Midterm Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
phagocytosis
cyte
cell
paleo
ancient, prehistoric
Animal
kingdom of squirrels
gamete
a sex cell
study of animal behavior
ethology
functional groups
clusters of atoms
Exergonic
energy outward reactions-releases energery-breaks apart large complex molecules -products have less energy than reactions start
archegonium
reproductive organ of female plants
Where is messenger RNA made?
Nucleus
Plasmids
Episomes:Plasmid that can integrate into chromosomeConjugative plasmids:contain genes for pili and can transfer copies of themselves
growing in response to light
phototrphism
How are polymers formed?___________: breaks apart polymers, by adding H20.
hydrolysis
Muscles Spindles
(L) Propriceptors; (S) Mechanoreceptors; skeletal muscles
Basophils
A circulating leukocyte that produces histime.
___ are leukocytes with specialized surface receptors for specific epitopes
lymphocytes
oligosaccrins
function in plant defence against pathogens
regulate growth, cellular differentation, and flower development
made in plant cell wall
hormone group
phloem
consists of living cells and distributes sugars, amino acids, and other organic products.
X-ray diffraction patterns of crystalline DNA revealed the presence of a _______ ________ that indicated a stacking of purine and pyrimidine bases at distance of 3.4 A
Helical structure
light microscope
magnifies an image using light
fitness
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals
A refrigerator promotes food spoilage by increasing bacterial reproduction.
Flase
Denitrifying bacteria
microorganisms whose actions results in the conversion of nitrates in soil into atmosphere nitrogen
What are nucleic acid made of?
nucleotides
frameshift mutation
a mutation caused by frameshift.
Studying species transplants is a way that ecologists
A) determine the abundance of a species in a specified area.
B) determine the distribution of a species in a specified area.
C) develop mathematical models for distribution and abundance of organisms.
d
Lipid
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
Mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell, site where energy is obtained from food
function of a steriod
membrane component example- cholesterolhormones- testosterone
What is the phylum name for flatworms?
platyhelminthes
replication
copying process by which a cell duplicated its DNA
facilitated diffusion
The spontaneous passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane with the assistance of specific transmembrane transport proteins.
Pyrimidines
The bases thymine (T), cytosine (C), and uracil (U) with a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms.
Anticodon
The three nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complimentary to the mRNA codon.
Semiconservative Replication
Each daughter double helix consists of:-1 original strand from parent molecule-1 complimentary strand
How many innocent people have been freed due to DNA fingerprinting?
143
chlorophytes
The chlorophytes are the sister group to charophytes and land plantsSynapomorphies include chlorophyll a and b, and starch as a storage product.More than 17,000 species; marine, freshwater, and terrestrial. Unicellular to large multicellular forms.
Coordination of Heart Activity
Atrioventricular and semilunar valvesSinoatrial node (SA node): pacemakerAtrioventricular node (AV node)Influences on heart rateParasympathetic nervous system - decreases heart rateSympathetic nervous system - increases heart rateHormones
Levels of Biological Organization
Biosphere, Ecosystem, Communities, Populations, Organisms, Organs and Organ systems, Tissues, Cells, Organelles, Molecules
mRNA
brings instructions from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm
succession
a number of persons or things following one another in order or sequence.
charophytes
algae that are most closely related to plants
Convalent Bonds
Two or more atoms that share elections
Active Transport
Requires a protein that spans the membrane, a binding site specific to the molecule, and a binding site for energy carrier such as ATP
monosomy
a form of aneuploidy with the presence of only one chromosome (instead of the typical two in humans) from a pair
Biomass
total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
Nodes of Ranvier
Where 2 myelin sheaths come togetheraxon is not covered by the myelin hereNa+ channels are concentrated
Nucleus
The control center it tells the what their jobs are and what they need to do.
Diploid Zygote
when egg and sperm cell fuse; 2n=46
adenylyl cyclase
enzyme built into the plasma membrane that converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal
An Ascomycete that is black mold, sick building disease, produces a toxin that is harmful to humans who are exposed, flulike symptoms, fatigue, dermatitis, compromise the immune system
Stachybotrys
axial skeleton
forms the central supporting axis of the body; skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and thoracic cage (ribs and sternum)
The brain area that provides the basic breathing rhythm is called the
respiratory center
Ecosystem
all abiotic factors in addition to the entire community of species that exist in a certain area
provirus
a viral form that is incorporated into the genetic material of a host cell.
Exon
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene that are separated from each other by introns. These regions are expressed in the gene.
Focus charting
use of DAR notes, which include data and action of nursing interventions and R response of the client.
what can fungi biochemically produce?
antibiotics, stains/ dyes, enzymes ("in yeasts"), drugs
what are the 3 approaches to systematics
Phenetics
Classical evolutionary systematics
phylogenetic systematics
Adaptive traits
Will give a slightly better chance of survival
Atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designated by a subscript to the left of the elemental symbol.
duplication
a piece of a chromsome breaks off and is incorporated into a homologous chromosome
molecule
Two or more atoms of the same or different elements joined by chemical bonds.
Photoheterotrophs
energy by more than 1 use light from energy carbon from organic material
Gene Pool
The sum of all copies of all alleles at all loci in a population
Selection by survival and reproduction?
The better traits were passed on.
By far the majority of oxygen in the blood is in the erythorcyte hemoglobin, with a miminal component that's dissolved.
A) True
B) False
A) True
True or False: DNA unzipping requires energy.
True, it requires ATP
What are the three hormones used to control blood volume?
ANP, ADH, aldosterone
4 steps of the inflammatory response
cells release cytokines :: blood vessels dilate to increase flow & deliver more WBCs :: storage of iron in liver :: body temp raises
 

