Middle Ages Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Tetrarchy
293-313
ordinatio imperii
817
conclave
electing the pope
monasteries
communities of monks
What does frank mean
Free
What was Mohammed's religion?
Islam.
monastaries
Religious communities where monks lived and worked. They were social centers that helped the sick and the poor. They also had schools for the wealthy children.
MErovingians
family ruled much of France
sacraments
special religious ceremonies such as baptism, communion, and marriage.
Goths sacked rome in this year
410
Roman Catholic church
The center of Rome
Huns
- Great Chief Attila
- Terrified Germanic Tribes causing the Germanic Tribes to migrate into Rome
- After Attila's death, empire decimated
Crusades
1095-1291 A series of military expeditions from Europe to the Holy Land between 1095 and 1291, the Crusades began when the hard-pressed Byzantine emperor turned to his fellow Christians in Western Europe for help in fending off the Muslim Seljuks. In 1095 Pope Urban II called on Europe's feudal lords to supply soldiers for a war to defend the Byzantine Empire and to take Jerusalem and the area around it, known as the Holy Land, from the Muslims. The First Crusade (1096-1099) succeeded in taking Antioch and Jerusalem. Over the next 200 years at least ten expeditions were undertaken, with varied leadership and diverse purposes. The Crusades end- ed in 1291, when Muslims captured the city of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Significance: The Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the East. They also spurred political change in Europe, as nobles gained power at the expense of kings.
Franks-
Germanic tribe that conquered Gaul (France)
Benedict
(c. 480-547) Italian saint and monk, he created a set of rules for monks to follow.
After the Roman empire fell, what religion spreaded throughout Europe?
Christianity.
knight
a mounted warrior who had great prestige in the Middle Ages; they dominated warfare in Europe
Priest
a clergyman in Christian churches who has the authority to perform or administer various religious rites
Manorial System
an agricultural, legal and social organization of land including a nucleated village, large fields for agricultural and serfs
Chivalry
Code of conduct that knights follow. It included courtesy, honor, defending women and the weak, defending the church and loyalty to one's lord.
Clergy
A body of officials who perform religious services, such as priests, ministers or rabbis.
saxons
a group of germanic people who migrated to Britain
Who was the most famous monk missionary?
Patrick.
Which family ruled the franks for almost three hundred years? Which one was the first person?
Merovingians, Clovis
vassal
A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land
King Richard I
After Christians were defeated during the Second Crusade ___ of England stayed in the Holy Land to fight the Third Crusade
Pope
the bishop of Rome and supreme leader of the Roman Catholic Church
Excummunication interdict
The excummunication of people who ar enot followign the churches rules
Hiberno- Saxon
6th-8th, Purse cover from the ship burial at Sutton Hoo, Rage with Man (symbol of Matthew) Gospel Book of Durrow, Chi Rho Iota, page from the Book of Kells
Norman Conquest
the invasion and settlement of England by the Normans following the Battle of Hastings (1066)
Who converted several Germanic tribes?
Ulfila and his followers.
The Vikings, Magyans, and Muslims invaded Europe which directly caused what?
The development of fuedalism.
Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor who argued with the pope over lay investiture
Miracle play
a type of religious drama in the Middle ages based on stories about saints
Pepin III (the short)
Caroligians Crowned by Pope Papal States
Who is the most famous church father?
Augustine of Hippo.
Women in MA
Stayed at home and did regular chores, took care of kids etc
Sea's And Rivers
The seas and rivers in eruope where important because they provided safety and oppotunities for trade.
Only a few rulers fought the vikings effectively, they include ________
Charlemagne, Alfred the Great
What countries did the Persians invade after Justinian's death?
Palestine, Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia.
Who attacked the empire shortly after Justinian's death?
The Germanic tribes, the Asiatic tribes, and the Slavs.
What was Gregory responsible for when he became Pope?
The spread and control of Christianity in several countries.
sacred
religious
knights
mounted warriors
reform
To change.
