Middle Ages Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mystified
puzzled
Theodora
Justinian's wife
Spiritual
religious matters
Mass
Catholic worship service
Abbesses
head of a convent
Shrines
Sacred place to worship
Magyars
Ethnic group in hungry.
Charlemagne
Who died in 814 c.e.?
Plunder
goods or money obtained illegally
Great Schism Council of Constance
???????????
St. Augustine
Wrote City of God
Capital
money for investments; spurred the growth of banking houses, banking houses were needed when merchants pooled their money together to finance big projects that would have been impossible for individual traders
Eurasia
Large landmass that includes Europe and Asia
caliph
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
King Clovis
conquered Gaul, converted to christianity
Medival popes promoted this thing which was in every major city.
Cathedrals
Chivalry
code of lordship adopted by knights
Knights
The warrior class in medieval society.
Charles Martel
Defended Western Europe successfully against Muslim invaders in 732 at the Battle of Tours. Won loyalty of Frankish nobles and gained the support of the Church. Most popular man
knight
originally a person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry
monks
religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities
manors
the large farm estates which some nobles developed were called manners
Crusades
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Western European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims, A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule., Holy wars
Merchants
~These people wanted to win the crusades to increase trade
Benedict
Italian monk who decides there should be rules for monks
Philosophy
Any personal belief or systems of beliefs about how to live or how to deal with a situation.
Capitularies
Royal laws issued by Charlemagne and Carolingians
Monk
a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to pursue a life of total dedication to God
What characterizes the Dark Ages?
-400s-600s
-germanic kingdoms established
-Franks are most important kingdom
-chaotic, constant fighting, less trade and learning
-people rely roman catholic church for guidance
-germanic kings convert to christianity to appeal to people
serfs
type of peasant, lord's property and had a life within 2 miles
Leif Ericson
a viking explorer, reached North America around 1000 ( 500 years before Columbus)
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
What language became the language of the court and nobility?
Norman French
nuns
were women in the middle ages that lived in privateness.
Vassal
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
Marches and Marks
Strongly fortified areas that checked the Muslims in northeastern Spain
Henry II
first Plantagenet King of England, In 1154, He became king of England, broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law and establishing royal courts. Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine, father of King John
Eleanor of Aquitaine
powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him
Queen Isabella
Queen of Castille Spain, she helped her husband, King Ferdinand with the Reconquista
Heresy
the crime of holding a belief that goes against established doctrine
Estates General
A branch of legislature consisting of representatives from the three estates of France
Master
able to make a product that passes the very highest guild standards
Treaty of Tordesillas
the Papal line of demarcation which divided the known world between Portugal and Spain
32.Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity)
following a disagreement between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip the Fair of France, a French pope, Clement V, was elected. Within four years, civil unrest in Rome and riots between rival factions drove him to take shelter with a Dominican order in Avignon
a strong simple beat
verse forms that are relatively uncomplicatted. Ballads were sung for a general, rather than an elitist, audience
Hundred Years War
fought from 1337 to 1453, the centuries-old struggle between the English and French monarchies.
saint
a person who has died and has been declared a saint by canonization
The early crusade were fought to get holy land from who:
The greeks
the copasians
the goths
the muslims
the muslims
British Isles
A group of islands of the western coast of Europe, made up of Great Britian, Ireland, and some small islands.
castles were initially made from_ and _
Mostly located on_
If on flat land they have to create a _
earth and wood
hills
moats
William the Conqueror
Norman king that beat Harold & the English army in the Battle of Hastings, 1st Norman to be king of England
Joan of Arc
a French peasant girl who led the French army to victory over the English. she was burned at the stake after being convicted of heresy and witchcraft
John of Lackland
refuses to listen to pope and wont have peace with france; agrees to go on crusade against the Alblgensians and accept the archbishop, signs Magna Carter
The Crusades
Can we say EPIC fail? Only the first one was a success. They even sent little kids on one who were either killed or kidnapped and sold into slavery.
The Black Disease took how many lives
a third of Europe
Influences of Agricultural Revolution
-more people with free time= time to think and reason
-increased population
-Trade=money to spend on entertainment
What is the role of a Bishop?
-manages diocese
-administers all 7 sacraments
-usually chosen by king or nobles (chosen for social class,is often a feudal lord)
What food did they eat?
