Mineralogy Exam Flashcards

Crystal
Terms Definitions
orthogonal
perpendicular
E-ray
see extraordinary ray
kimberlite
Diamonds are found in:
orthonet
a two-dimensional lattice characterized by two translations of different magnitudes at 90 degrees to each other
polychromatic
radiation containing multiple wavelengths (see also monchromatic)
hexanet
a two-dimensional lattice characterized by two tranlations of equal magnitude of 60degrees to each other
pegmatites
Lithium, tin, caesium, and Uranium
clinopyroxene
monoclinic pyroxene subgroup dominated by end members diopside and hedenbergite. The most common of all pyroxenes
ultraviolet light
electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths slightly less than visible light
bladed
having the appearance of blades
polyhedron
a three-dimensional geometric figure having four or more faces
marble
aa metamorphic rock containing primarily clacite or dolomite
dispersion
flashes and pinpoints of spectral colors are displayed as the stone is turned in the light
TEM
Resolution 10Å X 10Å; 1.4Å spacing
Unit cells are usually >4Å2
Can be used to identify:
Phase transitions
Intergrowths
Exsolution patterns
Polytype stackings
Defect structures
X-Ray Scattering
A non-destructive analytical technique used to determine crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films, based on the scattered intensity of a beam hitting a sample
habit
the characteristic appearance of a mineral due to crystal form or combinations of forms, crystal intergrowths, and aggreagates and any other irrefular physical characteristics
trachyte
an extrusive igneous rock of intermediate composition in which the amount of K-feldspar exceeds the amount of plagioclase; quartz, biotite, and hornblende may be present
trioctahedral
describing a layered mineral structure in which three of three available octahgedral sites are occupied
quartzite
a hard but unmetamorphosed sandstone or the metamorphic equivalent
facet
a polished face on a gemstone
halide
mineral compound characterized by a halogen such as F, Cl, or I as an anion
Monzonite
an intrusive igneous rock of intermediate compostion containing approximately equal amoutns of plagioclase and K-feldspar, minor quartz, clinopyroxene, biotite, and hornblende may be present
phosphorite
a chemical sedimentary rock composed primarily of phosphate mienrals, typically varieties of apatite
paramagnetism
having a small magnetic susceptibility and being weakly attracted by a magnet
lamellar
having a tablike appearance; being thin in one dimension compared to the other two (see also platy and tabular)
Displacive transformation
atoms move in cooperative fashion without breaking bonds Ex: alpha quartz and beta quartz
emission
emission of an energy level in electrons in the spectrum
Magmatic Segregation
Separation of ore minerals by fractional crystallization and related processes in magmatic differentiation
Liquation, liquid immiscibility - settling out from magmas of sulphide, sulphide-oxide or oxide melts that accumulate beneath silicates or injected into wall rocks
Typical Deposits:
Chromite layers in dykes
Copper-nickel veins orebodies
Titanium
Omission substitution
Charge balance maintained by leaving site vacant
Pyrrhotite: variable amounts of Fe2+ and Fe3+
Foliation
Metamorphic ___ is caused by stress, not flow.
inert gas
any of the generally unreactive elements (such as Ne, Ar, or Kr) in the eighteenth group of the PEriodic Table of the Elements (see also noble gas)
ionic radius
radius of a spherical volume effectively occupied by an ion in a particular environment
plumose
a term describing an aggregate of crystals having a feathery appearance
igneous
an adjective describing a rock or mineral that solidified form a magma or describing the process that forms such a rock or mineral
isolated tetrahedral silicates
silicate mienrals characterized by individual SiO4 tetrahedra linked by bonding to common cations.
iron formation
general name given to chemical sedimentary rocks dominated by iron oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, sulfides, or silicates
isodesmic
describing a crystal in which all bonds are ionic and of equal strength
Cataclastic metamorphism
metamorphism caused by a transient high-pressure condition such as a meteor impact (see also shock metamorphism and dynamic metamorphism)
calcine
the heat material, such as limestone, to high temerature, breaking down minerals and driving off carbon dioxide or other volatiles
metastable equilibrium
equilibrium not representative of the minimal possible Gibbs energy of a system; a chemical system at metastable equilibrium is not reacting but may eventually do so to attain stable equilibrium
translucent
the ability to transmit light without being transparent
blueschist (facies)
one of the principal metamorphic facies introduced by Eskola, corresponding to high pressure-low temperature conditions
alloy
a noncrystalline mixture of two or more metals
monoclinic (system)
a crystal system characterized by lattic symmetry 2/m and containing point groups with symmetry no great than 2/m; four cell parameters (a, b, c, ? ) are needed to describe the shape and size of monoclinic unit cell
migmatite
a mixed rock composed of differend color hands, often associated with partial melting under high-grade metamorphic conditions
triclinic (system)
a crystal system characterized by lattice symmetry ? and containing point groups with symmetry no greater than?; six cell parameters, are needed to describe the shpae and size of triclinic unit cell
double chain silicates
silicate minerals characterzied by SiO4 tetrahedra joining to form chains two tetrahedra wide (see also amphibole)
disphenoid
a closed crystal form comprising two sphenoids related by 222 symmetry
lithophile
an element that tends to concentratein silicates rather than in metals or sulfides
progressive metamorphism
metamorphism that proceeds by steps from low grade to high grade
pseudosymmetry
symmetry that appears to be present but, with better measurement or observation, would be found to be lacking
pycnometer
a small bottle with a tight-fitting stopper that is used to determine specific gravity
retrograde metamorphism
metamorphismn that takes place in response to decreasing temperature
cubic (system)
a crystal system characterized by lattice symmetry 4/m32/m and containg point groups with symmetry no greater than 4/m32/m; one cell parameter (a) is needed to describe the shape and size of a cubic unit cell
dendritic
a term describing an aggregate of crystals having a treelike appearance (see also arborescent)
relief
the apparent topography of a crystal or crystals seen under a microscope
refraction
the deflection of a ray, perhaps light, due to its passage from one medium to another of fdifferent ray velocity
van der walls bonds
caused temporary fluctuations in electron density of neutral molecules sheets
Electron Microprobe Analyses
Analyses using a finely focused electron beam to quantitatively measure the composition of areas as small as 1 to 3 μm
Interstitial substitution
between some ions or ionic groups there may exist structural voids. Particularly where these have the form of channels
Trace
This type of element makes up less than 0.1% of a mineral.
