Modern European History Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
apotheosis
the finest example
innominate
not named or classified
Jacques Hebert
Orchestrated the De-Christianization
Allied firebombing campaign targets here
Dresden
emasculate
to remove the testicles from
U-boats
German submarines used for reconnaissance and inflicted heavy losses on commercial shipping, including neutral shipping, as far away as off the USA.
NATO
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. A military alliance consisting of the USA and it's allies. Formed in 1949, it was meant to stop any possible attacks by the Soviet Union and it's allies- known as the warsaw pact.
Thermidorian Reaction
Robespierre executed, Moderates released from prison, Jacobins and sans disbanded, old order restored.
Allied invasion to liberate western Europe from German occupation
D-Day
__________ was legally appointed chancellor of Germany is 1933.
Adolf Hitler
Spanish Civil War
1936-39: Floundering Communist government, Francisco Franco (not really a Fascist but aided by Hitler/Italy) claimed to fight Communism (but against Republic), Soviets aided by Republic, turned into struggle between Communists and Fascists (dress rehersal for WWII), Italy/Germany test out weapons, no more liberalism, Nationalism/Fascist win
crepitation
the sharp sound of snapping noises
Vichy France
location of remaining French government in Un-occupied France after fall of France June 1940. Headed by General Pétain, collaborationist government.
Factories
Large buildings with machines inside, needed water power.
This monarch signed the magna carta:
John
Lord Curzon a prominent 19th century British conservative politician and proponent of empire believed that the key colony in the British Empire was __________.
India
__________ was the chief propagandist of the NSDAP and later was appointed head of the National Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
Joseph Grobbels
Jean-Jacques Serran-Schreiber
1967 "American Challenge" - 1. Contrast w/ de Gaulle (don't fight America copy them) 2. New importance of economic stability (free economy) 3. Europe freedom (shift away from controlled economy to freedom)
prerogative
a special right or privilege; a special quality showing excellence
Kosovo
one of the six former Yugoslav republics, a state of Serbia. Atrocities in turn by Serbian rulers against Albanians, and then by Albanians back at Serbians.
Weimar Republic
liberal and democratic government of Germany after WW1, which had a progressive constitution including franchise for women and other civil liberties.
Conservatism
A political ideology that defends the traditional monarchical principle of authority against the onslaught of revolutionary events. Reactionary: censorship and repression to eliminate constitutional, democratic, parliamentarian or nationalist sentiments. Decrees against free speech and civil liberties
Allied Powers
British Empire, Soviet Union, United States. The "Grand Alliance"
Appeasement
willingness to concede to demands in order to preserve peace. Started with Hitler's annexation of Australia in March 1938, and then claiming German-speaking Sudetenland from in Czechoslovakia. Poland. Lithuania pressured into surrendering Memel etc
Allied Powers of WW1
UK, France, and Russia
Capitalism
An economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures and make a profit.
Tuileries
Where Marie Antoinette lived with the children
The Dominican Friars were founded by,
St. Dominic
______ is questioning things, or not believing something at face value
Skepticism
The radical right-wing group of the disaffected that formed around Il Duce in 1919 and a few years later came to power was called __________.
The Facsi
Abraham Lincoln Brigades
1936: volunteers from United States who served in the Spanish Civil War for Spanish Republicans (aided by communists) against Franco - brigade made up all sorts of people but mostly Communists from USA - headed by General Frank Murphy
Adolf Eichman trial
1959: architect of the Holocaust (tried to escape to South American but was found and given a trial) Verdict of trial = guilty (he was hung)
Charles de Gaulle's Diplomacy
1958-1960: "Awakening spirit of Europe" He critiqued NATO (US had all the nucs), hated the EEC and anti-American (built up anger about D-day and felt Europe would always be subservient to US), and rejected Britains entrance to EEC (because they are ally of US)
Otto von Bismark
Prussian Junker who used realpolitiks to unify German states under a Prussian King. Allied with liberals (although he was reactionary) to use their nationalism. 1862 became minister-president of Prussian cabinet and foreign minister. Reoorganized Prussian army without Diet's approval. Allied and broke alliances to invade and unite German states. War with Austria (Seven Weeks War in 1866) unites Germany without Austria. Then provoked Franco-Prussian war, to create sense of unity among newly-united German states. Proclaimed German Empire 1871: second Reich under Kaiser Wilhelm I
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
peace signed between Russia (Lenin. Russia is now lead by congress of soviets) and Germany. Large territorial losses sustained including Ukraine, Georgia, Finland and Polish territories, Baltic States, Belarus and territory to Turkey.