•Pathogenesis - process of disease causation


•Includes:
 Attachment of microbe Invasion through host tissues Evasion of host defenses Mechanisms of damage to
describe idealized tRNA
clover leaf: has D loop (L) and L loop (R), anti-codon (botoom), and attached amino acid (top)
What is the main difference between paracrine signalsa nd hormones?
paracrine signals only work locally whereas hormones can travel throughout the body
Why is tRNA important in translation.
they bring amino acids to the process
explain how energy flows in an ecosystem
one direction: from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs(producers) and then to various heterotrophs(consumers)
How is RNA different to DNA?
it uses uracil instead of thymineit is comprised of just one strandit has a ribose sugar
When a substance moves through a passive transport protein:
it moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What did the x-rays of DNA look like?
An circle with a X in the middle
labi
lips
organelles
"little organs"
Brachi-
Having arms
Pneumonoccal Pneumoniae
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
siderophores
iron transport molecules
Eukaryote
Organism whose cells characteristically have a nucleus
thylakoid
flattened, connected membrane sacs
Polyribosome
String of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis. 245
Mechanoreceptors
Respond to mechanical forces
-Touch, equilibrium, hearing
The only microevolutionary process that adds heritable changes to the gene pool of a population is..
mutation
uses energy to build molecules
anabolism
an attraction between different substances
Adhesion
lh
luteinizing hormone: a hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that, in the female, stimulates maturation of the ovarian follicle and formation of the corpus luteum: chemically identical to ICSH of the male.
acidic
with an H+ concentration exceeding that of OH-, releasing H+



Body sections of arthropods
abdomen 
digestion and reproduction 
remnants of structures indicating adaptation
vestigial structures
thigmotrophism
oriented movement in response to touch
Cestoda
class of worms that has tapeworms
Differential stain
Will stain diffrent cellular structures
starch
a storae polysaccharide in plants consisting entriely of glucose.
the two stralnds of DNA are
antiparellel
internal structure which is formed when the embryo's tissues join with tissues from within the mother's body
placenta
matter
that which by integrative organization forms chemical substances and living things
Methods of
Terracing: changes sleep edge into flat steps
Cover Crop: restore nutrients to soil
Crop Rotation: different crop each year.
Contour Plowing: rows in curves act as dams
Calyx
--Encloses the rest of the flower during most of the development, providing protection.
--Other specialized functions of calyces are:
      --Pollinator attration by becoming petal-like and/or
                 secreting attractants (eg. fragrances).
      --Enhancing dispersal either through biotic and
                 abiotic vectors.  (eg. forming wings that
                 facilitate wind dispersal or forming showy
                 structures that attract animal dispersers.
                
Dendrite
part of neuron that transmits impulses to cell body
unicellular animal pathogenic fungus that causes yeast infections
Candida albicans, fungus
Chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
catalyst
Name the term: disease condition of heart muscle. cardio_________
cardiomyopathy
Phosphorus Cycle
-is required by all organisms
-occurs in nucleic acids, membrane phospholipids, and ATP
-has no significant gas form and doesn't cycle through atmosphere
-exist in ecosystems in only 1 oxidation state, phosphate PO_4_^3-
-plants and algae use free inorganic phosphorus, animals eat plants to obtain their phosphorus
species
a group of organisms capable of reproducing successfully (can produce viable offspring)
equilibrium
a stste that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
prokaryotes can transfer peices of genetic material in a process called
 
