AP English Poetry Flashcards

Terms Definitions
di
2 feet
paraphrase
a restatement
octave
8 lined stanza
simile
directly expressed comparison comparing two objects "like" "as" "than"
understatement
saying less than one means
quatrain
a stanza of four lines
style
mode of expression in language
Sonnet
normally a fourteen-line iambic pentameter poem. The conventional Italian, or Petrarchan sonnet is rhymed abba, abba, cde, cde; the English, or Shakespearean, sonnet is rhymed abab, cdcd, efef, gg.
assonance
the repetition of identical vowel sounds in different words in close proximity
ex: dEEp grEEn sea
Dimeter
A metrical line containing 2 feet
rhythm
recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables
theme
main thought expressed by a work
Accent
The prominence or emphasis (stress) given to a syllable or word.
Couplet
a two-line stanza, usually with end-rhymes the same.
Irony
the contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning. Verbal irony is a figure of speech in which the actual intent is expressed in words which carry the opposite meaning. Irony is likely to be confused with sarcasm, but it differs from sarcasm in that it is usually lighter, less harsh in its wording though in effect probably more cutting because of its indirectness. The ability to recognize irony is one of the surer tests of intelligence and sophistication. Among the devices by which irony is achieved are hyperbole and understatement.
dramatic irony
reader knows something character does not know (think about Oedipus)
scansion
the act of determining the prevailing rhythm of a poem, often by dividing lines into feet,accents, and syllables
Anapest
A metrical foot consisting of 2 unaccented syllables followed by 1 accented syllable
eye rhyme
rhyme that appears correct from spelling but is half-rhyme or slant rhyme from pronunciation
metaphor
figurative use of language in which comparison is expressed w/o use of comparative term
Oxymoron
A compact paradox in which 2 successive words seemingly contradict each other
Conceit
A fanciful poetic image or metaphor that likens one thing to something else that is seemingly very different
lay
a long narrative poem, especially one that was sung by medieval minstrels called trouveres; the Lais of Marie de France are examples
terza rima
three-line stanza rhymed aba, bcb, cdc,etc. Dante’s Divine Comedy is written in terza rima.
Rhyme Royal
a seven-line stanza of iambic pentameter rhymed ababbcc, used by Chaucer and other medieval poets.
Personification
a kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics.
Elegy
a sustained and formal poem setting forth the poet’s meditations upon death or another solemn theme. Examples include Thomas Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”; Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s In Memoriam; and Walt Whitman’s “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d.”
irony of situation
situation seems incongruous to what seems appropriate or what is expected
Ye tradefull Merchants, that with weary toyle
Edmund Spenser
"Sonnet 15"
meter
number of feet within a line of traditional verse, such as iambic pentameter. reccurence of a rhythmic pattern in poetry
Feminine rhyme
Rhyme in which the repeated accented vowel is in the 2cd/3rd last syllable of the words involved.
mixed metaphors
mingling of one metaphor with another immediatly following with which first is incongruous
Masculine rhyme
Rhyme in which the repeated accented vowel sound is in the final syllable of the words involved
diction
use of words in a literary work:: formal, informal, colloquial, and slang
tone
manner the author expresses his or her attitude
enjambment
the continuation of a complete idea (a sentence or clause) from one line or couplet of a poem to the next line or couplet without a pause; an example can be found in the first line of Joyce Kilmer's poem Trees: "I think that I shall never see/A poem as lovely as a tree"; comes from the French word for "to straddle"
figurative language
writing that uses figures of speech (as opposed to literal language or that which is actual or specifically denoted) such as metaphor, irony, and simile. Figurative language uses words to mean something other than their literal meaning. “The black bat night has flown” is figurative, with the metaphor comparing night and bat. “Night is over” says the same thing without figurative language.
imagery
the images of a literary work; the sensory details of a work; the figurative language of a work. Imagery has several definitions, but the two that are paramount are the visual auditory or tactile images evoked by the words of a literary work or the image that figurative language evokes. When an AP question asks you to discuss imagery, you should look especially carefully at the sensory details and the metaphors and similes of a passage. Some diction is also imagery, but not all diction evokes sensory responses.
Pun
a play on words that are identical or similar in sound but have sharply diverse meanings. they can have serious or humorous uses.
With buckles of the purest gold
Chistopher Marlowe
"The Passionate Shepherd to His Love"
end-stopped
a poetic line ending in a full pause, usually indicated with a period or semicolon- absence of run ons and enjambment
ex: "all are but parts of one stupendous whole,
whose body Nature is, and God the soul"
Extended figure (sustained figure)
Figure of speech (metaphor, simile, personification,apostrophe) sustained/ developed through a considerable number or through a whole poem
sarcasm
a type of irony when someone seems to be praising something but is actually insulting it
tercet
3 lined stanza with the 1st and 3rd lines rhyming
Onomatopoeia
A figure of speech in which words are used to imitate sounds
Pastoral
A poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful, idealized way
antithesis
a figure of speech in which words and phrases with opposite meanings are balanced against each other; an example of is "To err is human, to forgive, divine." (Alexander Pope)
idyll, or idyl
either a short poem depicting a peaceful, idealized country scene, or a long poem that tells a story about heroic deeds or extraordinary events set in the distant past; Idylles of the King, by Alfred Lord Tennyson, is about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
Agayne I wrote it with a second hand
Edmund Spenser
"Sonnet 75"
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st
William Shakespeare
"Sonnet 18"
"Vayne man," sayd she, "that doest in vaine assay
Edmund Spenser
"Sonnet 75"
enjambment/run on line
a line having no end punctuation but running over to the next line, the contrast to end-stopped lines
Lyric
A poem such as a sonnet or an ode, that expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet; may resemble a song in form or style
A pretty babe all burning bright did in the air appear
Robert Southwell
"The Burning Babe"
With this he vanished out of sigh and swiftly shrunk away
Robert Southwell
"The Burning Babe"
chanson de geste
an epic poem of the 11th to the 14th century, written in Old French, which details the exploits of a historical or legendary figure, especially Charlemagne
But could youth last and love still breed
Sir Walter Raleigh
"The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd"
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