Middle Ages Quiz 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
superfluity
excess
land
frontier land
IT WAS
BOUT
Manor
The lord's estate
cluny
monastery in eastern France
pepin
son of charles martel
guilds
merchant and artisan associations, controlled towns
Tenure
A right to occupy land
excommunicate
official exclude someone from participation in the Christian Church
fallow
a field left without crops
St. Thomas Aquinas
Wrote 'Summa Theologica'
levels of feudal society
Lords, vassals, serfs
Nun
Provided shelter for travelers and cared for the sick
troubadours
wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women
Denomination
A group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith.
Why did Christianity spread so quickly?
equality
brotherhood
love
salvation
after life
and b/c of Germanic invasions, Roman values were being lost, which gave Christianity a chance to grow and spread.
Manorialism
center of medieval economy- peasants lived and worked on a manor
manor: lord's estate
Inquisition
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
Chivalry
most important character trait of a knight
Serfs
Slaves, lowest of social class, were not allowed to leave the land
Lord
Who is taking second oath "Acceptance of an Antrusian"?
Reconquista
Drive to push Muslims out of Spain
conventional phrases
understood by listeners to have meaning beyond their literal ones.
medieval
same as the middle ages, transition from the roman empire
frederick barbarossa
king of germany during 3rd crusade
crusades
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Troubadour
A poet who writes verse to music.
Charlemagne
"Charles the Great"; named his empire the Holy Roman Empire because he wanted to show he had the Pope's support (Holy) and strong, rich, and powerful (Roman).
Nation
a community that shares the same Government
Investiture Controversy
The controversy between the government and the church that led to the ban of appointing bishops by anyone outside the church.
Unam Sanctum
-pope Bonafice VIII reasserted the tempral power of church
-in response, Philip sent troops to Rome (Nogaret) who beat pope nearly to death, causing him to die a month later
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
franks
one of the largest german tribes began a civilization that later developed into the modern countries of france, germany,and italy
Battle Of Tours
732 AD Christians defeat Muslim invaders and stop the spread of Islam into Europe
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tours
Europe was mostly made up of what religion
Christianity
crusades #2
lost to the muslams
Contact with other countries advanced
768-814 CE
Charlemagne unites and rules over much of W Europe
Religious Order
a subdivision of a larger religious group
Benedict/Benedictine Rule
Who created the first standards to regulate life? What was it known as?
Feudalism
a political system and a social system where by a powerful lord would offer "protection" in return for "service"
chain mail
part of knight's clothing, vest made up over small interlinking rings
what is oath of fealty
an oath of loyalty
king henry IV
king of germany from 1056-1106 who administered high-ranking clerics as vasals, involved in struggle against gregory
Estate
A large piece of land with a large home on it
Merchant
money, no one knew his name, was in debt, concerned about himself
Pepin 1
both mayers of the palace, carloman 1 died and pepin 111 became king
king john
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
Henry II
Ruled England (1154 - 1189) had two goals - 1. hold and add to French lands 2. strengthen their own power over nobles and church. Henry II was a vassal of French king (he held lands in France). To strengthen the England's legal system he 1. role of royal judges - collect taxes, settle lawsuits, punish crimes 2. jury - 12 neighbors of accused to judge dispute 3. common law - case by case system of law formed [step towards democracy and strengthened centralized government]
great schism
the period from 1378 to 1417 when there were two popes, one in Rome and one in Avignon
Common Law
A legal system based on custom and court rulings
what is the magna carta
it limits absolute of the king
fief
Land owned by a lord given to a vassal in return for a service
The Five Pillars of Islam
shahada (faith); salat (prayer); zakat (charity); sawm (fasting); Hajj (pilgrimage)
Holy Roman Emperor
After the death of Charlemagne it was the strongest kingdom that arose from the ruins of his empire
Great Schhism
title given to the rift that formed in the Church in the 11thcentury AD
Why were monasteries important to European society?
Monks lived there and monasteries produced many well educated men prepared to serve as administrators to Kings and Lords
King John 1
king of england from 1199 - 1216 in 1215 signed the magna carta giving more rights to english nobles
The Middle Ages lasted from...
About 400 A.D. (falling of Rome) to 1450 A.D. (Modern Europe)
How were monks different from other members of the clergy?
They dedicated their lives to prayer and lived in monistaries
What were the solemn vows nuns and monks promised?
Not to marry, have no possessions, live simple lives, and to do do whatever the abbot or abbess told them.