Gregorian Chant
Monophonic texture
Ka'bah
Islams holiest shrime (Mecca)
st thomas aquinas
scholastic theologian
usury
excessive charging of interest
venegeance
punishment inflicted in retaliation for an injury or offense
Pope Gregory VII
Banned lay investiture.
feudalism
loosely organized, powerful local lords divide land among lesser lords
756
Donation of Pepin- Gift of land
Bishops
What title discribes the individuals crowning Charlemagne in the illuminated manuscript "The Coronation of Charlemagne"?
Absolutism
king has absolute power, background for beginning of French revolution
Clovis
Leader whom the Frankish Kingdom emerged under
Church Decline
-Reformation (Martin Luther)
-People broke away from Catholicism and formed own religions
Alps Mountains
Europe's highest mountains, extending in an arc from the Mediterranean coast to the Balken penninsula
Estates General
Meetings between the representatives of French estates.
Serfs
lowest bottom of society, worked land for lord in return for security
Holy Roman Empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne
http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa35
Concordat
agreement between the pope and the ruler of a country
Manor
a large estate, often including a village and farmlands, ruled by a lord in medieval Europe
Asia Minor
A region/part of the Byzantine Emperor
Missi Dominici
messengers of the lord
, official appointed by Charlemagne who investigated if the counties were obeying his rules
Charlemage
Breifly reunited Europe; Spent much of his 46 years fighting muslims; Revived latin learning throughout his kingdom and encouraged the creation of schools.
gothic architcture
A style of architecture developed during the late middle ages. Buildings of this style usually had pointed arches, thick walls, large windows, high steeples and flying buttresses.
Frederick I
Barbarossa elected by seven princes, made the merchants angry defeated.
Why were monasteries important?
Preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements
monarchy
country ruled by a king or queen
serf
peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free
lombard league
Group of Italians who united against Frederick I to defeat him against all odds.
Holy Land
Palestine; crusaders never got it back from Muslims
"do nothing kings."
The heirs of Clovis become "__________." The real ruling is done by the Mayors of the palace. (MOPS)
Treaty of Verdun
Divided the European continent among Charles Martel's three great-great-grandson's
renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
Martin Luther
German monk and leader of the Protestant Reformation.
Constitution
the way in which something is made up
2 steps to become a knight
page and squire
Pope Leo III
Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, 800
Canon law
the official rules that guide all aspects of the Church
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (p. 413)
stained glass
glass that has been colored in some way
lief erikson
A Norwegian explorer who is said to have discovered North America around the year 1000. He called it "Vinland". (A Viking leader from Norway) newfoundland
What are the two major trade cities?
venice and flanders
benedict wrote
book with rules for monastic life and spread his teaching to other monasteries
Benedict of Nursia
Saint Benedict, created the vows of poverty, chastity, and _____ for the monasteries
Most manners were _ _. which means they work it temsleves
self sufficient
3 Field system
farmers could grow crops on 2/3 of their land each year, instead of 1/2
How many people did the Bubonic Plague kill in Asia?
Over 25 million
What era was a rebirth of learning in europe?
the renaissance
Bubonic Plague
a disease spread by fleas on rats, it occurred between 1347-1353 and killed over 25 million people
Pepin of Hertsdale
He was Major domo. he starts a ruling family.
What were some causes of the fall of the roman empire?
romans blames christianity
barbarian
poverty
disease
high taxes
who is william duke of nomandy
william duke is the king of england
Who were the main characters in The Song of Roland?
Roland, Charlemagme, Oliver, God, Ganelon
what happens in angel torture?
they cut slits in your back, lay you on your back and the lood flows out and looks like wings
Describe how the son of a noble prepared for knighthood.
1) Learned to ride and care for horses.
2) At 7, he left home to train in a knight's household
3) Learned courtesy and how to handle small weapons
4) From 15-20., he rode into battle with the knight
Sultan
...
manors
lord's estate
papel interdict/excommunication
/
Reeve
carpenter, hardworking, choleric
Magyars
Nomadic invaders from Turkey.
Adage
Old saying or proverb
Emperor of the Romans
a
'adb
The muslim's called black slaves.
