein coat which surrounds the nucleic acid
T/F: Obligate aerobes produce SOD and catalase enzymes
True
Codons?
Codons are the words in the language of nucleic acids (sequence of 3 bases)
cytochrome
an electron carrier functioning in the electron transport chain; have an iron-containing ring called heme
Inbred strain is...
genetically identical at all loci
Classical activation pathway of mac's
Stim by IFN-gamma
Sex Chromosomal Aneuploidy
XXX Triple X syndrome (Triplo-X)Female, 2n+1=47, 2 Barr bodies1/1000 femalesmay be fertile and may have normal pregnancyoften tall and thinmay have internal abnormalitiesoften have reduction in mental abilities compared to siblings, but not mentally retardedsome appear “normal”
Mycobacterium
Walls made of wax, speedy growth lacks!
Vehicle
– inanimate material e.g. food, water, tissues, fomites (inanimate objects)
Uniport
 
only one molecule is being moved (as in primary active transport, facilitated diffusion, and passive diffusion)
Streptokinase
allows streptococci to escape from a fibrin clot
Intermediate hosts of Toxoplasmosis?
Cows, birds, humans, etc.

- Z value

increase in temperature required to reduce D to 1/10

(D= Time required to kill 90% of microbes in sample at a specific temp)
zoonosis
a disease that occurs primarily in animals but can be transmitted to humans
what are the three domains?
 
bacteria, archea, eukarya
electron tower
represents a range of reduction potentials for redox couples from the most negative at the top to the most positive at the bottom
 
top (reduced) has the greatest tendency to donate electrons and the bottom (oxidized) has the greatest tendency to accept electrons
 
the difference in potential between 2 substances is expressed as ΔE0'
 
farther the electrons drop from a donor before being caught by an acceptor the greater the amount of energy released (ΔE0' proportional to ΔG0')
Transduction
Viral infection in bacteria takes up pieces of DNA, creating resistance
this method of control destroys all vegetative pathogens
disinfection
Microscopy
-must be used to identify and characterize individual microbes
aseptic techniques
laboratory techniques used to minimize contamination.
differential media
-used in differentiation of colonies of desired microbes from others-can distinguish a specific microorganism species from others based on a color change
What is the secondary infection of HIV?
latency
Bacillus
-few are bad one causes eye infections-form endospores-harmless unless anthracis-thurigienesis - bad for butterflies-protoxin converted to toxin by prteolyic cleavage in the larval guy-binds to intstinal epithelial cells and induces pore formation-can clone into crops
Mu transposable phage inserts in the: A) beginning B) middle C) end of a gene, causing ___
B; mutations
What will HBV yield?
chronic infection, progresive liver damage in 10% of patients, low grade fever and rash. Can lead to liver failure and liver cancer.
What are characteristics of thermophiles?
ether-linked lipids
 
membrane MONO layer
Outbreak of diarreha in infants not infected w/ enterobacteria is due to
Echo 1-31
Nitrogen precursors (amines) and NO react to form what?
Peroxynitrates and chloramines
Methods of innate enhancement
Cationic peptides, TLR stimulators, CpG oligonucleotides
spontaneous muation
-errors in replication and repair as well as from recombination in which relatively long streches of DNA move among chromosomes, plasmids, and viruses, introducing framesheft mutations.
Glycolysis
REFERS to conversion of glucose to 2 pyruvates (pyruvic acid), anaerobic, ATP consumed = 2
most common causative agent of urinary tract infections
Escherichia coli
oxidative bacteria
bacteria that in obtaining energy from organic molecules (food)) utilizes O2 to produce CO2 and water
Isolation of Microorganisms
 