What was a feudal society made up of?
the home of the lord, a church, one or more villages , and some 800 to 2200 acres of farm land
Caliph
successor
Beowulf
Epic Poem
Knights
trained warriors
Charlemagne (800 C.E.)
e
plague/Black Death
origins = Asia
anti-Semitism
hatred/prejudice against Jews. Jews were scapegoats (blamed) for economic problems. This led to attacks or pograms against Jews.
1096
pope urban calls first crusade
superstitious
the vikings were very _____________
Anglo-Saxon Storyteller
Epics were the storytellers
guild
an organization of merchants and traders
Muslim
One who submits to "god" (Allah)
parliament
the lawmaking body that governs England today
Monasticism
Movement to have lots of monastery
grotesque
Used to scare away evil spirits
Monasteries
religious communities built by the church, place where monks live.
cluniac reform
revived benedictine rule to discourage neglectful priests and poor nuns and monks
Excommunication
the most severe penalty for refusing to obey Church's law; you could not be buried on sacred ground or receive the sacraments
Heresy
Belief or opinion opposite to those who are very religious
Flagellants
people who whipped themselves to take away the sins they believed caused the plague
charter
written document that set out the rights and privileges of the town -- in return for the charter, merchants paid the lord or the king a large sum of money or a yearly fee or both
king
offered land and protection to the tenent-in-cheif(s)
Peasants
Poor commoners with no power. Worked on Lord's land and large landowners bc they cannot afford own land and also for protection.
serf
landless peasant who worked on the lord of the manor's lands in return for shelter and protection
tournament
a contest where knights could show their fighting skills
Interdict
Withdrawl of sacraments and mass by Pope
Magna Carta
'The Great Charter'; set limitations on Royal power; created EXCHEQUER
king henry v
wanted france, declares king of franxce
canon law
the body of codified laws governing the affairs of a Christian church
Primogeniture
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Magna Charta
world's first bill of rights, signed by John I
Great Papal Inquisition
Was used to seek out heretics
Clergy
anybody who is a religious figure or is an official of the Church
benedict was
an italian monk who endured hard tasks
vassal
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
band
a stripe of contrasting color, used in coat of arms shield
indulgence
an official edict that reduced or even erased the amount of time a person
Saxons & Lombards
Germanic people. During the 5th century ad groups from these communities migrated to Britain either by invitation or invasion and in due course founded kingdoms which can generally be recognized by the fact that their names have the suffix 'sex'
knight
a man who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier
Treaty of Verdun
split empire into 3 regions after Charlemagne died
Lay investiture
the practice in which kings or secular leaders appointed church officials. This led to The Investiture Controversy when the Pope clashed with the Holy Roman Emperor over such appointments.
Innocent III
Persuaded a group of French knights to embark on the Fourth Crusade in 1202
The _____ _____ of islam are similar to the 10 commandments in Christianity/ Judaism
Five pillars
The Albigensian Crusade
20 year military campaign iniatd by the catholic church and Pope Innocent 3rd to elimanate cathar heresy in Languedoc. Cathar albigensians were the heretics and in 1208 the murder of a papal representative in south France promted Pope Innocent 3rd to demand that princes from then orth of France invade Languedoc, sieze land and populate it with orthodox christians
2. 1209-1229 AD
3. Languedoc, France
4. Signifigant cause marked the first time the pope offered warriors fighting an enemy in Christian Europe all the spiritual and temporal benefits of going to holy land. It had Political and religious dimensions. Pitted French princes with Cathar connections against northern French leaders trying to win new possessions. After twenty years of fighting, leadership of the crusade was taken over in 1229 by Capetian kings of France, Southern resistance was broken and Languedoc was brought under French crown.
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Avignon Papacy
The Avignon Papacy refers to a period in the history of the Roman Catholic Church from 1309 to 1378 when the seat of the Pope was moved from Rome to Avignon
on 12/25/800 C.E. charlemagne knelt at the church of rome and before a cheering crowd, the pope put a crown on his head and called him the what?
the new roman empeor
The Black Death
a form of bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th century and killed an estimated quarter of the population.
With what type of people did Charlemagne fill his courts?
scholars, poets and musicians
black death prevention
Being cleaner , and don't be in contact with other people if you have it
Feif
The land that is given to a vassal by a higher lord.
Pope Urban II
Pope that was asked to give knights to fight in the Crusades
Legal Code
a code of laws adopted by a state or nation
Estates General Holy Roman Empire
It was the empire of west central Europe, they believed they were from the lines of the Romans.
Lothar, Louis the German, and Charles the Bald
Louis the Pious' sons who were dissatisfied with their portions of the empire, until they agreed to divide the empire in the Treaty of Verdun, 843.
Nobles upset with king's ruling decided to
form a group of nobles in 1215 and force the King John to sign Magna Carta
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