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy.
fief
land granted to a vassal
Liege Lord
the one you must obey
Charlemagne
King who conquered most of Europe
Koran
Islam's holy book containing the sayings of Muhammed.
King Richard
king who taxed the peasants
Role/status of women
low status, no rights
monks
lowest ranking clergymen who copied books, farmed, and taught; they took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience
Diaspora
the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)
Common bond between Lord and Vassal
LANDD
843
Treaty of Verdun- Split Empire into three between three brothers
John
Which English king signed the document guaranteeing individual rights and liberties in 1215 c.e.?
black death
bubonic plague from china, carried westward by traders and mongol armies in 14th century, 25 million deaths, 1/4 population, ceased 18th century
Vernacular Literature
troubadour poetry: about love of knight and ladies
st.brigid
irish saint who establish a double monastery
Guild
In the middle ages, association of mechants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests.
The most powerful man in Middle-age Europe was almost always the ____.
Pope
Medieval times
Time period from roughly 500-1500. Also known as "middle ages."
Lorenzo Medici
Ruler of Florence during the Renaissance and patron of the artists such as Michelangelo.
The relationship between the knights and nobles was the heart of
feudal system
Gaul
an ancient region of western Europe that included what is now northern Italy and France and Belgium and part of Germany and the Netherlands
Abd-Al Rahman
only Umayyad not murdered by the Abasids, escapes to Spain and is welcomed as a ruler
Third Crusade
The King's Crusade; Phillip II of France went back to attack England instead; Frederick Babarosa of the Holy Roman Empire fell in a stream and died; Richard the Lionhearted of England goes to fight but loses; Saladin the Muslim Turk won dominantly and successfully - signed a truce to Christians who wanted to visit the Holy Land is safe; Saladin won and got all his land back
Friars
Friars differ from monks in that they are called to a life of poverty in service to a community, rather than cloistered asceticism and devotion. Whereas monks live cloistered away from the world in a self-sufficient community, friars are supported by donations or other charitable support.[1]
Magna Carta
document made against king john that gives him limited power, separation of church and state, and trial by jury of peers
Hugh Capet
o Succeeded Luis Sluggard
o King of France
o Started the Capetian dynasty
o Ruled only IIe-de-France
o Members of the dynasty wanted to expand
Hagia Sophia
Means: the church of holy wisdom. Major church in Constantinople.
Franks
They were Germanic people who were in power in the Roman province of Gaul. Their leader was Clovis.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
A series of Chronicles or yearly records of events
Battle at Legnano
battle of merchants and knights, merchants win, germany never reunites.
where does the mongolian empire extend?
pacific(china) to europe
tours
in the battle of ________ muslims were defeated in 732
Common Law
laws that were common to the whole kingdom --- this began to replace law codes that varied from place to place
Inquistion
A court to seek out heretics to get them to prevent or convert
lord
In the Middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor.
Three-field system
A system where two fields were used for farming and one not to save land more food produced greater population
Council of Constance
In 1417, the Council of Constance ended the schism between the Avignon and Roman papal courts by removing authority from all three popes then claiming to be the true "vicar of Christ" and electing Pope Martin V, a compromise candidate. Martin subsequently returned the papacy to Rome.
Age of Faith
What the middle ages was called because of the widespread Christian belief
circuit courts
A state court that holds sessions at several different places within a judicial district.
The leader of the viking tribe called the Normans
William the Conqueror
Parson
Like a priest but did not answer to an archbishop or bishop
How did Christianity help Europe recover from the fall of Rome?
-politically fragmented but Church created unity
-the new emporer was Jesus Christ
-it's the one thing that remains constant through the chaos
French feudalism is a
strong central government and all sear allegiance to the king
Craft workers formed guilds business associations
forerunner or trade unions, trained craftsmen, maintained quality of work, adopted a patron saint.
Clash between Henry IV and Gregory VII
Argued over a lay investiture
The treatments of black death
Praying, sucking out a lot of blood making weak but no more disease
Who was Richard the Lion-Heart?
He was barely in England and he was the son of Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was loved by his subjects, cared about himself, and put taxes on people to pay for the Crusades.