a. sexual reproduction
b. conjugation
c. binary fission
d. mitosis
b. conjugation
Diastole
The period of relaxation of the heart
Transcription
On coding strand there is the promoterRNA POLYMERASE(3) I rRNAII mRNAIII rRNA, tRNASigma factor that binds w/ RNA polymerase to make holoenzymeRNA Polymerase does not proof read. Has introns and Exons, Spliceing after transcribed with splicesomes and snrpts 5' cap and polly A tail are added, go out through nuclear pore complex.
Infectious Vectors
Organisms that cause, not carry diseasesAedes Misquito- yellow feverAnopholes Misquito- malariaDog tick- RMSFDeer tick- Lyme diseaseTsetse Fly- Africa Sleeping SicknessRat Flea- Black plagueLice- (clean hair) Typhus feverHumans- Typhoid Fever- Typhoid Mary and tuberculosis
common descent
all organisms have a common ancestor
photosynthesis
(esp. in plants) the synthesis of complex organic materials, esp. carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic salts, using sunlight as the source of energy and with the aid of chlorophyll and associated pigments.
Cladogram
A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms
Habitat loss
the process in which natural habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms, which previously used the site, are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity.
palisade mesophyll
middle layer, doing majority of work in photosynthesis
where is glycogen formed
in the muscles and liver
in which phylum are shells vary from class to class:
-chitons: 8 valvs embedded in a gridle (a tough mantle)
- bivalves: 2 shells hinged dorsally at umbo
-gastropods:1 shell, twisted around a central axis with an operculum (trapdoor) through which foot c
mollusca
microfilament
A cable composed of actin proteins in the cytoplasm of almost every eukaryotic cell, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction; also known as an actin filament.
The 'resting potential' of a neuron is -70mV, which means that the ____ is more negative than the ____ of the cell. 
Outside/inside
Which variable is measured by an experiment?
dependent variable
What is an example of a immovable joint?
skull
What is the enzyme that is responsible for the unwinding of the DNA double-helix?
Helicase
blastocyst cavity
same as blastocoel, the fluid filled cavity
Phylum:Mollusca
-all mollusks have a muscular foot and a mantle=which may secrete a shell that encloses the visceral mass.
# of different kind of amino acids (3.5)
20
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits.
adaptive radiation
a burst of divergences from a single lineage that led to many new species
What is plasticity?
changes in the physiology of the brain
Genetic Drift
A random change in allele frequency in a small breeding population.
squid motion: siphon::
 
a. annelid motion: siphon
b. annelid motion: tentacles
c. annelid breathing: nephridia
d. earthworm circulation: closed circulation
d. earthworm circulation: closed circulation
gram-negative
do not retain the stian when rinsed in alcohol
Define 'diploid cell'
A cell containing two sets f chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent. 
List the chemical substances in order of complexity (most simple --> complex)
atom, element, compound
Carbon
a carbon atom can form up to four covalent bonds, allowing it to build large and diverse organic compounds
Give an example of data.
Evidence; gathered information from observations. (The plant in the sand grew the least of all three plants).
 What are the synapomorphies that unite Porifera with all other animals?
produce collagen (connective tissue) & multicellularity with division of labor
In a human female, all the eggs that she is pre-destined to produce are already set aside by as early as...a. her birthb. the onset of pubertyc. menopaused. none of the above
her birth
Reactant
an atom or molecule taht is used up in a chemical reaction fo form a product.
Who was Theodor Schwann?
A German zoologist that observed all animals are composed of cells.
cyclic electron flow
PS 1: does not reduce NADP+ but contributes to additional H+ gradient, producing only ATP
Food processing in the mouth
teeth - chewing, breaking up larger pieces into smaller pieces
salivary glands add saliva to food
In rock layers, where would the oldest layer be?
The very bottom layer.
To make DNA, RNA, ATP, and phospholipids.
Why does life need nitrogen?
A living organism represents stored energy in the form of chemical chompounds. When an organism dies, what happens to this stored energy?
The chemical compounds in scells lose their organization over time because there is no longer an imput of energy to maintain the organized state.
A population's survivorship curve is a downward-sloping straight line when:
the mortality rate is constant regardless of age.
Early earth did not have ___ but did have the other gasses ___ ___ ___ ____
Oxygenmethane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water vapor (among others)
take control of a host cell to produce more virus particles
entire function of a virus
What does transfer RNA find? What is done with the anticodon?
The anticodon, the correct amino acid is made
What are the two types of cells in the PNS and what is their function?
Satellite Cells: Surround cell bodies in ganglia.

