AP English Vocab 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
whimsical
unpredictable
browbeat
coerce
q
qualifier
coeval
contemporary
homespun
plain; simple
hamartia
tragic flaw
belie
contradict, misrepresent
Feint
Pretense, sham
autonomous
separate, independent
nuance
A subtle variation
periphery
outside boundary; perimeter
pathos
an emotional appeal.
resilient
quick to recover
incarceration
to imprison; confine.
anthology
collection of literary works
Extended metaphor
a long metaphor
erupt
burst or break out
pusillanimous
lacking in courage; fainthearted
narrative structure
the textual organization
supercilious
adj
having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy
sublime
not to be excelled; supreme
Polysyndeton
using conjunctions between clauses, Hemingway-style: I woke and I showered and I dressed and I walked the dog and by the time I got to school, I was exhausted.
ENIGMA
(n) something puzzling, a riddle
Desolate
devoid of inhabitants; deserted; barren; lifeless
dichotomy
a division into two parts
allegorical
narration or description usually restricted to a single meaning because its events, characters, etc. represent specific abstractions or ideas
tacit
understood without being openly expressed; implied:
personification
giving human qualities to non-human things
tenuous
held by a thread, slender, thin
Venerable
According a great deal of respect
didactic
intended to teach, particularly in having moral instruction as an ulterior motive
Paucity
n. an inadequate quantity, scarcity, dearth
Protocol
a proper way of doing something
grandiloquent
using lofty or pompous words; bombastic
penitent
showing or feeling regret for wrongdoing, repentant
homily
This term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving
moral or spiritual advice.
Analogy
comparison of two different things that are similar Ex. He moved like a bull in a China shop.
obstinate
stubborn; hard to control; not yielding to reason or plea
denouement
the final resolution of the intricacies of a plot, as of a drama or novel.
parody
a humorous imitation of a serious work
interloper
(n) someone who intrudes on the privacy or property of another without permission
oversimplification
fallacy in which a complex situation is simplified to the point where the complex issues are removed to reach the end
False Dilemma
A fallacy of oversimplification that offers a limited number of options (usually two) when in fact more options are available
upheaval
a radical or violent change; a forceful lifting or warping from beneath
inure
to make used to something undesirable, especially by prolonged subject; accustom; harden
excision
(n) act of cutting out or removing
surmise
to think or believe without supporting evidence, guess; likely idea that lacks definite proof
Parallel
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
rhythm
the repetitive pattern of beats in poetry
Themes of Elizabethan sonnets
beautiful and unattainable women
"in the midst of things"
in medias res
ailing
to cause pain, uneasiness, or trouble to.
purport
to give or present the often false impression of being someone or intending something
contiguous
very close or connected in space or time
prologue
section of a work preceding the main plot and serving as an introduction
rhetorical question
designating a question asked only to produce an effect or make a statement, rather than to elicit an asnwer to information
Figurative Language
Language that creates a special effect or feeling by comparing, exaggerating, or meaning something other than what it first appears to mean
Assonance
a type of internal rhyming in which vowel sounds are repeated. Ex: 'the pot's rocky, pocked surface'
colloquial language
Slang or common language that is informal
premise
statement that is the basis of an argument
gustatory imagery
language or images appealing to the sense of taste
phrase set off by commas that interrupts the flow of the sentace
parenthetical phrase
metonymy
a figure of speech that consists of the use of the name of one object or concept for that of another to which it is related, or of which it is a part, as "scepter" for "sovereignty," or "the bottle" for "strong drink," or "count heads (or noses)" for "cou
verse
a synonym for poetry; also a group of lines in a song or poem; also a single line of poetry
Irony
The use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning
Interior Monologue
A mode of narrative intended to expose the reader to the thoughts, emotions, and sensations of a character. It is a type of stream of consciousness. It is not a soliloquy, which is said out loud.
Vague Appeal to Authority
Instead of identifying who this authority is, we get vague statements about "experts" or "scientists" who have "proven" something to be "true."
point of view
the vantage point from which a story is told
cause and effect
a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another
discursive
rambling
Scope
See
retribution
revenge
ambul
walk
convoluted
intricately involved
Clavis
"a key"
impromptu
without preparation
array
range, collection
facetious
amusing; humorous.
