Minerals 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
concoidal fracture
quartz
azurite
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 3.0-4.0
Streak: Blue
Specific Gravity: 3.8
Properties/Cleavage: Dark blue, opaque to crystalline, reacts to HCI
Mineral Class: Carbonate
Uses: Secondary copper mineral
chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Luster: M
Hardness: 3.5
Streak: Green to Black
Specific Gravity: 4.1-4.3
Properties/Cleavage: Yellow to greenish yellow, massivefinely crystalline
Mineral Class: Sulfide
Uses: Ore of copper
vitreous luster
like shiney glass
gypsum
evaporite. colorless silky luster. blocky. CaSO4+2H2O. hardness of 2. streak white. used in drywall.
brittle substance
breaks easily when dropped.
cinnabar
a mineral, mercuric sulfide, HgS, occurring in red crystals or masses: the principal ore of mercury | red mercuric sulfide, used as a pigment | bright red; vermillion
galena
Gray streak (metallic luster), perfect cubic cleavage heavy,
Sp =7.6 H=2.5, silver gray color.PbS
mica
perfect cleavage in one direction. used in paints, insulation, and make-up; non-metallic luster
Mineralogy
study of minerals and their properties
2.5-3, vitreous, 1 perfect cleavage, dark brown or black, orange red streak, sheety
biotite
hardness 7, vitreous, no cleavage, varied color (light), white streak
quartz
calcite
3-D cleavage, not at right angles, used to make cement, clear samples can show double refraction, called Iceland Spar, reacts with Hydrochloric acid to release CO2. (CaCO3)
physical test
for properties not revealed by inspection, the streak, cleavage, hardness and specific gravity can be tested with a hand specimen
1-6, earthy, no cleavage, deep red, brick red streak, poss. magnetic
hematite
3, pearly, 3 non cubed cleavages, white, white streak, fizzes
calcite
5.5-7, nonmetallic, 2 cleavages, salmon colored, which streak
potassium feldspar (ortheoclaste)
halite
3 planes of cleavage 90 degree angles. transparent. evaporite. salty taste. white streak. NaCl. rock salt
cleavage
tendency of a mineral to split easily along a flat surface, can be observed even on tiny mineral grains
5.5-6, vitreous to dull, 2 cleavages, dark black, white-gray streak, splintery fracture
amphibole/ pyroxene
nonmetallic luster
a mineral that does not shine like metal
Hermatite
Fe2O3
Garnet
http://i.quizlet.net/i/L9aGoE5s0KJYuUkLriz5ow.jpg
Talc
softest mineral
quartz
conchoidal fracture
hardness-7
vitreous luster
Hematite - comp
Fe2O3
Orthoclase (K) feldspar
Solid
Definite volume and shape
Apatite
Ca5(PO4)3 (OH, F, Cl)
illite
most widespread clay mineral
Topaz
Birthstone for November
Hardness of 8
no streak
crystal
micas
tetrahedra are arranged in sheets
mineral
Naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition, and a crystal structure
carbonates
contain co3, ex. dolomite, calcite
zircon
"gold color"; near diamond's brilliancy
Hardness
A mineral's resistance to being scratched
gems
minerals that are attractive and rare
Triclinic
Crystal where all shaoes are parallelograms with no right angles in the axes.(Triclinc, Monoclinc, Hexagonal, Isometric, Orthorhombic, or Tetragonal)
Non-silicate minerals
Halides, oxides, sulfates, sulfides, carbonates, and native elements.
silica tetrahedron
basic building block of silicate
chlorite
Green to blackish green; cleavage flakes are flexible but not elastic
Silicate
mineral that contains silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements
calcite (CaCO3)
tweener, 3 cleavage, rhombohedral, fizzes with HCl
Magma
molten material found beneath Earth's surface
dolomite
a very common mineral, calcium magnesium carbonate, CaMg(CO3)2, occurring in crystals and in masses.
surface mining
What kind of mining is quarry?
Titanium
___________ is used in an automobile. (Zinc, Sphalerite, or Titanium)
Makeup of a Mineral
One or more Elements
Special property of minerals that give off subatomic particles
Radioactivity
Examples of evaporatic chemical sedmentary rocks
halite & gypsum
pyrite
can cause water to be acidic;suggest that the environment in which it was formed was deficient in oxygen.
Inorganic
- NOT made from plants or animals
iron
minerals that contain this can be picked up by a magnet
FRACTURE
WHEN A MINERAL SPLITS UNEVENLY (ROUGH, JAGGED)
Open Pit
Miners use giant earth moving equipment to dig a tremendous pit
mineraloid
object similar to a mineral, but does NOT have a crystalline structure
Crystal
a solid which atoms are arrange in repeating patterns is a(n) ______________
Magnetite
A type of mineral that has magnetic qualities.
nucleus
central part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
Mohs Scale of Hardness
Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond
atom
the samllest part of an element that has all the properties of that element
Luster-
the way in which a mineral reflects light: either metallic luster, or nonmetallic luster
Native sulfur
You find this stuff near volcanoes, volcanic activity, and/or sulfuric pools. Apparently it smells really bad.
Green
Quartz can be many colors, but Olivine is always (white/green/cream)
ductility
a substance's ability to be drawn or pulled into wire
In the rock cycle, when igneous rock weathers or erodes, it forms what?
sediments
Organic rock
a sedimentary rock that is formed either directly or indirectly from the material that was once alive
aluminum or iron with oxygen
What elements do oxides contain?
What are the two classifications for luster?
Metallic and non-metallic
element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Atomic Number
the number or protons in the nucleus of an atom
define smelting
the melting of ore to separate metal from other elements
specific gravity
the ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at 4 degrees Celsius
how to identify a mineral
each mineral has it's own specific properties that can be used to identify it
Why is color not a reliable test?
some minerals have many colors, malachite is always green and azure is always blue
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