Schwann Cells: Myelination
graph
write
paragraph
poly
many
row
Streit
inhibition
restraint
pusillanimous
cowardly
dec
ten
Disallow
command against
ominous
menacing; threatening
georgic (adj.)
agricultural
millenium
1000 years
virtouso
masterful musician
Illicit
Unlawful, illegal
quell
suppress, subdue, extinguish
enmity
(n.) hatred, ill-will
moped
Low-powered motorized bicycle
augur
omen or prophecy
rivulet
a small stream
uninvolved, keeping distance.
aloof.
blank verse
Unrhymed verse,
crouches
stoops or bends low
Ascertain
(v.) to find out
pediculous
infected with lice; lousy
precocious
adj. advanced in maturity
am, amor
"love,' "liking," "friendliness"
beneficial
conferring benefit; advantageous; helpful:
what the sentence is about
subject
fauna
animals of a certain area
Antagonize
to be unfriendly, to oppose
Implicate
To connect to an activity
nuance
a subtle distinction or difference
adamant
persistent, unshakable, won't give up
William Blake
A dissenter; Draughtsman/Engraver; Political Radical; Visionary; Long Unrecognized
sanctuary
a sacred or holy place.
unyielding
completely unwilling to change a decision, opinion, demand, etc
Korea is (............) in its demands for a new treaty.
yılmaz,boyuneğmez,
vertabrate
an animal that has a backbone
expression through bodily or facial movements
pantomime
conducive
tending to promote or bring out
discordant
(adj.) disagreeable in sound, jarring; lacking in harmony; conflicting
context
the convergence of time, place, audience, and motivating factors in which a piece of writing or a speech is situated.
obloquy
strong disapproval; a bad reputation resulting from public criticism
deportment
A manner of personal conduct; behavior.
polygraph
an instrument for receiving and recording simultaneously tracings of variations in certain body activities.
dispute
to engage in argument or debate.
confirm
to establish the truth, accuracy, validity, or genuineness of; corroborate; verify:
Brink (n.)
Some animals are on the brink of extinction.
edge
dour
(adj.) sullen and gloomy; stern and severe
tangible
capable of being touched or felt; real
errant
deviating from the regular in course of action
Warse.
Watchful being on ones guard against danger.
Infallible
Not capable of error or failure; unable to make a mistake
ingratiate
to make oneself agreeable and thus gain favoable acceptance by others
echelon
a level of command, authority, or rank:
hoard
a supply or accumulation that is hidden or carefully guarded for preservation, future use, etc.:
apathetic
having or showing little or no emotion:
cajole
to persuade by flattery or promises; wheedle; coax.
inveterate
adj. settled or confirmed in a habit or practice
Acquiesce
to accept without protest; to agree or submit (v)
libations
The pouring of liquid offerings in a ritual
submission
act of giving something for a decision to be made by others
phillipic
a tirade or discourse full of bitter condemnation
belabor
to explain, worry about, or work at (something) repeatedly or more than is necessary:
quintessence
the pure and concentrated essence of a substance.
contrast
to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences; note the opposite natures, purposes, etc., of:
Bright's Disease
That did the doctor say Emily died of?
obliterate
verb: To wipe out completely; to do away with, leaving no trace
libation
a pouring out of wine or other liquid in honor of a deity.
How does nature change as Persephone moves between the earth and the underworld?
The seasons are formed.
Examine yourself by reviewing
an easy way to self test is by reviewing what you have read it refreshes the material and allows you to see what you didn't the first time as well as proves how well you read it the first time.
Hannibal
Carthaginian general
Qur'an
Muslim holy book
Tahmasp
son of Esmail
Monotheism
Believes in one God
Karl Marx
developed socialism and communism.
Red Guards
China's student militia units
Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive, legislative and judicial powers (17.2)
Matrilineal
Lineage traced through the mother's side
FEDERALISTS
Supporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government
triple alliance
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
Secession
the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Mt. Olympus
Where the Greek gods lived.
Samuel F.B. Morse
patented the first telegraph
Triple Entente
Alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia before WWI
wolverine state
Michigan used as a nickname.
protective tariffs
Encourage the growth of American industry
The Republic
essay with the teachings of Socrates
Hunters
Old Stone Age people killed small animals for food
Benedict Arnold
Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.
George Grenville
Financial expert who was appointed prime minister of britain in 1763, he ignored the intrests of the colonists
Berlin Airlift
Societs block off Western Europe's access to Berlin; Allied nations flew over 200,000 flights dropping 13,000 tons of food and aid daily to people of Berlin; success of airlift caused Soviets to raise blockade
