mid term study guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
an expert
wicked, depraved
a natural tendency
without experience, immature
the direct opposite
harmless, inoffensive, insignificant
the study of humanity
secret agreement or cooperation
present or existing everywhere
Cultural trend that emphasizes scrutiny of various visions of natural conscience. Moral dilemma: if all that motivates us is power and self-interest, is there any truly moral place to stand?
Ideas about capitalism, consumption, social status, etc...stem from Christianity. Protestant ethic: emphasized being one of the "elect" by maximizing their worldly signs of 'moral worth'. Trend toward work, rationalization, and production created 'treadmill of production'. Protestant ethic became spirit of capitalism.
deserving blame, worthy of condemnation
marked by evil or corruption
to spread through, soak through
to belittle, speak slightingly of
to romp or prance around
man-made material from a previous period, such as pottery, statues, etc.
a non-military Roman statesman - practiced law and administration with prose and style dealing in compromise and political negotiation
Athenian critic of the sophists, challenged his pupils to think critically and thus discover moral truths
Material Lens
How consumption, the economy, technology, development, population, and the health of our bodies shape our environmental conditions
NIMBY Phrase
Not In My Back Yard
Environmentalism and Feminism
Environmental activists often associate nature with women (mother earth). Idea is to promote positive valuation of both nature and therefore, women. Ecofeminists argue this is problematic (don't want to further stereotypes of women as 'caretakers' for everyone else)
Utilitarianism as Democracy
Utilitarianism usually feels democratic (like voting on proposed community action). Problems from equal-concern perspective: may disadvantage minority who voted other way, inequalities in people's abilities to influence what is voted on, what those who are voted for do with their offices. Equality in political standing depends in part on equality of material standing, and vice versa
Ecological Implications
Conspicuous leisure is generally subtle, potentially less environmentally damaging (but depends on how you engage in it),consumption and waste much more visible, more environmentally damaging
conspicuous, standing out from the mass
expression of attitude- gives voice its distinctive personality
to confirm, verify, make more certain
Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia. Hammurabi's Law Code
Negative Externalities
Costs not included in economic decision making and generally borne by those who did not make the decision
Conspicuous Leisure
Often more subtle than conspicuous consumption, involves nonproductive consumption of time: long vacations to faraway exotic places, high-status jobs removed from environmental production, wearing clothing of leisured pursuits, good manners
Ecofeminism Alternative
New terms emerging to address criticisms and recognize gray areas, inter-activeness, an inter-dependence of categories: environmental feminism, ecological feminism, ecogender studies. Categories not inherently wrong or bad, just need better ones that the hierarchal socially unjust and environmentally destructive ones of patriarchy
Food for All
Malthusians: Malnutrition as indicator of population pressures on land. Anti-Malthusians: Problem not amount of food, but ACCESS to food and overconsumption by others
Crisis of Under-Production
Stems from "contradiction" where produces find themselves undermining the same social and environmental relations that make their production possible
Ideal Lens
How culture, ideology, moral values, risk, and social experience influence the way we think about and act toward the environment
Ecological Dialogue
Material and ideal dimensions of environment depend upon and interact with each together, together they both constitute the practical conditions of our lives, constant conversation between material and ideal dimensions
5 senses- gives voice a distinctive quality
word order- controls verb pacing and focus
to lace in lower position, to asign
beginning of a story in which characters and settings are introduced
Persian King, known as a the most skillful of administrators, ruled in fairness, left a monument in three languages,
Hebrew name for the one true God, given this name by Moses
Slowed Population Growth
Fertility declines have begun to reverse growth in annual additions to world population. Not all due to lower fertility levels: increase warfare, AIDS, decline in life expectancy due to economic hardships
Controversy over Ecofeminism
Some early ecofeminists argue women and their associations with nature should be celebrated. Criticized for perpetuating dichotomy between men and women, negative stereotypes of women. Reification is alienating and fatalistic. Implies biological differences between men and women are at root of patriarchy. Criticized for implying that "logic of domination" is mainly a feature of Western thought
Politics of Technology
Visible via active manipulation of market through lobbying for subsidies, resistance to technological structures such as environmental justice movement. Passive technological politics: uncritically promote particular technological structures and their social interests
Environmental Racism
Not based on economics, also includes social heritage. Those with more advantaged social heritage less likely to experience threatened invironment. Social heritage differences in the distribution of environmental bads for the body, due to either intentional or institutional reasons
Melanie Dupuis's Phrase
NIMB aka Not In My Body
Protestantism and Capitalism
Modern capitalism first arose in dominantly protestant countries. Least developed countries are still least protestant. Today -religion no longer dominant driving force behind modern capitalism. economic and technical structures now more important in spread of capitalism
To Be Conspicuous
You must exceed prevailing community norm--and levels continually rise in competition to "keep up with the Jones". Through wealth we signal power over environment and thus society. Motivated not by hierarchy of needs, but hierarchy of society.