How did Parliament limit the power of the king?
By controlling the collection of taxes and what laws could be past
Where did the Holy Roman Empire come from?
Otto l made it by protecting the pope by sending troops; pope crowned otto and made him king
Scholastics
Professors
parliment
the goverment
"House of Wisdom"
m
land
wealth was measured by
germanic tribes trade
only bartering
Who introduced the printing press
Caxton
Excomminication
Exspelling somone from the church.
longboats
vikings used _________ as ships
The strongest civilized force
the church
tavern
a place to eat and drink
Monarch
king or queen that needs loyalty
Great Schism
the splitting of the church
Castile
the largest of the Spanish kingdoms
Guilds
associations formed by people with same interests and jobs (ex. artisans and mercahnts)
Romanseque Style
Exterior - simple/plain (little decoration); Floor Plan - seperate compartments (broken space); Overall Mood - dark and gloomy
Secular authority ________, while ________ authority grew.
declined, church
insurance
good protected by an underwriter for money
noblewomen
Ladies of the castle who supervised the upbringing of their children, made medicines, tended to the poor etc.
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Interdict
the punishment of closing all the churches in a region or kingdom so that no one can receive the sacraments.
fuedalism
loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their land to lesser lords
louis
king who split the empire into 3
Ottoman Turks
The most important and lasting influence on Islam; a member of the Turkish-speaking ethnic group in Turkey, or, formerly, in the Ottoman Empire
monk
a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to pursue a life of total dedication to God
Pope Innocent III
Height of medieval papal power
Claimed authority above all other rulers
7 Liberal Arts
Grammer, Rhetoric; Logic; Astronomy; Music; Arithmetic; Geometry
first crusade
alexius asked pope urban for help against turks, but he wanted liberation of jerusalem
missionary
a person who spreads his or her religious beliefs to others
Truce of God
Decrees fighting forbidden on weekends and Holy Days
Battle of Hastings
Normans and Anglo-Saxons fought the battle that changed the course of English history
Vernacular
everyday language used in a country or region
Hildebrand
Also known as Gregory VII, he fought against secular control of the Church.
Precedent
law case that set the decision for future law cases of similar problems
francis treated
all creatures as if brothers and sisters
wergeld
"man money", amount of gold, oxen, or grain that a murderer had to pay the family of his victim in order to avoid being killed by them. (Chapter 1)
Warships
awe inspiring biggest held 300 ppl 72 0res, 20 tons when fully loaded sail in 3ft of water.
the decline of feudalism
disease, shifting in politics (from nobles to the common people), and trade
Battle of Tours
in 732, Christians triumphed and the Frankish forces were able to defeat the Muslims throughout the Battle of tours
layman
someone who is not a clergyman or a professional person
Monasticism
The practice of living the life of a monk
Domestic System
Method of production in which work is done in homes rather than a shop or factory
William, the Conqueror of Normandy, invaded England in
1066 a.d replacing Saxons
Concordant of worms
1. Ended fighting with compromise that in the first part of the ceremony to elect bishop a church man would give bishop the ring and staff and in second part, the emperor or his representative would touch bishop with a scepter.
2. 1122
3. Germany, city of worms
Many montasteries were the centers of learning, where monks painstakingly copied books by hand the only way of reproducing books for most of the middle ages.
Monks made books
Who participated in the Kings Crusade?
Phillip II (France), Frederick Barbarossa (Germany), Richard (England)
Pope Urban II
pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
Muslim advances were brought to Europe by
Knights returning from crusades
manor house, watermill, church
the manor consisted of these three things
Trial by Jury
o a fair trial with a 12 person jury
Describe the organization of the church.
The church was organized into different groups of people. They were priests, bishops, archbishops, and the pope. The parish priest was the lowest in the church, but he was one of the most important because he preformed the seven sacraments. His job was to serve the people of his parish. The bishop was to manage a diocese which was many parishes. The archbishop pretty much had the same powers as a bishop except he managed more parishes. The pope was the highest in the church. He was selected by the cardinals, and watched over everything.
What effect did Charlemenge have on Europe?
pushes Muslims back into Spain.