Shays Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Acropolis
A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
Warsaw Pact
mutual alliance system that the Soviets created with their allies in response to NATO
atman
in Hindue belief, a person's essential self
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1848—ended Mexican-American war, Mexico gave land to US for $15 million
Harlem Renaissance
African American literary and artistic movement that flourished during the 1920s.
Khufu
Egyptian pharaoh who built the great pyramid
United Nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Return to Normandy
The Return to Normandy (RTN) Association was founded in 1993 to commemorate the paratroopers who landed behind German lines
Indo-Europeans
group of nomadic people who came from the steppes
Reform
to work to improve the government or people in power
Who does Pres. Jackson plan to punish?
Confederate leaders
Committee of Safety
Led by local militias (military forces), all men discuss concerns
John Foster Dulles
United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)
delome letter
A private letter written by Enrique Depuy de Lome, Spainish Minister to U.S, critized President Mckinley call him "weak" and "a bidder for the admiration of the crowd"
Haiti/ Nicaragua
A Latin American country where U.S. Marine stayed in from 1915 to 1934/ A Latin American country where U.S. Marines stayed from 1912 to 1933
urban
The neolithic age lead to what style of life?
Stream of conciseness
______________ is a writing technique that explores inner thoughts without imposing logic or order.
Gadsden Purchase
When Mexico accepted $10 million for the territory of Arizona and New Mexico including Tucson.
Iroquois League
A political system that had an alliance of five nations.
Omnipresent
present in all places at the same time
Tom Watson
He was a Populist who supported interracial unity.
hieroglyphics
a system of writing using pictures or symbols to represent objects, or sounds
Annexation of Hawaii
1898 extended U.S. territory into the Pacific and highlighted resulted from economic integration and the rise of the United States as a Pacific power.
Etruscans
people from Etruria , ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade
Stone Age
Long period of time when the first humans lived; this age was divided into 3 periods based on the kinds of tools used at a time.
Nuremberg Trials
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
Gag Rule
rule passed by the hosue in 1836 prohibiting anti-slavery petitions from being read or acted upon.
Monroe Doctrine
A document written in 1823 under the American president James Monroe, who promised freedom to Latin America and cautioned European nations not to attack; created because the U.S. was suspicious of Britain's intentions in Latin America
Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa-Cause
-Berlin Conference-carving up Africa
-Social Darwinism
-Europeans saying they are more powerful and should rule other countries.
-Desire for resources for industry.
reasons for imperialism
new markets
being able to buy raw materials cheaply
john peter zenger
Publisher of the new york weekly journal
Berlin Wall
A structure built to keep east Germans locked in. Two years afterwords Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech.
St. Helena
Where was the final place Napoleon was exiled?
March 15, 44 b.c.
Ides of March - Caesar was killed
mexican american war
began over the disputed border of the republic of texas
Middle Ages
a period that ;asted from about 500 to about 1500
The Homosexual in America
book written by Donald Webster Cory, modeled on landmark studies of African-Americans; argued that discrimination against homosexuals was against the foundations of American society; dismantled major anti-gay theories, such as the "seduction" theory that homosexuals converted heterosexuals, 1951
Robert Weaver
was the Head of HUD making him the first African American to be in the Presedent's cabinet.
d. All of the Above
The distorted economy of the 1920s rested on
a. Rising debt in Europe
b. The mal-distribution of wealth in the United States
c. Increasing use of credit for consumer goods
d. All of the above
Fall of the Roman Empire
Attacks by the Visigoth, Attila and the Huns and vandals all weaked the empire and toward the mid fifth century barbarian chieftains replaced Roman Emperors. The west was overrun by the Germanic Tribes but they respected the Roman culture and learned from their Roman subjects. Roman governmental institutions survived and blended with Germanic customs.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
How did they get people to invest and share risk?
organized joint stock companies
Name a division of British Parliament.
House of Lords and the House of Commons
170. What brought about the downfall of the Anasazi?
there was a drought and it was abandoned
2
sample
psychoanlytic
unconscious thoughts
Storage
Maintaining information overtime.
Extraversion
Outgoing - Withdrawn
implicit
memory without conscious recall
 