Static Culture
inoculated medium not shaken
 
Done w/ solid media but can be employed with liquid as well 
What are body piercings dangerous?
allowing biofilm into blood
memory (immunologic memory)
ability to rapidly produce large quantities or specific immune cells ore antibodies after subsequent exposure to a previously encountered antigen
The more mucous membranes involved the more likely it's  ____
viral pneumonia
Germ Theory
many diseases are caused by infectious agents, including bacteria
chicken pox`
viral. face throat lower back rash. itchy crusty scabs. vaccine available. varicella virus.
Antigen presenting cells
engulf, process and present antibodies to lymphocytes - monocytes (blood), macrophages (tissue), dendritic cells (tissue) - phagocytic
cell theory
all living organisms are composed of cells and arise from preexisting cells.
What is an infection of the brain called?
encephalitis
What are the symptoms of enteroinvasive e coli?
inflammation and fever
What protein is Pili made of? Flagellum?
Pilin, Flagellin
What is the envelope of a virus made of?
glycoprotein/protein
Descibe halogens (iodine, chlorine, flourine, & bromine)
-Oxidizing agents which denature proteins
-2% iodine is a topical antiseptic prior to surgery 
-iodophors are slow release iodines 
-Chloramine usd in drinking water 
Define Commercial Sterilization:
destruction of all forms of micribial life, including endospores
What chief complaint for Ascaris lumbricoides
Intestinal obstruction by adults
What type of framework supports the spleen?
Reticular cell framework
What do IgG and IgE do?
Perform effector functions (Ab-mediated cytotoxicity); IgG bind to infected cells and Fc receptors on NK cells; IgE bind to parasites (worms) and FcE receptors on eosinophils
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
very small RNAs which are specifically linked to one of 20 different amino acids▪ fold in hairpin loops to form cloverleaf-shaped structure▪ contain anticodon – used by ribosomes as decoding tools to match codons (every 3 nucleotides in mRNA) with the proper amino acid.
Types of microbial reproduction
bud and spore formation; binary fission; multiple fission - baeocyte formation (apical/basal cells...apical undergoes many rounds of fission)
After RNA pol binds to the initiation site, what happens to the initiation factor?
It leaves
Methods of Microbial Growth Control - Low temperature -

Refrigeration (4oC) or Freezing (-20oC):

Freezing stops reproduction due to lack of liquid water.  Some bacteria may be killed by ice crystal disruption of cell membranes
Is bacteriostatic (not -cidal)
Give the symptoms of endocarditis
1.  Fever
2.  Chills, sweats
3.  Increased WBC
4.  Elevated sedmentation rate
5.  Splenomegaly 
filtration
 
need .-- to .-- micrometer pores to trap most b..
.2 to .5, bacteria (millipores)
 
 
Plate count method
Method to measure the concentration of viable cells by determining the number of colonies that arise from a sample added to an agar plate
What disease does Rickettsia rickettsii cause? 
What are it's symptoms
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
1.  Fever, headache
2.  Maculopapular rash first on the plams & soles and then the trunk
 
rate of microbial death
-number of microbes (more microbes, longer to kill)-environment (organic matter can prevent control of microbial growth)-time of exposure (need extended time to affect more resistant microbes)-microbial characteristics (affect the choice of chemical control methods)
What is the most commong cause of bacteria diarrhea in the US?
campylobacter gastroenteritis
Changes associated w/disease states
caries / PDD
w/loss of teeth: spirochetes, some strep, lactobacilli, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis reduced
edentulous pts w/out dentures: some spp of strep, spirochetes, yeasts reduced or virtually eliminated
What is the normal flora of the CNS?
No normal flora!!!
What do bacteria use quorum sensing for?
Bacteria use quorum sensing for:
-Adaptation to availability of nutrients.
-Defense against other microorganisms which may compete for the same nutrients.
-Avoidance of toxic compounds potentially dangerous for the bacteria.
-Co-ordination of virulence in order to escape the immune response of the host to establish a successful infection
In what cells are CI molecules expressed?
All nucleated cells (constitutive)
What is a hapten?
A molecule that won't generate an immune response by itself, but coupled with a carrier protein will generate Ab's for the protein, the hapten and the complex of carrier/hapten
Thermal death time (TDT)
shortest length of time required to kill microbes at a specified temperature
location and function of Rubisco
in carboxysomes; convert CO2 into sugar
What organism causes the Black and Pneumonic plagues?
Yersinia Pestis (gram-negative rod)
Fecal-Oral transmission can occur during what type transmission
Food and Water during food handling
Heavy Metals
 