Pope Leo III makes Charlemenge emperor of the Romans.
was at war constantly.
why? unite Europe under Christianity, one religion=>no war=>focus on crops, society, and peace.
What did the two major trade cities trade?
cloth, metal work shoes, leather, baked goods, and made wooden items
- ALL crimes committed on church property
- ALL cases involving religious oaths
- ALL crimes committed by clergy
Why people had to go to church court:
Byzantines
b
Belisarius
Justinian's best general
Greatest frankish Ruler
Charlemagne
sword
sharp medieval hand weapon
Manorialism
Is the economic system.
homage
Act of swearing allegiance or obedience to a lord
Pilgrimage
A visit to a holy place
twice
the tax assesor-collectors never went to the same place _____
Monastry
religious community where monks live and work.
submit
yield to the control of another
Had a village where workers worked
manor
Hernan Cortéz
conquered Aztecs; Aztecs thought he was a god; 1/2 dies from smallpox; captured and killed emperor causing the empire to fall
Summa Theolgica
St. Thomas Aquinas. He wrote what?
Black Death Symptoms
Fever, vomiting, coughing, sneezing fits, egg sized swellings or bumps on the skin.
Valhalla
Viking heaven where they held great feasts and celebrations
Second Crusade had _ armies, _years,.
It was a _
2, 2
defeat
Missionaries
people sent out to carry a religious message; also focuses on converting non-Christians to Christianity
3rd crusade
they wanted their land back/ more soldiers died/ they lost and it was a disaster
Compurgation
A group of people "swore" their man was innocent; character witnessing
Who kept Muslim forces from invading France?
Charles Martel
Eurasia
the land mass formed by the continents of Europe and Asia
Dante
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Henry ii
The most important legal reformer. He successfully imposed the jurisdiction of royal courts over both aristocratic and ecclesiastical tribunals.
Pasture
Land covered with grass and other low plants suitable for grazing animals, esp. cattle or sheep.
Constantinople
the largest city and former capital of Turkey
Catholic Church
a central institution of the Middle Ages
Excommunicate
being kicked out of the Roman catholic church for not following the laws.
Battle of Sluys
Edward III defeated French fleet, first major battle of the Hundred Years War
foundation of cathedral
strong, sturdy, equal. went 25 feet into the ground
Most the people who lived in the city were
traders
English Peasant's revolt
1381 most prominent immediate cause = monarchy raises taxes
Byzantine Empire
an empire of lands formerly part of the Roman Empire called the "New Rome" with its center at the city of Constantinople until it fell in 1453 to the Ottoman Turks (Muslims).
Otto the Great
formed a close alliance with the Church. built power by gaining support of clergy. invaded Italy on pope's behalf. rewarded by being crowned emperor. created the Holy Roman Empire, which was the strongest in Europe until the 12 Century. King of Germany. Holy Roman Emporer
which part of the middle ages is refferd to the dark ages
earliest part
william the conueror
won the battle of hastings and created the doosday book
Graduate and later professor at the U of Paris
St. Thomas Aquinas
Where were the main characters in The Inferno?
Dante and Virgil
What is an apprentice?
learns a trade from a master crafts person
Why did they stop tournaments?
because all the good soldiers were getting killed, they made them into pageants then
Describe the laws and traditions of Germanic tribes
family and personal obligations bind society
unwritten laws
feel no obligation to a king they don't know
smaller communities
Why were people okay with having a fixed place in society?
Because they were comforted knowing their place
Why do England and france develop differently from Germany?
Between the 500s and 900s leaders like Clovis, Charlemagne and others make alliances with the church. Ultimately there is a power struggle between the kings and church. England and France develop very differently from Germany b/c of their relationship with the church.
kings have more power than church in England and France
Mot
hill
Bally
Wooden stockade
Crusades (date)
(1095- 1291)
quarreling
arguing between people
Battle of Hattlin (date)
1187
Heresy
crimes against the church
secular
worldly force in medieval Europe
1199
Richard killed in the crusades
Jerusalem
A city in modern-day Israel
Sacrements
Special ceremonies at which participants recieved the direct favor, or grace, of god to help them ward of the consequences of sin.