 
Positive Symptoms of Pychosis
displacement
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or affressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
 
 
behavioural genetics
 
 
behavioural genetics— a field that examines the genetic and environmental bases of differences among individuals on psychological traits
apraxia
disorders associated with difficulty in carrying out purposeful movements
neurotransmitters
secreted chemicals... serve as messenger that activate neighboring neurons. stored in small sacs called synaptic vessicles. released when a vesicle fuses with the membrane of the presynaptic cell and its contents spill into the synaptic cleft. bind at receptor sites.
functionalism
early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play.
Notation
a system of figures
(numbers, quantities, values)
variable interval
amount of time varies
neuron
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
aptitude tests designed to measure
future performance
attachment
emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver. 
Tegmentum is found in the ______brain.
mid
o Pegword System –
nursery rhymes & list
Contains a resevoir of unconscious psychic energy
ID
shaping
In operant conditioning, a technique (also called successive approximation) in which responses that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior are reinforced, step by step, until the desired behavior occurs.
reinforcer
a condition (involving either the presentation or removal of a stimulus) that occurs after a response and strengthens that response
sympathetic ns
activates under stress. activates flight or fight response. dilated pupils, racing heart...
Blooming & pruning refers to what?
midbrain
brainstem structures that lie between forebrain and hindbrain, including parts of reticular formation
resting potential
electrical charge difference (-60 millivolts)across the neuronal membrane, when the neuron is not being stimulated or inhibited.
processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
cerebellum
"little brain"
STUPOR
STAGE OF DEMENTED CONSCIOUSNESS THAT IS ONE STAGE MORE ALERT THAN COMA
schema
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event
personality
the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual; the organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of the individual
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering
decay theory
principal cause of forgetting should be the passage of time
punishment
any event of object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again
evolutionary perspective
perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.
naturalistic observation
a research method that involves studying subjects without their being aware that they're being watched
sensory memory
where we temporarily store incoming sensory information from the physical environment until we can attend to it, interpret it, and move it to the next stage of memory processing
The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as:
Extinction.
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
Reinforcement
Increasing the chances of the most recent response
delusions
False beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called
cognitive perspective
thought, intellect, memory, focuses on how we learn and use information.
secondary reinforcer
neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcer
ambivalent/anxious, disorganized
preoccupied adults tend to have ...infants; and disorganized/unresolved adults tend to have ... infants.
Critical Periods
periods in the developmental sequence during which an organism must experience certain kinds of social or sensory experiences in order for normal development to take place.
Somethsetoc senses
Sensations produced by the skin, muscles, joints, viscera, and organs of balance
Infant attatchment
intense emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver
conservation
according to piaget the principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed.
wechsler scales
most comonly used to measure intelligence
COUNTERCONDITIONING:
A conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with some other stimulus that elicits a response incompatible with the unwanted response.
humanistic treatment:
aid to developing rather than healing, need for positive regard
Aggression
Behavior whose purpose is to hurt others (premeditated and impulsive)
Cones..activity
cone have a 1/1 relationship w/ biopolar cells. each bipolar cell knows wut info is getting from each cone. low conversion system, high activity.
Sytenatic Desinsitization
A behavior therapy tecnique that teaches the people to be relaxed in the presence of a feared object or situation.
imagination
the power of reproducing images stored in the memory by the suggestion of associated images, or recombining former experiences in the creation of new images
Encoding Failure
Failure to process information into memory.
axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 055)
visible spectrum
the tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensitive - pg. 123
Barnum Effect
The tendency to believe in the accuracy of vague generalities about one's personality.
Stereotype
a generalized belief about a group of people
Auditory Nerve
the cranial nerve that carries sound from the cochlea of the inner ear to the brain
New brain cells develop each time you learn something new.T or F
False
biological rhythm
a periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system; may or may not have psychological implications
martin seligman
came up with idea that individuals believe, correctly or not, that they cannot control future outcomes that are important to them
panic disorder
Episodes of intense dread that last for several minutes and are accompanied by trembling, heart palpitations, etc. are most characteristic of a
mental age
a measurement of intelligence in which an individual's mental level is expresssed in terms of the average abilities of a given age group
the focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment and the blocking out of others
selective attention
Fundamental Attribution Error
traits are more important than situationsonly when explaining others behaviors
ex post facto method
study after its effects occured
puberty
a period of rapid maturation in which the person becomes capable of sexual reproduction
association cortex
-part of the cerebral cortex -receives info from more than one sense -can combine sensory and motor information to preform complex cognitive tasksEX: associating words with images
Descriptive Statistics
Numbers that summarize a set of research data
What is Binet's test of Global Intelligence?
p. 321?
Personality
all the consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from that of others
What are neurotransmitters?
in the communication between nerve cells, chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap between neurons
carry messages from the sensory organs to the CNS. Part of the somatic nervous system.
Motor Neurons
Schachter’s cognitive theory
states that emotions occur when physical arousal is labeled or interpreted on the basis of experience and situational cues
attention
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
Stress
A physical and mental response to a challenging or threatening situation.
Immune neglect
overestimate how long it takes us to get over a bad event, we are very resilient
 
Group (family) Therapy
 
Definition?
 
gathers a group of people with similar problems and have them discuss their problems under guidance of 1 single therapist. 
nuclues basalis
area on the dorsal surface of the forebrain; a major source of axons that release acetylcholine to widespread in the cerebral cortex (95)
Theory of Mind
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states, about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.
Insecure- avoidant attachment
Pay little attention to caregiver, no concern over seperation, avoids reunion with caregiver.
restless legs syndriom (RLS)
A condition in which unpleasan sensations in the lower legs are accomanied by an irresistible urge to move the legs, temporarily relieveing the unpleasant sensation but disrupting sleep
Domain-General Model
a model that attempts to explain a wide range of different behaviors according to a simple general rule (such as: do it if it's rewarding)
social desirability
the tendency of some test takers to answer based on the desire of their answers to reflect them in a positive light
psychoanalytic approach
based on theories of Freud. We have hidden impulses and the unconscious shows our true feelings. We must analyze these impulses with a therapist.
Context Depenent Memory
the theory that information learned in a particular situation or place is better remembered when in that same situation or place
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Sexual activity is is highest for people in their _____, and only gradually declines up through the 50s.
mid-20's to mid-30's
Action Potential
the all or none electrical signal that flows to the end of the axon causing the release of chemical messangers
escape mechanism
a means of avoiding an unpleasant life situation, such as daydreaming
What is CP?

the study of human behavior in its multiple ecological, historical, cultural, and sociopolitical context. Emphasizes the connection btwn individuals and environments. Transactions btwn individuals and society to facilitate empowerment and social justice and promote wellness. Multiple Levels of Analysis

 
Feature detectors
Cells in the cortex that respond to a specific feature of an object
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Intelligence test developed by David Wechsler with verbal and performance sub-tests grouped by aptitude rather than age level.
case study
examine one person or a small group of people over an extended period of time. good because can help test new techniques but bad because it an be the exception rather than the rule
What is the difference between Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination? 
Stimulus Generalization takes place when a conditioned response is triggered by something SIMILAR to a conditioned stimulus.
 
Stimulus Discrimination is the extinction of a conditioned response that is triggered by something SIMILAR to a conditioned stimulus.
 