a creature of an enormous size, power, appearance
the opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended
used to develop a topic, shaping and seasoning voice-descirption
Caesar Augustus
adopted by Julius Caesar, a warlord at only 19 years of age, he skillfully used his connection to Julius as a way of keeping troops support as well as maneuvering his way into the good graces of the Senate and eventually taking over as a Roman ruler creating the Roman Empire
Sumerian king and hero in an epic said to be part man and part god
Power Structures Perspective (a)
Frances Moor Lappe: Argues little correlation between population density, amount of cropland, and hunger.
Power Structures perspective on food and population is that countries with power have greater ability to gain food they require. Poor people have little control, few options, regard children as economic resource.
Logic of Domination
Tendency to separate the world into antagonistic pairs. legacy of a Western 'us vs. them' logic. Problem of material outcomes, dominated and naturalized "other" does not receive fair environmental treatment. Patriarchy also leads to environmental oppression of men via risky behavior
Justice as Fairness
John Rawls: Justice means we would want the greatest good for everyone. Our own good must be realized within context of others similarly, and justly, pursuing their own good. Does not depend on everyone being exactly equal. Form of egalitarianism - maximizing fairness
Sentiments and Advertising
Today we are most interested in material goods because of how they serve our interest--they do not have a hau. But advertisers try to convince us their products are not socially empty-appeal to our sentiments.
Practical Lens
How we can bring about a more ecological society, taking both the material and the ideal into account
Treadmill of Production
Maximize profits - must produce more goods more cheaply. Need to repay and retain investors AND make profit for selves. Market forces promote increased production, increased environmental consequences, and increased inequality
Needs of Money
Money is principal means of arranging one's material needs and wants in most of world. Money=power. Need to invest to ensure higher returns in future. Most people continually seeking more money.
Needs of Neither
Neither the economy nor technology is an imperative-neither has needs. Money and machines are our own creations, a part of human culture. But by changing the conditions under which we find ourselves making the decisions that we do, we can reinforce our movement toward the ends we truly desire-just need to decide what that is
"Ozone hole"
Vital layer of 03 in the upper atmosphere that helps protect life on the Earths surface from the effects of the sun's UV rays. In the stratosphere. Outside the tropics, the ozone layer is depleted, particularly over the South Pole
Human Contribution to Destroying Earth
Agriculture, forest cutting, road building, mining, construction, landscaping,and the weathering effects of acid rain (which all cause sedimentation into rivers/oceans)
a remedy for all ills; answer to all problems
Ecological Footprint
Measure of the impact one makes on the environment
Economic and Technological Basis of Social Organization
Economic and technologic factors, through interaction with culture and social-psychology, help create material motivations for modern life. Constant presence of ADVERTISING. But contrary to popular belief, we DO have control over such factors and can resist
Rights and Beauty of Nature
All about home--about ecos and habitat--and every living thing's right to one that is sustainably beautiful and beautifully sustainable. Hard to define "beauty" but threats do exist: species loss, deforestation
Extinction of Species Causes
Habitat loss such as forests lands being cleared, grasslands plowed, and wetlands drained and filled; pollution to habitat; some have no defenses against animals, plants, and diseases that humans have brought unintentionally.
Power and Invironmental Justice
Live in a society organized around utilitarianism much more than justice or fairness. Utilitarianism not as personally threatening to the advantaged as to the disadvantaged. Advantaged less likely to easily envision environmental problems, less likely to throw social power against problems
Population Growth vs. Fertility
Fertility = average number of children born to women in population. 2000: Fertility rates ranged from 5.1 in poor countries to 1.7 in rich countries. Overall, fertility rates have fallen since 1960, but does not equal fewer numbers of children born each year.