S.. in form of s.. nitrate
 
M.. to treat skin wounds
 
C.. in form of C..S.. (bordeaux mixture)
silver, silver nitrate
mercury
copper, copper sulfate
 
type of immunity that is a vaccine or medical
artificial immunity
How is ophthalmia neonatorum trasnmitted?
sexualy aquired in afults, newborn infected during birth via infected birth canal
What type of gram stain is shigella dysteneriae?
gram negative rod
What do cells use phosphate for?
1. dna2. ATP3. phospholipid membranes4. proteins
Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) is the __ of __ and produces __ ATP
oxidation of 5-carbon molecules; 1
phylogeny marker - 16S ribosomal RNA
•Part of the ribosome•Required for translation of mRNA into protein.•Present in all bacterial (16S rRNA), archaeal and
eukaryotic cells (18S rRNA)
Give the symptoms of mumps
1.  Neck, ear pain
2.  Loss of appetite
3.  Tiredness
4.  Fever & headache
5.  Swelling of the cheeks (parotid) & jaw 
At what pH are proteases optimally active?
Low, like 4.5 to 5
What is membrane filtration?
Made up of cellulose (like paper) with a goal of removing microorganisms
What is n defined as in the growth equations?
Number of generations
What are the symptoms of Diverticulitis
1.  Herniation of the mucosa
2.  Symptoms same as appendix
vomiting, nausea, anxorea 
What are the major parts of the lymphatic system?
lymphnodes, spleen, gut-associated lymphatic tissues
How are the german measles spread?
respiratory route, can pass through placenta
What is the gingical crevice?
spot where the tooth and gum meet
Biotechnology is currently being used to
control oil spills, create new vaccines, detect genetic diseases, identify criminals
How does reverse transcription differ from transcription?
mRNA  cDNA
instead of DNA  mRNA
What's the make up of California encephalitis
1.  (-) ssRNA segmented
2.  Helical nucleocapsid
3.  Enveloped 
If a peptide is composed of D-aa, will it be degraded?
No, resistant to enzymes
ATR. The fuck is that?
-Anthrax toxin receptor found in lots of cells-endotoxins use ATR to get in
How do you diagnose TSS?
culture on blood agar from site of TSS, verify the TSST-1
many organisms can degrade gelatin
gelatin may not remain solid at temperatures required for microbial growth
gelatin is not stable during sterilization procedures
gelatin liquefies at warm temperatures.
The problem with using gelatin as a solidifying agent for microbiological media is that...
What are the main characteristics of clostridium botulinum?
gram positive spore former, obligate anaerobe
How do you treat HIV?
combination of 3 drugs to slow the infection so that the latent stage will last the lifetime
What will septicemia lead to if untreated?
Leads to shock( collapse of BP, multiorgan failure, lung fill with fluid) and death
Why is positive feedback important in the complement pathway?
More products lead to more enzymes which lead again to more products, etc.
How do ddNTPS terminate chain elongation?
instead of having a 3'-OH, they only have a 3'-H, which inhibits binding of the next nucleotide
name a few viruses that are usually in a chronic latent state in which they periodically become reactivated
hpv-herpes zoster virus(chickenpox & shingles)
Name the Toxins that ETEC produces and what does it do?
Heat labile toxin (LT):
1.  ADP ribosylates Gs
2.  Elevates cAMP
3.  Cells secrete Cl-4.  Absorb less Na+
5.  Watery diarrhea
 
Heat stable toxin (ST)
1.  Increase cGMP
2.  Decrease cotransporter of Na/Cl 
Describe the process of yeast budding?
New cells are forms as small "buds" fromt the parent cell are produced and pinched off.
Nucleic acid probes, a type of direct assay, labels (RNA or DNA segments) with a radioactive or chemical marker?
BOTH - homologous sequences of viral (or bacterial) genomes react with the probe**Detects 1-1000 particles; may detect infectious and non-infectious particles
What is the purpose of costimulation?
so that T cells dont kill your host cells
What is an Inclusion? give an example
applies to a general group of reserve deposit structures (ex. metachromatic granules store phosphate
How does hemolytic disease work? how can it be treated?
Rh- mothers that have an Rh+ baby will make antibodies against Rh+. so if they have another Rh+ baby it will attack the Rh; anti-Rh neutralizing antibodies injected at birth
What is unique of Rh blood groups?
For each ABO blood type there is a Rh blood group positive or negative.
Rh+ blood types have Rh+ Ags have no naturally occuring Anti Rh+ Ab.
Rh- blood types have NO Rh- Ags and NO anti Rh- Abs.
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