(p 239) 
serial position effect
finding that when asked to recall a list of unrelated items, performance is better for the items at the beginning and end of the list.
Fewer infections, less asthma, less obesity risk, less diabetes, less Sids
Mom: less cancer, less diabetes
What is the vonRestorff Effect?
Its easiest to recall that which stands out.
sex and sex differences
interest in casual sex and number of lifetime partners desired (d = positive and reliable)
Levels of processing model
an alternative to the stage theory of memory stating that the distinction between short term and long term memory is a matter of degree rather than different kinds of memory and is based on how the incoming info is processed.
Other conditions that may be a focus of a clinical attention
Medication-induced movement disorder, relational problems, problems related to abuse or neglect.
Childhood trauma risk factors of suicide
Experience of abuse or neglect in childhood
to cope w/ Electra Complex
identify w/ mom, try to be like her
5 basic tenets of humanistic psychology
1. Human beings cannot be reduced to components. 2. Human beings have in them a uniquely human context. 3. Human consciousness includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people. 4. Human beings have choices and non desired responsibilities. 5. Human beings are intentional, they seek meaning, value and creativity.
What did he discover and develop?
He discovered that he could make a dog salivate by using classical conditioning.
hydrophobia
fear of water
Stanley Milgram
Study?
Details?
 
Participants ("teachers") instructed to give electric shocks to another person ("learner") pretending to be shocked (the confederate). Told study is effects on punishment on learning. They rigged a hat-draw so confederate is always the learner. Teachers have to increase voltage for wrong answers. 50-60% give the max, 450V shock.

 
Error aging


Hormonal Stress Theory
subliminal
employing stimuli insufficiently intense to produce a discrete sensation but often designed to influence the behavior of an individual
OCD
Involves persistent, unwanted fearful thoughts or irresistible urges to perform an act or repeated ritual which help relieve the anxiety created by the obsession.
Sample 
group of research participants selected to represent a larger group, or "population"
Narcolepsy
sleep disorder characterized by falling asleep suddenly and uncontrollably.
Hallucinogen
A substance that induces hallucinations.
MSW
-Masters of Social Work-perform psychiatric social work(family therapy, community change)
Relinquishing control of a responsibility by turning it over to someone else
Delegation
thalamus [THAL-uh-muss]
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 072)
insight
the sudden preception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly
 