Chief Philosophical Contribution of the Sophists
In environmental discussions as the contention that money and politics, rather than the Greek gods, moved the world of everyday life
figurative language
writing or speech that is not meant to be taken literally
The Environmental Predicament
Why do we have a concern for the current condition of the ecological dialogue? Challenges of sustainability, environmental justice, rights and beauty of nature
Inequality in Quality of Life
People in the wealthy countries live an average of almost 28 years longer than those in the poor countries, within-country differences in income have a substantial impact on the quality of life of the poor, even in rich countries, huge disparity in ability of people to acquire most basic of benefits: food, shelter, longevity
The HDI (Human Development Index) measures...
Measures the quality of life indicators such as literacy, life expectancy, standard of living and purchasing power
Gender Differences in Experience of Nature
Dualisms of patriarchal reasoning also affect way women ad men experience environment. Men described natural experiences using significantly more aggressive, militaristic and violent imagery. Women emphasized more domestic environmental vision based on experience of nurturing in nature
"Invisible Elbow"
Even if a goal is to hold one's place on the treadmill, economic actors are involved in a constant jostle. Both people and the environment get compromised in the process--often unintentionally
Predicted Outcomes of Global Warming
A shift in climate zones, changes in rainfall patterns, and rising sea levels
Hau: The Spirit of Goods
Maori people of New Zealand call Hau the social spirit that attaches to gifts, making sure each gift is reciprocated in some way. Spirit lingers on within the gift-mixing souls with things. Goods are not just merely objects of social competiveness and social interest. Also the means by which we remind ourselves, and subsequently create, the web of sentimental ties that support our social relationships
Rational Choice Theory
Argues that all we ever do is act in our interests. In this view, sentiments are a self-serving function. Very materialistic approach. But as long as agenda of self-interest is truly hidden, sentiments will be important sources of their won of what it pleases us to do
Arguments of Skeptics of Global Warming
There's no consensus, the Earth is cooling, temperatures have changed like this in the past, etc.
Main Point of John Rawls' Discussion of Justice
All social values are to be distributed to everyone's advantage, not just for the greater good
Thoreau and Critique of Modern Desire
In wild was no society with which to conflict. Natural other: vision of an interest-free realm upon which to base a natural conscience. Thoreau praised ignorance and recognition of how little we knew. Natural me: imagination of a truer, more authentic self that we believe the natural other sees in us, as opposed to the me that society sees
kindly, charitable
perfomed, suffered
scholoarly, bookish, learned
legendary King of Crete
the study of artifacts
to remove with effort
Greek- government by the people
Of world's original forests exist
Arithmetic Growth
Growth over time (1,2,3,4,5)
problem/conflict is resolved; loose ends are tied up
calmess, composure, refusual to panic
lasting only a short time
Athenian student of Plato's, saw reality as consisting of both form and matter.
Greek known as the first historian
Essential question--how long can we continue what we are doing? Specific challenges of sustainability: global warming, the two ozone problems, particulates and acid rain, threats to land and water
Economic effects not taken into account in the decision making in a market; an external effect, often unforeseen or unintended, accompanying a process or activity
IPCC estimate
Estimates that average temperatures will rise 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C in the twenty-first century and that the sea level will rise another 0.1 to 0.59 meters (.5 to 2 feet) by the beginning of the 22nd century
The desire to achieve self-regarding ends, too narrow a theory
Habitat Loss
Major cause of Species Extinction
characterized by or calling for continued sitting, remaining in one place
noisy in a coarse, offensive way
a model of excellence or perfection
an Athenian student of Socrates who continued his work by writing a series of philosophical books with Socrates as the speaker
Challengers to Producers
Crisis of Over-Production and Under-Production
Conspicuous Consumption
Visible displays of wealth: expensive cars, homes, clothing. Material visibility shows one's social ability to command steady flow of material goods from the environment
Carnivalesque Body
Body of interconnections and exchanges with the social and natural environment, openings and protrusions connect us with other bodies and world around us. Emphasis on body's "lower stratum". An ecological body, forever interacting and exchanging with natural systems. Carnival was time of connection, everyone joined in celebration
Zone of the body's perpetual dialogue with the environment. Invironmental issues: issues that concern the dynamics of that dialogue (i.e health). Environment is more encompassing term than Invironment
Culture of Technology
Perceive all technological knowledge through cultural lenses we use to make sense of our world. Technology shapes culture, however; culture also shapes technology. We may invent new technology to fit our new cultural aims; meaning becomes means
an excess as in eating or drinking
to plead on behalf of someone else
making good on a loss or damage
making a show of virtue or righteousness
Roman- governed by a small elite group and a leader
a patriotic epic written by the Latin poet Virgil featuring Aeneas, the Trojan whose descendants founded Rome
Twelve Tablets
he history of governments, the Twelve Tables occupy a special place. At once, they are the basis of the Roman Republic, the basis of Roman Law for centuries, and the germ of the idea that evolved into humanism, the philosophy of John Locke, and the Declaration if Independence.