At breakfast nuns ate bread and ale. At dinner they had beef, pork, or bacon along with ale. And at supper, they had, fish and ale.
what were the long term effects of william the conquers victory on england
monarch becomes more powerful brings new laws language
Why did Pope Boniface agree to support Pepin?
because Pepin helped fight off the Lombards.
How was justice decided in the Dark Ages?
1. Trial by Combat:If you beat your accuser in a fight, you were innocent; if your accuser killed you, you were guilty. 2.Trial by Ordeal: Put your hand in a roaring fire or pick up a stone from a boiling pot-if your wounds healed without infection, you were innocent.
Crsades
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Hyperbole
Great exaggeration
ruler of franks
charlemagne
Concordat of Worms
...
Alps
Highest mountain in Europe
Muslim
means "one who submits"
Lord
One with power - nobleman
carouse
to drink and celebrate noisily
France was weakend by many
Nobles
Social Goal of the Crusades
...
Hijrah
Muhammed's journey from Mecca to Yathrib
Code of Chivalry
btw. men & women
Mendicant
beggar; one who lives on alms
feudalism
political, social, and economic system practiced in the Middle Ages, provided protection for the people
effect on crusades in europe bad
anti-semitism
Scholastica
Benedict's sister who adapted the monastery rules for women.
coarse
made up of large particles, rough
Domesday book
Census commissioned by King williams
Economic Systems
Traditional - based on agriculture limited to barter (goods for goods) trade.
Market - based on supply & demand.
Command - controlled by strong, centralized government, usually focuses on industrial goods.
Mixed - combines Market & Command economic systems. Market forces control most consumer goods; government directs industry in need areas.
crusade
a military campaign in defense of Christendom
Man's Bible
Stained-glass windows became the "Poor ____ _____", because they told stories from the Bible and the lives of saints
for those who couldn't read
Miracle Plays
Enacting the lives of the saints
manor
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord
clovis was
leader who converted franks to christianity
Vikings
lived in Scandinavia; in 700's raided and destroyed many coastal cities; were also sea traders who sailed around Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean
a saint
Beckett becomes what after his death?
trencher
Instead of plates, everyone except the nobles was given a thick slab of course bread, called a
Sacraments
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
Clovis
First king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
Magna Carta
"Great Charter" signed by King John and limited the power of the king
Common Law
English law that is derived from custom and judicial precedent rather than statues.
serf
people who lived and worked on the manor
Pope Urban
called on Christians from all over Europe to retake the Holy Land
Troubadour
Wandering poet in Europe in the Middle Ages
Pepin
a mayor of the palace of Frankish kingdom who became king
Document to establish a town, guild, business or school
Town charter
Bible
The book that contains the writings or scriptures that Christians recognize as the written word of God.
land holder in return for service is called a -.
Grant of land is called_ (the actually land itself)
vassal
fief
feudal contract
an unwritten set of rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal - the major obligation was to perform military service (40 days a year)
Battle of Hastings
the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
Great Schism
a split in the Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1418, during which time there wer rival popes in Rome and in the French City of Avignon, while France's enemy England and its allies supported the pope in Rome
The period in Europe from about A.D. 500 - 1500. It was also known as the dark ages.
Middle Ages
Pyrenees Mountains
A from of mountain wall between the Iberian Peninsula and the rest of Europe
tithe
an offering of a tenth part of some personal income
1215
The year the Magna Carta was signed by King John. It was the first document to limit the power of government.
archbishop of Canterbury
Thomas Beckett was the ________ of __________.
William of Ockham
franciscan friar who studied logic and spoke out against the church
Lothair the Elder
retained the title of emperor and received the central part
Charlemagne 'Charles the Great'
doubled size of Frankish kingdom; advances toward centralized government; Royal Court becomes center of learning
Who are the Franks?
germanic people who settled in the area that is now france; catholic; king clovis won the support of franks and turned them catholic
An illuminated manuscript that has pictures used to teach the illiterate. It is the word of god and it is designed so that the outward beauty reflects what the book contains
What is the Book of Kells?
Why did the Vikings stop raiding cities?
They were gradually accepting Christianity.
Where was Asia Minor
Asia Minor was a country that is now Turkey. It was an rich country full of textile and spice goods, making it a trade-rich country.
Describe the role of the Serfs.
The serfs were pretty much like slaves. They did whatever the King wanted them to do in return for land and protection.
What is common law in England?
-code of law based on decisions made in the king's courts rather than a code of statutes
What themes were seen throughout the plot of The Song of Roland?
