Mineral Flashcards

Mohs scale of mineral hardness
Terms Definitions
Even
Smooth
Galena
http://i.quizlet.net/i/p7TlryHaPff0N0wIlmyv_g.jpg
Halite
Fiberous
Thread-like fibers
Native sulfur
Quartz
Hardness=7Glassy Fracture
Talc
used on powers
aquamarine
beryl + Fe
Magnetism
~Attracted to a magnet
Olivine
Chemical Formula: (mg,Fe)2 Sio4
Chemical Class: Silicate
Luster: Non-Metallic
Diaphaneity: Opaque
Cleavage: no
Fluorite
Green, glassy, 4.5 hardness
smoky quartz
light brown/black quartz
phosphorescence
minerals subjected to ultraviolet light will continue to glow after the uv light is cut off
Density
ratio of mass to volume
Oxygen
O -2
No coordination number
Relative Number of 1.40
Plagioclase Feldspar
Chemical Formula: (Ca,Na) AlSi3O8
Chemical Class: Silicate
Hardness: 6
Luster: non-metallic
Diaphaneity: opaque
Cleavage: yes
How many directions of cleavage: 2 @ 90
Streak:
Notes:
halite (NaCl)
vitreous, clear, cubic, salty
hexagonal trigonal
calcite's 2 crystal systems
Magma
Molten material found underneath the Earth's surface
Luster
the property generally described as metallic or nonmetallic
Sulfate
Include the sulfate compound SO4 (anhydrate: Ca SO4)
amphibole
tetrahedra are arranged in double chains
streak
color of mineral in powder form
Plagioclase
silicate, vitreous blue lustre, 2 cleavages, darker than orthoclase
malachite
earthy, green, looks like oxidized copper, bubbly
Au
element used to treat rheumatoid arthritis
cobaltite
a mineral, cobalt arsenic sulfide, CoAsS, silver-white with a reddish tinge: an end member of a series of solid solutions that includes gersdorffite; used as an ore of cobalt.
silicate
Which group of minerals does feldspar belong to?
diamond
hardest mineral in the Mohs Hardness Scale
hardness = 10
cleavage
minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces
mineralogy
the study of minerals and their properties
Breccia
made out of angular fragments of sedimentary detrital rock
Augite
black to dark green; two imperfect cleavages meet at nearly 90 degrees;
fracture
causes minerals to break with uneven, rough, or jagged surfaces
fluorescence
property where a mineral will glow under ultraviolet light
Limonite
Yellow brown in color and streak, maybe earthy in luster
bauxite
principle ore of Al; not a mineral
crystal
a clear, transparent mineral or glass resembling i
Radioactivity
the ability of some elements to give off nuclear radiation as a result of a change in the atom's nucleus
specific gravity
ratio of a mineral's weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water
crystal shape
a pattern that results in a distinctive shape for the mineral
halides
halogen ion and one or more other elements
Whether or not a mineral is considered an ore is determined largely by the minerals ________.
Value
hardness
property of a mineral that relates to how much the mineral resists being scratched
5th mineral composition group
halides- minerals containing halogen ions plus one or more other elements
ore
a natural material (rock) that has a high concentration of a mineral that is ecomonically important
Orthoclase
White, clear, cream or pink or gray, harder than class, good cleavage, lacks striations
Silicates
a group of minerals that form most rocks silicates are usually predominatly made of oxygen and silicon which are the two most abundent elements in the earth's crust
bornite
a common mineral and important ore of copper, copper iron sulfide, Cu5FeS4, occurring in masses, of brownish color when first exposed to the air; peacock ore.
Mohs Hardness Scale
a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals
Carbides
the __________ are not known as one of the major mineral groups (Oxide, Carbides, or Sulfates)
Felsic Rocks
silica rich, contain 65% silica ; like rhyolite and granite
Moh's Scale
scale from 1 to 10 for classifying minerals according to hardness
What is the property of a mineral that identifies the the test for the color of the powder of a mineral which is more reliable than using the surface color of a mineral?
streak
What is the property of a mineral that identifies the the test for the color of the powder of a mineral which is more reliable than using the surface color of a mineral?