 
Sociocultural Perspective
 
Cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior
"The Self"
Toddlers are very into defining objects as "mine." The book suggests that this is because___________________ (Pick one)A) Human beings just really like to collect stuff as a way to compete and gain dominance.B) This is part of how they understand themselv
B
myelin
fatty material around axon, prevents interfence other electric signals
does marital satisfaction tend to decrease after the birth of a couple's first baby?
yes
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by theory
Introspection
Deliberate looking into one’s own cognitive processes to examine one’s thoughts and feelings
proximodistal rule
the "inside-to-outside" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery.
Ivan Pavlov
conducted behaviors that were measurable. (dogs and saliva)Influenced behaviorism.
positive reinforcement
a stimuli that strengthens behavior
Correlation Studies:
a.      Features – Examine the relationships between research variables b.      Strengths – Can test predictions, evaluated theories, and suggest new hypothesis c.       Pitfalls – Cannot infer causal relationships between variables
interneurons
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
PCB
exposure to this during prenatal development could result in problems in cognitive development
false beliefs maintained even though they are irrational
delusions
assessment
the act of assessing; appraisal; evaluation.
ambivert
one whose personality type is intermediate between extrovert and introvert
humanistic psychology
A clinical viewpoint emphasizing human ability, growth, potential, and free will
normative influences
similar for individuals in a particular age group
functualism
early perspective in psych w/ Will James, where the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, play.
Skin senses
The senses of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
elaborative rehearsal
process of transferring info from short term to long term memory bt consciously focusing on the meaning of the info
skinner's demonstration
demonstrated that organisms then to repeat those responses are followed by favorable consequences
defense mechanisms
Cognitive strategies such as denial and displacement that are used to reduce the symptoms of stress
emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
systematic error
error caused by extraneous variables that tend to influence all scores in one condition and to have no effect, or a different effect, on scores in other conditions.
can distort the effect of independent variable.
threats internal validity.
goal is to eliminate systematic error.
Ethical
Moral; referring to one’s system of deriving standards for determining what is moral
hormonal theories: testosterone
linked with traditional sex differences in behaviors, such as aggression, dominance, career choice, and sexual desire
Cerebral Cortex
thin layer of densely-packed nerve cells covering the cerebrum, and regulating higher mental functions
Stanford-Binet Test (original)
IQ = MA/CA X 100
concepts
simplify or summarize info, we create so we can come to decisions quickly and accurately ex: emotions
Latency Stage
psychosexual stage in which sexual impulses are submerged into the unconscious, 6 years to 12 years
MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique primarily used in Radiology to visualize the structure and function of the body. It provides detailed images of the body in any plane. MR has much greater soft tissue contrast than computed tomography (CT) making it especially useful in neurological, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological imaging. Unlike CT it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body. Radiofrequency fields are used to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, causing the hydrogen nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner. This signal can be manipulated by additional magnetic fields to build up enough information to reconstruct an image of the body.
• Lesioning
in studies of brain functioning, the intentional destruction of brain tissue in order to observe the effects on behavior
learning set
the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved
Tegmentum
Part of the midbrain involved in movement and arousal
Reinforce desired response every time it occurs
Continuous Reinforcement
individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding
- Kagan’s behavioral inhibition:
extrovert
a person concerned primarily with the physical and social environment, a person whose attention is directed outward, not towards inner feelings
halo effect
a potential inaccuracy in observation due to overgeneralization from a limited amount of evidence or the influence of preconceived beliefs
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 330)
negative reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs, such as shock, taking aspirin for a headache
autonomic nervous system
subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions
role of cortisol
profound effect on the hippocampus (plays a pivotal role in memory)
limbic system
emotional center of the brain that also plays roles in smell, motivation, and memory
Social Intelligence
idea that individuals differ in their level of mastery of the particular cluster of knowledge and skills that are relevant to interpersonal situations
periqueductal graypart of the midbrain
process information regarding pain
personal interviews
type of survey that involves a person-to-person meeting between the interviewer and the respondent
set point
the point at which an individuals "weight thermostat" is set
psychological science
the study of mind, brain, and behavior
random assignment
the procedure of assigning subjects to the experimentaland control conditions by chance in order to minimize pre existing relationships between groups
preoperational
The ______child (ages 2 to 7) is egocentric ,relies on intuitive thought rather than logical or deductive reasoning , and increasingly uses symbolic activity .
inattentional blindness
failure to see visible objects or events because one's attention is focused elsewhere
Formal Operations Stage
Stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now
11 years --> Adulthood
Developmental Psychology
Concerned with how people become who they are relating to biological and environmetal factors.
This store is where conscious mental work takes place on information brought in from sensory memory and long-term memory.It is also called short-term memory because information no longer attended to quickly disappears from it.
Working Memory
episodic memory
a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places
What is Habituation?
Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations.
Positively skewed data
Graph is leaning to the left.
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Self-actualizing tendency
(Roger's Theory of Personality)
the striving to fulfill one's innate capacities and capabilities.
Unattended Information
Stimuli that are not the focus of attention but may be processed below awareness. May become the focus of attention of stimuli become relevant (i.e name at party)
extinction in OC
refers to the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency b/c the response is no longer followed by reinforecment
Regression to the Mean
Whenever you have an extreme score(extremely depressed), scores may regress toward the mean if nothing happens.
participant observation
a type of descriptive study in which the research is actively involved in the situation
vision
light comes form the sun an stars and from light bulbs and is also reflected off of objects
Additive Color Mixing
color mixing that occurs when lights of different wavelengths simultaneously stimulate the retina, so that color perception depends on the adding or combing of these wavelenghts.
Definition of Dendrites
Main job is to receive information from sensory receptors and other neurons.
Internal Desynchronization(p 150)
A state in shich biological rhythms are not in phase (synchronized) with one another.
• Case studies
provide a wealth of info and suggest testable hypotheses, but they lack the controls found in scientific experiments. It is an in-depth study of one or more individuals
What is Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, lasting from about 7 to 11 years off age, during which the individual uses operations and replaces intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations? C
Concrete Operational Stage
Diffusion of Responsibility Theory
in presence of others, individuals feel less personal responsibility to do something; more anonymous people feel, less likely they will help
father substitute
a male who replaces an absent father and becomes an object of attachment
learned helplessness
the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of the history of repeated failures in the past
magnetic response imaging (MRI)
uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computerized enhancement to map out brain structure, 3D images of the brain w/ high resolution
What is a theory? 
-not just a guess
-Based on previous observations
-Make predictions to test out the theory
The placebo effect refers to
the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
level of the person
events that involve the nature of beliefs, desires, and feelings-the content of the mind, not just its internal mechanics
instrumental conditioning
goes with operant - you have to do something in order get "x".
parietal lobe is also involved in
integrating visual input and monitoring the body's position in space
For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
B) major depressive disorder
Vygotsky's idea of guided participation or assistance
process by which people learn from others who guide them in experience and operation
Cognitive Dissonance(p 287)
A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneiously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person's belief is incongruent with his or her behavior.
Low GABAergic and glutamatergic activity in DL-PFC
Produces deficits in the test, they are less able to activate their DL-PFC during the task
6 domains of characteristics of CD & ODD
 
cognitive and verbal deficits
school and learning problems
self-esteem problems
peer problems
family problems
health-related problems
What functions are associated with the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere?
Left hemisphere is language, logic, mathright hemisphere is spatial tasks, musc, visual recognition
nervous system1. what is it2. what 3 things does it do?
complicated network of pathways that allows us to -receive info from outside world-process info-send instructions to our muscles
Who performed the first psy autopsy and when?
Robert Litman, in 1958, for the LA coroner's office on a man who jumped off of the SM pier (accident or suicide?).
I-O Psychology ψ  Chapter 9 Stress & Burnout  
Stress
Heightened arousal
/ 495
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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