Middle Ages Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
washes clothes
Frederick I
Cannon Law
Religious Law
a case for arrows
noble qualities of knights
shelter for the gatekeeper
a singer of folk songs
temperate climate
mild; moderate in temperature
a person holding a fief
This reinforced the _______ system.
Pope Leo 3rd crowns Charlemagne "Emperor of the ROmans"- first unity since the 400's
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
The ________ originally were intended to recapture the Holy Land from Muslim control
Cardinal HIldebrand was elected as Pope Gregroy VII (year)
barbarian people who migrated into southern Europe, and in the early 10th century ad occupied Hungary, from where their horsemen raided into France, Italy, Germany, and even Spain
People that inhabited Northern Gaul after the fall of Rome
"papa", highest posistion in the Church, one of the most powerful men in Europe during Middle Ages
The excommunication of an entire country or region.
Betrayal of one's country, king or ruler.
Pope Urban II
pope who ordered the crusades
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
Property held in return for military services
a person who has general authority over others
Gregory I
"Gregory the Great"; broadened the authority of the papacy, or pope's office, beyond spiritual role; papacy became secular power involved in politics
A Christian city on the Atlantic coast.
Norman Invasion came about because of the need for a new king; the late King had no heirs
The year William the Conqueror became the first Norman King of England after defeating the English at the Battle of Hastings. This laid the foundation for the centralized government.
A city in Northwestern France, noted for it's cathedral.
Pepin of Hertsdale
defeats Austrians, founder of Carolingian line, son charles martel the hammer
Henry II
Instituted common law in England (based on court cases and tradition)
Dominic de Guzman
(1170-1221) founded the Dominicans, who were against heresy and lived in poverty while learning to preach efficiently against heretics.
Farm workers; all of them were freemen or serfs
He was the Frankish leader who united the Franks and ruled over what is now modern France. He converted to Christianity and converted his empire. He died in 511 A.D.
lay investiture
The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection.
St. Benedict
The man who revived monasteries was __________.
Pope Urban II journeyed to Clermont in France and called for a great Christian holy war against the infidels.
also known as "the eldest daughter of the Catholic church"
martin luther
German theologian and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church (1521). Luther confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church.
A large land mass that includes the continents of Europe and Asia.
Henry was forced to give _____ for indirectly causing the death of Beckett.
William Wallace
war leader of Scotland fighting to free itself from England's control.
a church-court set up to try people accused of heresy
a long narrow inlet of the sea between steep cliffs
This person's job is to see that laws are enforced
Hundred Years' War
was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. The war was punctuated by several brief and two lengthy periods of peace before it finally ended in the expulsion of the Plantagenets from France, with the exception of the Calais Pale
Joan of Arc
1429 French peasent girl (saints to free France) captured-inquisition-burned at the stake
Who is Charlamagne?
king; crowned by pope; "charles the great"; couldnt write; education; convert to christianity
new technologies invented
horse collar 3 field system horse shoe
A noble who fought for his lord. they live in the castle
Concordant at Worms
the compromise of clergy can appoint bishops, but kings can veto
Have to be a _ to become a Pope
To declare a person is a Saint in the Catholic church
spanish inquisition
a court held by the Church to suppress heresy
in order to get a favor from the king you would have to ___ the mayor of the palace
Master Craftsman
A artisan who has the right to open his own shop or merchant business. To become a craftsman, guild must review masterpiece and there must be room in the guild.
how did europe decline?
it went through political, social and economical decline. trade declined, it was divided, invaders came and looted everything, towns emptied, no learning
Who was King John?
He was Richard's brother and He became king in 1199.
The first major step toward unifying Spain was the
marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand
Germanic, Greco-Roman, Christian
the middle ages are a blend of what 3 cultures
"The Prince of the World"
statue of man who has leeches, flesh eating frogs, and snakes on his back
what did the greeks and romans bring to our society today
the senate, voting, plays ,and ,art
Why did some men make hajj from Timbuktu all the way to Mecca?
Because they are Muslim and want to spread there religion
uncultivated land
Economic System
Middle Ages
Medieval period
selling of church offices
king louis
son of charlemagne
the lowest class if commoners
7 sacrements
Baptism, Conformation, Matrimony, Penance, Extreme unction, Holy Orders, Holy Eucharist
The capital of Charlemagne's empire
(Norse mythology) the heavenly dwelling of the Norse gods (the Aesir) and slain war heroes
Justinians Code
unified laws throughout the empire
Policy of charging interest on loans
a clergyman having spiritual and administrative authority
people who worked on the manor
where scholastics gathered and talked about issues
the holy book of Islam (Islams bible)
Publicize Christianity
What were mosaics intended to do?
The Crusades
4 famous crusades, impacts; increase of trade and technology, power of kings increase, less power to Pope tension between Christians and Muslims, end of feudalism
three stages: a dangerous journey, a central test or ordeal to determind if the hero truly has the qualitites of a hero, and a return to the point from which the journey began
Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled
louis 7th
king of france during 2nd crusade
A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
Lollard Movement
The political and religious movement of the Lollards from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation.