This test can be done by rubbing two minerals together or using a piece of unglazed porcelain called a streak plate.
Harder
A mineral will not a leave a streak on a streak plate if the mineral is ___________ than the streak plate
Crystalline Structure
the atoms that make up the mineral are fixed in an orderly repetitive pattern
surface mining and deep mining
What are the two methods of mining?
98.5% of crustal mineral mass is from what 8 elements?
Oxygen (46.6%), Silicon (27.7%), Aluminum (8.1%), Iron (5.0%), Calcium (3.6%), Sodium (2.8%), Potassium (2.6%), Magnesium (2.1%)
Aragonite
CaCO3
Hornblende
wulfenite
PbMoO4
Earthy hematite
http://i.quizlet.net/i/BfHk8LH4MTd-r4s9TDqvzA.jpg
MHS 9
corundum
Was never alive
Inorganic
Cu
metal of cyprus
Rocks
Made up of minerals
color
a property of minerals
incongruent streak
streak color differs
mispickel
German name for arsenopyrite
Geiger counter
instrument that detects radioactivity
Mineral
Naturally occuring, inorganic solid, with a specific chemicical compostion and a definite crystalline structure.
Chalcopyrite
Metallic, H=4, grey-black streak, uneven fracture, use: copper ore
Chlorite
Chemical Formula:
Chemical Class: Silicate
Hardness:
Luster: Non-metallic
Diaphaneity: opaque
Cleavage: yes
How many directions of cleavage: 1
Streak: white to pale green
Notes: soft and green
Friedrich Mohs
developed the hardness scale
Feldspar
Hardness=62 Changes at 90 degrees
carbonate
a mineral containing a carbonate group(CO3) and one or more other elements
Carbonates
minerals that contain the elements carbon and oxygen and one or more other metallic elements. Calcite is the most common.
Apatite
Waxy, H=5, white streak, uneven fracture, use: fertilizer
biotite
black mica; common in ign./meta. rocks
Solution
mixture in which one substance (solute) dissolves in another (solvent)
Augite - Comp
Ca, mg, fe, al silicate
oxides
oxygen and one or more other elements
A salt crystal is _______ in shape.
Cubic
O, Si
Most abundant atoms in Earth's crust
Chert, Flint, Jasper
Dull-earthy, H=7, conchoidal fracture, use: rock former
vitreous
having the luster and appearance of glass
define gemstones
hard, colorful minerals with a brilliant or glassy luster
Smelting
Ore is mixed with other substances and then melted to separate the useful metal out.
Sulfates and Sulfides
minerals that contain the element sulfer. Ex. Gypsom, galena and Anhydrite
10
the Moh's scale ranges from 1 to ___.
definite chemical composition
a mineral always contains certain elements in definite proportions
Tendency of a mineral to split along preferred planes
Cleavage
In the Earth there are __ naturally occuring elements.
92
crystal havit
the general form that a crystal takes
compounds
substances made up of one or more kinds of atoms combined into larger units called molecules
sulfide minerals
A sulfide mineral is a mineral containing sulfide
What is cleavage?
The ability to split along planes (flat surfaces); to "peel"
6th mineral composition group
native elements- minerals that exist in a relatively pure form.
Pyrite (fool's gold)
Notice the perfect cube shapes. I.D. is everywhere you look.
Alloy
made up of two or more metals or a metal and a nonmetal (example: bronze is made up of copper and tin and is stronger and harder than either metal by itself)
1st process by which minerals form
crystallization from magma. cooling magma causes minerals to crystallize.
Chemical Bonding
the joining of atoms to form a new substances
it is shiny and soft and separates EASILY into thin sheets (like paper)
What is special about mica?
What is an open pit mine?
a huge pit that is used to remove ore
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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