Alexander the Great
Macedonian King, built the largest Empire known in the ancient world, responsible for the westward expansion of the Greek World
Nature as Offensive
Evidence in modern forms of politeness. Eat with cuttery, eat with mouth closed, standards of home cleanliness, bodily acts confined to closed private spaces. Signs of social hierarchy, to be elite you separate yourself from common people, separation from nature and bodily functions is convincing way to make that separation
Ecology of Patriarchy
Ideological link between domination of nature and domination of women. Patriarchal ideas pervade our thinking about society and environment, use the same mind and culture to understand both. Common Western tendency to consider women as being closer to nature than men.
Treadmill of Consumption
Moving materially ahead without making any real gain in satisfaction. Level of wealth has little to do with happiness. Cross-national study in 2002 found weak relationship between wealth and happiness. Consume more than we need AND want.
Christianity, Individualism, and Patriarchy All Have in Common...
Hierarchy, inequality, and connections between environmental domination and social domination
Technology as Social Structure
Humans created the automobile: implications: more than 1 out of 100 people will be inured in any given year in the U.S., millions of animals die each year due to traffic, autos are serious polluters that cause air pollution and related deaths; acid rain; global warming. Cars remain popular because of convenience or personal pride and 'romance'
World Systems Theory
Views process of development as inherently unequal. Divides world into core and periphery regions. Differences in political and economic power means wealth tends to flow to core regions from peripheral ones. Over time, development makes differences and gap even worse.
Technological Somnambulism
"why we so willingly sleepwalk through the process of reconstituting the conditions of human existence" Winner. Three answers: phenomenology and technology, culture of technology, politics of technology
Business Leaders
The most likely opponents of the environmental movement
Conspicuous Waste
Using excessive amounts of goods or discarding something rather than reusing it or repairing it. Those who can afford to waste show their elevation about material concerns
Karl Marx
Many ways that societies can arrange material production from the environment, have great consequences for howe we live and think
opposition in a work of drama or fiction between characters or forces (especially an opposition that motivates the development of the plot)
Julius Caesar
Roman leader who based his power on the common people, intelligent, well written, and a political strategist who joined together with two other Romans (formed the first Triumvirate) to gain the Consul in 59. He was viewed as a brash upstart by some of the other Senators
Limits of Inequality Perspective
Need to account for spatial distribution of environmental productivity as source of social power. Production does matter, not all areas have equal production capabilities. Marginal systems of production and entitlement is deadly combination
Family Planning and Birth Control
Promotion of birth control controversial: coercive way birth control has been applied, moral judgements concerning some forms of birth control, questions about significance of birth control in reducing fertility. Poor promotions of birth control viewed as oppressive, racists, patriarchal. Birth control can influence population trends when linked with social equality
Ideology of Environmental Domination
Explores ideological origins of view that humans can and should transform the environment for their own purposes. Three main traditions provide ideological rationale for environmental domination: Christianity, individualism, and patriarchy
Patriarchal Ecology (Values and Assumptions for Women)
Women's association with reproduction and the domestic sphere places them closer to nature. Women are associated with fulfilling bodily and emotional needs
Sociology of Invironmental Justice
Utilitarianism: view that if something is for the greater good, it must be OK
Economic Utilitarianism: more money means people can do more with it, for the greater good
Problem-utilitarianism tolerates much inequality in distribution of the good
Moral Parallels of Christianity, Science, and Technology (b)
Man become 'exploiter' of nature-standing above nature. Christian ethic- anthropocentric: saw God and saints as transcendent above nature
Greener Side of Christianity
Christianity often at odds with science (church authority threatened by science by things like stem cell research or genetic engineering). Christianity is geographically and ideologically diverse. More aptly describe ideas that support domination of environment as underlying philosophies of the Western world, not Christianity alone (supportive of domination and transformation of environment)
2 to 4 Fold
Rates of corporate profits today exceed rates of economic growth
Positional Goods (a)
Fred Hirsch--scarcity due not only to physical limits in supply of goods, but also to social limits. People often want something because it IS short supply. Scarce goods create opportunity for conferring status and prestige upon those who gain access to possession of them
Dialogue of State and Market
Treadmills are political, social creation of economics. Must change distribution of social power, moral vision of those involved, bargaining between competing interests, involvement of state, etc..