Children's Crusades
There were 2 Children's Crusades. These were not official Crusades but were the most tragic
Holy Land
Sacred place to christians and muslims
A fight against Muslims by Christians to drive them out of Spain
a group of mostly cardinals and bisheops who, during the Great Schism, formed a council to regulate the church
Robin Hood
a legend but there was probably someone like him
Castle Keep
the central tower or most important internal, safest defensive part of a castle.
a king become strong enough to unite all of western europe was named Charlemagne or charles the great first charles defeated the other germanic tribe then he united them into one kingdom with one religion roman catholic next charles fought against the enemies of roman catholic church
Canon Law
Mixture of Roman Law and regulations that had been issued over the years by Church Authorities and councils
person who travels to carry the ideas of a religion to others
john wycliffe
jesus is head of church not pope
12 to 13- assists the knight, serves his meals and carries his armor
rewarding friends or relatives by appointing them bishops & abbots
what's lay investure?
to cut off from communion with a church or exclude from the sacraments of a church
what is the dates of the middle ages
council of clermont
urban challenged christians to take up their weapons and join holy war to recover holy land
William the Conqueror
First Norman king of England; also Duke of Normandy
100 years war
war from 1337-1453 b/w english and french, english won by longbow
sic et non (yes and no)
Peter Abelard wrote ________.
King of Italy (818 - 855) and crowned Carolingian King of (Northern) Italy, Emperor of the Romans and (nominally) was Emperor of the Franks (840 - 855). Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious.
treaty of verdun
843 Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne's 3 sons after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms
Concordat of Worms
A compermise between Pope Gregory and Pope Henry after fighting over lay investiture stating that the church could grant bishop his ring and staff, symbols of church officials. Yet the emperor had veto power to prevent appointment of a bishop.
a combination of land and money that a young woman's family pays to her future husband.
Manor (manorialism)
a home of a noble (particuarly the Lords)
rule of Saint Benedict
The renunciation of one's will to prevent sin. Heavy focus on obedience.
Gelasius' Double Edge Sword Theory
One sword represented a religious sword and the other one was a political sword. They avoided conflict by keeping to the authority in their own relm
Oath of Fealty
Promise of allegiance by one person to another, usually sworn by a vassal to be faithful to the lord
How did the Moors feel about Christians and Jews of their country?
They were tolerant of them
the 7 tasks you need to do to get into heaven
Reasons for the Fall of Rome...
- became to large
- remote areas began to self-govern
- rival leaders
- Goths (Germanic tribe) invaded
What did the Vikings adopt when they settled in France?
The French language and Christian faith
The Peace of God (Truce of God)
rules that the Catholic Church made up to try to limit the amount of fighting knights could do
How do you become a freeman if you're a serf?
Save enough money to buy a plot of land or escape to a town and live there a year-and-a-day
rules land
political power
serves in local parish
~1200-1500 CE
Late Middle Ages
started war, Germanic people, worshipped warlike gods, vikings, north, invaded from north, 800s
Ferdinand and Isabella
the Spanish monarchs
Where was the trebuchet invented?
Hostility or discrimination toward Jews
donated lands surrounding Rome to popes (Papal States), united Frankish people with the church
the everyday language of poets homeland
Able to supply one's own needs.
Papal States
Territories in central Italy controlled by the pope.
a manor is _____- __________, basically supplying all it's needs
Dominican order
teaching roman catholic beliefs to stop heresy (non believing)
manor system
heart of medieval economy, serfs (peasants) that worked on the lod's manor (estate) and serfs paid lords for many dues
A person who has learned his trade
A medieval association of craftsmen or merchants that obtain power
People in feudal society who received land and protection from lords in return for loyalty.
the 2nd smallest continent (actually a vast peninsula of Eurasia).
Belief in the benefits of profitable trading
The first stage of knighthood , learned the arts , music , dance and mannors
taught by Women
of or relating to the Middle Ages.
Third Crusade
Led by Frederick Barbarossa, Phillip II "Augustus" and Richard I "The Lionhearted"
Saladin- Muslim leader
Result- Safe passage for pilgrims to Jerusalem
What the Great Council becomes in Representative Government
Treaty of Verdum
divided the empire into three kingdoms. Carolingian kings lost power and central authority broke down
Trial Jury
group that decides whether an accused person is innocent or guilty
One factor the that continued to unite people of Europe
Limited Monarchy
Magna Carta, the monarch cannot have complete power
francis of assisi founded
the franciscans, order of friars
life of knights
Code of Chivalry: knight should be brave and fearless in battle but still show loyalty and chivalry. They were to be generous and kind, especially to women.
men of honor who held a high military rank; had to be men who were trained in warfare and who showed good personal qualities. The code of chivalry had to be followed at all times by these men
Hugh Capet
King of France in 987, starts a dynasty
Pepin II
the Mayor of the Palace of one kingdom, succeeded in making the office hereditary.