Alexander II
"Al the Great," Czar of Russia (1855-81) Reformed: emancipated serfs but it created problems cause ex-serfs struggled to pay for their land because farms were too small/farming too unproductive. Reformed credit and banking, constructed rail, introduced local assemblies to govern locally (zemstvos) removed corporate punishment, reformed military on Prussian model.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
America dropped atomic bombs. Japanese government surrendered September 1945 on battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
Charles Darwin
Wrote "Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" (1859). Natural Selection - survival of the fittest - best adapted individuals survive. Reflected contemporary view of progress based on struggle. Public applied the idea to theories of social organization
Lech Walesa
union leader in Poland of the Solidarity union which ousted the communist party.
Crop Rotation
Rotated crops throughout years to make higher plant yield
Queen Marie Antoinette
Austrian woman, married Louis XVI, executed
Fiefs were?
lands bestowed on noblemen in return for military aid.
Hyde Park, London
1969: Lead drummer for Rolling Stone's Brian Jones' funeral. Mick Jagger read poem by Percy Shelley - huge circle back to Romanticism (liberate the human being in everyway possible)
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used guerilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable (North = Communist, South = longer civil war)
Schlieffen Plan
German war plan in First World War, developed by Prussian General. In the likely event of war with Russia, Germany would first launch a devastating offensive against France via neutral Belgium, to take France out of the war, because allied Russia and France surrounded Germany. It was later modified to send some divisions to the eastern frontier too.
The Convention
The new congress. 2 sides: Radical and Less radical
After the 1st crusade,
there was immediate support and enthusiasm for the church
During the unstable period after Kaiser Wilhelm II's abdication (removal from the throne_) many armed bands grew in number and influence; among them were the Freikorps who were __________.
- Anti-Marxist, Anti-Semitic and Anti-Liberal.
Treaty of Versailles
June 28, 1919: Peace treaty to end WWI. Bad treaty: Article 231 completely blamed Germany for war. Germans had no input (not pacified) - strong restrictions on their army/navy, demilitarization of the Rhineland, harsh reparations (5 billion marcs/year), led to economic instability (and inflation)
Battle of Britain
German air force launched a series of air attacks against England. Attacked first aircraft, airfields and munitions centres, then to major population centres such as London and industrial cities like Coventry. Called Britains finest our by Churchill, because civilians endured nightly air raids. After 2 months, Germany hadn't established air superiority and so stopped
This group of people was invited to England as mercenaries in the 4th century and decided to stay after their work was over
Saxons and Franks
Where were the only permanent settlemants of the Norse Vikings?
present day Ireland and Normandy
The evening during which Nazis and their supporters attacked 7,500 Jewish stores and 200 synagogues was called (in English): __________.
The Night of Broken Glass
Battle of Jutland
only major naval battle of WW1, in the North Sea, without decisive outcome.
King Louis XVI
Not popular an spent a lot of money, executed
What happened in both England and France around the 1100's?
the number of towns increased
Which of the following is in its proper chronological order from most recent to most distant? WWI Begins, Battle of the Atlantic, Japan Surrenders, Hitler Commits Suicide. Hitler Commits suicide, Japan surrenders, Battle of The Atlantic, WWII begins. Japa
Japan Surrenders, Hitler Commits suicide, Battle of the Atlantic, WWII Begins.
By the time the Black death had ended,
1/3 of Europe's population died
In the aftermath of the 1848 revolution, Prussia was granted a new constitution which allowed for the election of a Parliament with voting based on __________.
Ethnic Heritage, only those with three generations of German Heritage were allowed to vote.
When William was crowned the King of England, he
Began combining Anglo-Saxon and Norman institutions, Gave land to Norman knights, insisted that all people owed loyalty to the king directly rather than to their lords
The decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan was taken by President Harry S. Truman __________.
Against the advice of the scientists who built it, because they thought it shouldn't be used without warning and demonstration.
What was the Night of the Long Knives?
A lethal purge of Hitler's SA, killing over a thousand officials he considered unreliable.
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