Promoting Economic Growth
Always seeking to have more money, economic growth = way to maximize political support/votes, if you have more money, you are 'happier', likely to stick with current political power structures. Problem...growth in wealth does not occur equally
Environmental Conflict
Another result of the politics of the growth machine is an environmental conflict in the tasks people set for local government. Government expected to promote economic growth AND protect environmental impacts. Often in conflict
Shaping and Motivations
Shaping of motivation by economics and technology is very important to understanding why we consume more than we need. Economic Growth = Economic and Political Health: matter of both material interests and cultural ideals
Affluent Society
One in which all the people's needs are easily satisfied
Population Momentum
Earlier high levels of growth may mean current large populations in childbearing years--creating population momentum: lower fertility rates may mean as many if not more births due to large numbers of women giving birth. 1/3 of worlds population in less developed countries is under age 15
Pollution Gap
Wealthy of the world create far more pollution per capita than do the poor (in rich countries, per capita emissions of CO2 are 12 times higher than in poor countries), rich countries are also more able to externalize the local effects of the pollution they cause, as with the export of toxic wastes and dirty forms of manufacturing
Mythopoeic thought
we choose to belive what is in our best interest to believe
Carbon Dioxide
384 ppm in 2007 from 277 ppm in mid-eighteenth century (from ice core data in Antarctica)
Vicarious Consumption, Leisure, and Waste
Consumption, leisure, and waste that others engage in because of your wealth. Effective statement of social and environmental power: parents who dress their children in expensive clothing, buy them expensive cars, send them to elite private schools
Three Lenses of Environmental Sociology
The Material, The Ideal, The Practical
Use of Ecological Dialogue
Way to conceptualize power, way to conceptualize the environmental relations that shape our ability to take action: our ability to do, to think, to be. Relations of power include organizational factors of materiality AND knowledge factors of our ideas--which in turn shape each other
Negative Externalities of the Car
Hidden economic subsidies: price of military intervention to keep oil prices down, subsidies for parking, road and highway services. Political power: powerful auto associations work to keep subsidies going to benefit their industries. History of cars shows how we socially organize and socially manipulate convenience of a technology so that it becomes most appropriate way to do things
Treadmill of Social Process
Treadmill is outcome of interests of various social actors, their power and level of concern for others. Treadmills not just external pressures that we must conform to; also due to pressures that come from within. Internal and external forces create treadmill
Whites vs. Minority Groups
Whites often show lower levels of concern for the environment than minority groups
the story that is told in a novel or play or movie etc.
Poverty and Civilization
Poverty is a social status. As such it is the invention of civilization. (Sahlins)
Material Basis of Human Condition
No body can exist without interacting with the environment, material forces are central to social life
Growth in Use of Automobiles
Even though we have seen real improvements from strict emission controls, the growth in use of automobiles/trucks have wiped out much of the gain from emission controls
Exchange Values of a Place (Competing Values)
Local businesses investments in ways that places can be used to make money. Two values are often in conflict and incompatible
Social Constitution of Daily Life
How we as a human community institute the many structures and motivations that pattern our days, making some actions convenient and immediately sensible and other actions not, leads to sidelining of environmental concerns and action
Social Organization of Convenience
The way we often set up our lives around a particular way of doing things so that it becomes difficult to do things any other way. A dialogical understanding of technology points to common transformation of a how-to into a have-to. But NOT inevitable, as cars also show: depends on how we spend our money and allocate our resources.
Why We Consume So Much More Than We Need
GREED, socially highly variable, not an immutable natural fact, varies widely across time and culture
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