Packing SCP
Simple Cubic Packing: Ra: Rx Values .73-1.0 Cations at the center of a cube and the anions at the eight corners
nonmetallic (element)
elements that do not possess the propoerties of a metal. Nonmetallic elements generally ionize easily to become anions, have a nonmetallic luster, and are poor conductors of heat and electricity when pure
reflected light microscopy
microscopic examination using a light source that reflects form the surface of a sample; reflected light microscopy is useful for identifying opaque minerals in thin section
travertine
a type of limestone formed by rapid precipitation of calcite, often but not necessarily associated with hot springs
regular polyhedron
a coordinating polyhedron in which all cation-anion bond lengths are equal
volcanic rock
an igneous rock that crystallizes at or very near the Earth's surface (see also extrusive rock)
variety
a division of a mineral species based on particular physical characteristics such as color; for example chalcedony is avariety of quartz
piezoelectric
having the ability to develop a small amount of electrical potential when strained
radioisotope
an isotope that is the product of radioactive decay
principal axis
the most prominent or unique crystal axis in crystal or the most prominent or unique rotational axis of symmetry in a crystal; generally they coincide
ore grade
the concentration of ore minerals or elements in ore rock
elastic
a term used to describe mienrals that return to their original shpae after bending
electron microprobe
an analytical instrument in which a finely focused electron beam hits a sample, causing emission of elemental characterisitc radiation
energy level
the enrgy associated with a particular electron orbit in an atom
diamagnetism
a property of minerals that causes a small negative reaction (repulsion) to a magnet
hexhonal
of or a related to the hexgonal system
Goldich's weathering series
a hypothetical serires that describes the order of wetahering of mineral in outcrop; the series is essentially the opposite of Bowen's reaction series
Bowen's reaction series
a hypothetical series that describes the order of crystallization of minerals from magma
Banded iron formation(BIF)
a layered rock containing chert, silicate, carbonate, or oxide layers, giving a banded appearence
asterism
the play of colors seen in some minerals that produces a rayed or star-shpaed figure when viewed in direct light; a star sapphire is one example
cubic
having a cube shape or belonging to the cubic system
crystallographic axis
a direction corresponding to one of the three edges of a chosen unit cell in a crystal lattice
compositional zoning
variation in the composition of a crysta, typically from core to margin (see also zoning)
malleable
a term used to describe the tenacity of mienrals that are capable of being hammered into shapes
lineation
any linear feature that may be obseved in a rock
irregular (fracture)
a fracture that produces rough and irregular surfaces (see also uneven fracture)
lode deposit
an ore deposit comprising many small veins
Laue method
x-raying a single crystal by placing it in the pat of a polychromatic x-ray beam and positioning a flat piece of film behind it
Laue equations
equations derived by von Laue that describe the angular relationship between an incident beam and a diffracted beam in three-dimensional space
homogeneous nucleation
growth of nuclei form in the interior of a homogeneous substance
Diviatoric
This type of stress is not constant in all directions.
linear(coordination)
coordination of a small ion or atom to only two others
natural
a product of nature, not of humans or human activities
nonopaque (mineral)
a mineral that transmits light in thin section
lanthanide
elements (such as Ce, Pr, and Nd0 with atomic numbers 58 through 71 and valence electrons in 4f orbitals (see also rare earth elements)
heavy liquid
a liquid of greater density than water that may be used to separate minerals of different densities
incompatible element
an element that does not readily enter a crystal structure
optic plane
the plane containing the optic axes of a biaxial crystal
optic sign
either + or - , describing the relationship between indices of refraction. In uniaxial positive (+) crystals; in uniaxial negative (-) crystal; in biaxial positive (+) crystals, ? is closer in value to ? than to ?; in biaxial negative (-) crystals, ? is closer in value to ? than to ?
prismatic (cleavage)
a term used used to describe multiple cleavages all parallel to a common direction in a crystal
Paulings Rule #2
An Ionic Structure will be stable as long as the electrostatic bonds between an anion and cation are equal to the charge on the anion
x ray fluoresncence
fluorescence of x rays caused by an incident x-ray beam striking a sample
platy (cleavage)
a cleavege that allows a crystal to be broken into plates
dipyramid
a closed crystal form of 6, 8, 12, 16 or 24 faces, comprising two pyramids related by a mirror plane of symmetry
rare earth elements
elements (such as Ce, Pr, and Nd) with atomic numbers 58 through 71 and valence electrons in 4f orbitals (see also lanthanide elements)
discontinuous side (Bowen's reaction series)
the side of Bowen's reaction series characterized by olivine-pyroxene-anphibole-biotite
electrostatic valency principle (Pauling's rule 2)
the strength of an ionic bond is equal to its ionic charge divided by its coordination number
Bohr model of the atom
a fundamental model of an atom that states that electrons orbit atomic nuclei in orbits associated with specific energy levels
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