Battle of Hastings
the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
England vs. France
major battles of Crecy, Poitiers and Agincourt
Spiritual Franciscans(orthodox religion
1. St Francis (1182-1226) founded most famous orthodx religious movement of the day- The Franciscans. Renounced families wealth, only wore a robe and no shoes and preached to anyone. He was a great speaker so he attracted many followers. Friars(brothers) of St. Francis spent their time preaching, ministering to lepers, and doing manual labor.
2. 1209
3. Rome and Assisi Italy
Used to scare away evil spirits and as water spouts (mouths are open)
the practice of living the life of a monk
vast land used for trading and work in the Middle Ages.
a person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in return for training
habeas corpus
a right that said, people could not be kept in jail without a reason
Trials of the Middle Ages
Viking attacks, trials between secular and Christian leaders
Hundred Years War
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
Francis of Assisi
became one of the first members of the Franciscan order
What were the crusades?
They were a series of battles fought between European Christians and Muslims.
What are the ideals of Christianity?
one god
live a good spiritual life and go to heaven
10 commandments
non-harmful initiation ceremonies
Jesus(preached equality, no matter how bad your life is down here you can live a better afterlife.)
join the guild or open his own shop
a journy man could no ______________________
What did Charlemagne do to try and regain the Roman Empire's glory?
He built schools through his empire, and provided funds that allowed monks to copy the works of Greek and Roman authors
traveling monks
something owned
Followers of Wycliffe
bubomic plague
deadly disease
France supported _____
England supported ____
irish monks
enthusiastically embraced pilgrimage-as-mission
Early Middle Ages
500-1000 C.E.
pope and patriarch formally excommunicated each other.
norse god of was (Tuesday)
tax, collects tax from followers
Single melodic line with no accompaniment
Medieval Christians who visited the Holy Land to visit places in which Jesus lived and died (plural)
4th Crusade
Sack of Constantinople, Catholics attack Orthodox Christians
wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women
strong wooden tower inside the stockade
a large or important Christian church
Made Christianity the official state religion.
flying buttresses
Gothic braces made of carved stone
New Germanic law to test innocence
Go through obstacle, if ok in the end, innocent.
Francesco Petrarch
Italian writer; wrote sonnets about unrequited love with a married woman named Laura
boom: make a resonant sound, like artillery
who comissioned the construction of the bayeux tapestry
Bishop Odo
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia and spread their culture by staying in the countries they invaded.
Domesday Book
survey of people who had property->taxes; strengthened royal power
before 1100 AD, cathedrals were built in ____ style
He helped to bring Christianity to Gaul
Estates General
advice representatives of all 3 classes of french society: clergy, nobles, townspeople
written document that set out the rights and privileges of the town -- in return for this, merchants paid the lord or the king a large sum of money or a yearly fee or both
pilier cantonne
type of compound pier commonly associated with High Gothic architecture. First used in the construction of the Chartres Cathedral, the pilier cantonné has four colonettes attached to a large central core that support the arcade, aisle vaults and nave-vaulting responds.
a pardon or forgiveness from the Church people pay for forgiveness from the church
an ancient military engine for hurling stones, arrows, etc.
Chanson de Geste
Translated into English: Song of Deeds.
What was the bottom class of the social pyramid?
The food served and eaten at one time
William of normandy
Which noble conquered England in 1066?
Magna Carta
"Great Charta" 1215 - nobles have certain rights (overtime they apply to everyone); states that monarchs abide by the law and king cannot make new laws without consulting consuls (We use for the Bill of Rights)
Has a central govn. that can defend itself against enemies and keep order in its borders. The people are set apart from surrounding countries by religion, faith, language and culture. Patrioutism and or nationalism may be present
a fine, the amount paid by the wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed; translates as "money for a man"
bracery loyalty piety respect
four concepts associated wit chivalry
A region in northern France on the English channel.
Part of the United Kingdom, on the island of Great Britain.
Saint Benedict
monk who organized monastery of Monte Casino
confirming that you're an adult in the church world
What are the two major trade cities?
Venice and Flanders
king john
he was fighting the french but kept losing and asking the nobles for more money but they refused; forced him to sign the magna carta in 1215
I place where Jews are and where the Byzantine Empire took over
Pope Gregory VII
fought for popes right and authority against King Henry IV of Germany
natural law
a law that governed how the world operated
a sheath, hanging from a belt, for a sword
Carolingian Renaissance
the reign of the Frankish rulers began and people like Charlemagne started to rule, and Charlemagne built a huge empire and started to become powerful
this sets the stage for conflicts between France and England
Battle of Hastings
Urban II _____ enemy to make _____
animalizes (makes look beastly), crusades occur
Benedictine Rule
A strict set of rules for life in a monastery
how did the Crusades change society?
it increased trade, made money more common, fuedalism grew weaker, towns became more powerful.
In 1100, the holy Roman Empire covered most of
What is present day Germany
disruption of trade, downfall of cities, population shifts, decline of learning, loss of a common language
5 things that fueled the downfall of Rome
Where and when were the middle ages? Why were they called this? What is another name for this time period?
The Middle Ages were a time period in Europe After the fall of the Roman Empire and before the Renaissance. It was also called the Medieval Time, meaning in the middle. At this time Europe had a low birth rate, so they had a low population.
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