Annual
cancel; to reduce to nothing
Who followed the Code of Chivalry?
Knights
abu bakr
sunni ruller in the umayyad
The rise of Renaissance
The printing press
troubadours
wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women
Carpathian Mountains
a mountain in central Europe
Consul
a diplomat appointed by a government to protect its commercial interests and help its citizens in a foreign country
3 fields system
cultivate 2/3 rather than 50%
John Wycliffe
translated bible into English; thought that the bible was the only thing necessary for religion (no priests, or rituals)
Muslim
Someone who follows the religion of Islam
Shires
a further division of the 3 regions
El Cid
chansons de geste from Spain
a disgraced knight fights off Muslims and regains kings trust
moat
man-made body of water surrounding the motte and bailey
Middle Ages
Time from 500 A.D.- 1500 A.D.
Flying Butress
a semi detached structure built against a wall, vault or arch for reinforcing support
ballad
Any popular narrative poem, often with epic subject and usually in lyric form.
Patriotism
love and loyal support of ones country
Gregory does...
tweaks office of pope
He signs treaty with Lombards and converts them to Christianity
Gets food into Rome while under siege
Acted as political leader
Involved with worldly/ temporal affairs.
Conciliarism
The belief that only a general council of the church could end the schism and bring reform to the chruch
skulk
to move about stealthily; to lie in hiding
Peasant Revolt
When people were freed of their serfdom
100 Years War
A series of conflicts 1337-1453 between France and England over French lands held by the English Kings
law of church(POPE uses threat for excommunication which is banishment from sacrements which leads to hell)
canon law
Kublai Khan
made his capital in Peiping (now Beijing), made friends with the Polos
Squire
A Person Acting Attendant To A Knight Before He`s Becoming A Knight Himself (2nd Step.)
annul
to declare or make legally invalid or void
Western Schism
weird period of history with three "popes"
Troubadour
A wandering poet or singer of medieval Europe.
Patricians
A group of people who made up the ruling class of Rome/, the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
peasant's crusade
led by walter the penniless and and peter the hermit, everyone died
needed help with rebel nobles and asked Charlemagne for help- made him emperor
Pope Leo 111
St Augustine of Hippo
wrote Confessions and City of God
Concordat of Worms
an agreement reached in 1122 between the church and the Holy Roman Emperor that recognized the Church as the supreme authority in spiritual matters and ruled that monarchs could have no authority over the Church
Wars of the Roses
(1455-1485) An English Civil war; aristocratic families (York vs. Lancaster) fought for power while the king was away; Henry Tudor won
Josquin de Prez
The true master of the Renaissnace period. Highly influetinal and revered.
Page
7 year old boy, who helped the knights of the castle care for their war hourses, polished armor, learned good manners and ran errands for the ladies.
self-sufficient
being able to take care of your needs without any help
What is feudalism?
a political system based on bonds of loyalty between kings and queens, lords and ladies, vassals, knights,and peasants and serfs
Hundred Year War
A war that Edward III launched for that throne continued on and off 1337 to 1453. Victory passed back and forth. French rallied and drove the English out of France except for the port of Calais.
significance of common law
basis for law in english speaking countries
Trial by ordeal
Has to perform an ordeal and if he passes the task then he is not guilty
Frederick Barbarossa
One of the 3 Kings in the 3rd Crusade, he fell off of his horse while crossing a river and died
the norman conquest of england
william the conqueror invades in 1066; defeats English (Anglo-Saxon) king at Battle of Hastings.
introduces feudal system
sets stage for conflicts between france and england
How the plague contributed to the decline in feudalism
speeded changes in eurpoes economic structure, trade halted, shift in power, hortages of workers, serfs left manors
What was it like for medieval person?
Life for your average person during the Dark Ages was very routine, and activities revolved around an agrarian calendar. You would do the same thing every day agriculture. Also people you knew could be dead the next day like that.
What was a trait of the Merovingian Dynasty?
They thought only of the pleasures and luxuries of the palace life.
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