1. Roland vs. Ganelon; 2. To spread Christianity; 3. Charlemagme's duty is to spread Christianity; 4. Oliver is loyal to Roland
XI
11
labor shortages
serious ______________
1200s
peak of papal power
Trebuchet
catapult type siege weapon
Simony
Selling of Church offices.
Pope crowned Charlemagne...
"Holy Roman Emperor"
chanson de geste
the green knight
Who is Dante?
A great poet.
Cluny
Where Benedictine rule appeared again
SERF
A SERF IS A FARMER.
nepotism
appointment of relatives to high positions
1066
Battle of Hastings- William takes control of England
guild
an organization of people who performed the same craft
lesser nobles,served as warriors for their lord in exchange for smaller fief
Knights
sword
knight's main weapon and prized possession, in shape of cross so could be held up to knight so the cross could be his last earthly image
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
A French abbot
Troubadours
Satirical and often vulgar traveling musicians and composers.
Gothic
grew out of romanesque around 1135--medieval era. first applied by vasari
the Reformation
the Christian church split into Catholic and Protestant
Marytr
someone who dies for their religious belief
black death(plague)
happened between 1347 and 1351-europe was devastated by this deadly plague-it started in asia and was arried along the busy trade routes.it entered ports by way of tading ships-black routes on the ships arried the disease.the plague was spread to people by bites from fleas on the rats.about 25 million or 1/3f the population died.
tournament
a mock battle between groups of knights
Dungeon
was an underground chamber used for storage and a well, and occasionally as a holding cell for knights held in capture for ransom.
Interdict
popes consider this to be their "spiritual weapon"; what you faced if you violated Church laws; which excluded an entire town, region, or kingdom from participation in most sacraments and from receiving Christian burial
dagger
knight weapon, used to deliver death blow to a fallen enemy
Dominicans
one of the earliest orders of friars
fief
a feudal estate; something over which 1 has rights or exercises control
guilds
Associations of people in the same business or craft in a single city; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship and guaranteed workmanship thus promoting security and mutual control of the production and sales of a product.
36
chartres cathedral took ___ yrs to build
Parliament
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
Koran
Written in Arabic, holy book of the religion
Renaissance
a period of "rebirth" in art and literature that began in the 14th century and characterized by a revial of interert in the coltures of ancient greece and rome.
gravity
the force that hold object to earth and keeps the planet circling around the sun
the crusades was
a big failure for the Church
John Huss
This man shared many of Wycliffe's views and was burned at the stake
Nominalism
The doctrine of William of Ockham that argued that human reason could not aspire to certain truth; conclusions can not be deduced from specific cases
The structure of the Feudal System is like a _________
pyramid
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century. (p. 401)
Orthodox Church
Derived from the Byzantine Church and adhering to Byzantine rites
lay investiture
practice by with secular rulers chose nominees for church offices and gave them the symbols of their office
archbishop
a bishop of the highest rank who presides over an archbishopric or archdiocese.
St. Dominic
lived a life of poverty, service, and education
-Jerusalem
A city in the Holy Land regarded as sacred by many religions
canon law
a body of laws developed by the medieval Church
Mongols
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
First crusade
(1096 - 1099) Crusade called by Pope Urban II which captured Jerusalem. (only militarily successful Crusade). peasent crusade to earn freedom and lords gain land
king
a male sovereign or monarch; a man who holds by life tenure, and usually by hereditary right, the chief authority over a country and people.
-Peter the Hermit
A French religious leader who led one a bands to the First Crusades
Bubonic Plague
started in Asia and killed 1/3 of the population in Europe. spread by Merchants in their cargo.
Pope Gregory I
makes pope a secular job, uses church to raise money, build roads, help poor, created state and religion relationship, thought pope should oversee everything, watch over, protect, and help. Church gains power
To become a knight, a boy first had to be a
page
Pope Boniface VII
pope who said that the king, Philip IV of France, must obey the pope; imprisoned by the king, but rescued
Charles Martel "Charles the Hammer"
Mayor of Palace, became very powerful and led franks in to battle against army of Arabs and Muslims. Enabled Christianity to thrive throughout Europe by stopping spread of the Islamic religon.
When did the Crusades occur?
The 12th and 13th centuries (over 200 years)
Who can read and write scrolls in the middle ages?
mostly monks or religious people.
what did Charlemagne Charles do while emperor
doubled the size of the kingdom, and united Europe under the same government
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