Cherubim
celestial being: angel
candor
truthfulness; sincere honesty
William Blake
relief etching
Reticence
restraint in communicating
Pedantic
adjective
characterized by an excessive display of learning or scholarship
Counterpart
a person's "opposite number"
Recondite
(adj) diffcult/unknown subject
little knowledge
subtle
delicate, elusive, not obvious
raze
(v.) - to demolish
strive
to try really hard
jettison
to discard or throw overboard
antithesis
opposing or contrasting statements accentuated by their parallel stucture
impede
to slow the progress of
wit
In modern usage, intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights. Usually uses terse language that makes a pointed statement.
cliche
a trite or obvious remark
ethereal
(adj.) - heavenly, exceptionally delicate or refined
Replete
abundantly supplied; filled to capacity
mercurial
changeable; volatile; fickle; flighty; erratic:
Commiserate
to feel pity or sympathy for
patois
a nonstandard dialect of a language
metaphor
figure of speech using implied comparison
epic
an extremely long poem relating important, serious, and heroic events in an advanced style
Aesthetic Distance
Viewers' ability to distinguish between an artistic reality and external reality- their realization that the events of a fiction film are simulated.
retinue
group of followers accompanying a distinguished persone
oxymoron
conjoining contradictory terms (as in 'deafening silence')
Allusion
a literary, historical, religious, or mythological reference.
somnambulatory
in a state of sleep walking
allegory
an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances
profligate
utterly and shamelessly immoral or dissipated; thoroughly dissolute.
dubious
doubtful; marked by or occasioning doubt:
Asyndeton
a construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions ("They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding.")
Epiphany
some moment of insight, discovery, or revelation by which a character's life, or view of life, is greatly altered
retraction
the withdrawal of a previously stated idea or opinion
apostrophe
interupts a discussion to address a different person or thing
gratuitous
freely given; not called for by circumstances, unwarranted; voluntary, unjustified, uncalled-for
antonym: justified, warranted
incongruous
lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness
syntax
the grammatical structure of prose and poetry
gambit
in chess, an opening move that involves risk or sacrifice of a minor piece in order to gain a later advantage; any opening move of this type
Opinion
A(n) ________________ is a belief or conclusion not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof. A(n) _____________ reveals personal feelings or attitudes or states a position. ____________ should not be confused with argument.
specious
misleading, seeming to be correct or logical without actually being so
Ad hominem
an argument that attacks another's position as invalid or weak because of a human failing that has nothing to do with that position.
formal diction
language that is dignified and impersonal
Euphemism
the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt.
involuntary
not as a consequence of one's own will; spontaneous
panacea
a remedy for all diseases, evils, or difficulties
Genome
(Noun) - a full set of chromosomes; all the inheritable traits of an organism
acquisitive
able to get and retain ideas or information; concerned with acquiring wealth or property
abdicate
to step down from a position of power
Middle English
the English language of the period c1150-c1475
Ethical appeal
writer presents image of self through writing to gain reader's respect and seem reliable
Symbol
an object that is used to represent something else
Malapropism
Malapropism is an act or habit of misusing words ridiculously, esp. by the confusion of words that are similar in sound.
Eclectic
Made up of a variety of sources or styles
epistemology
study of knowledge / what we know is true
mode of discourse
the way in which information is presented in written or spoken form. Greeks believed there were four: narration, description, exposition, argumentation.
tragedy
(n.) - a disastrous event, or a work of art in which the hero meets a terrible fate
Comedy
is literature with a love story at its core. The basic plot often develops as follows: an old, established society tries to prevent the formation of a new one (the union of a young couple). The young couple succeed in the end. In comedy, human errors or problems may appear humorous.
Character - Static
Change little or none over the course of a literary work despite being given opportunities to do so
atrophy
a wasting away of the body or of an organ or part, as from defective nutrition or nerve damage.
Micro
Tiny
ingenuous
innocent
supple
flexible
denotation
dictionary definition.
plight
bad situation
hyperbole
exaggeration, overstatement
alacrity
cheerful willingness
Retort (V.)
answer
depravity
noun
extreme corruption wickedness
Synonym: sinful
perspicacious
keen; mentally sharp
bemused
muddle, fixated, interested
COMPLACENT
(adj.) smug; self-satisfied
Lyric Poem
"song-like"
-repeating rhymes
-meter
speaker is confident in beginning, a little less at end
tone- can be responded to
adroit
to have talent/ skill
annals
historical records of events
peripety
reversal in heros fortunes
somniferous
bearing or inducing sleep
Cavil
to nitpick, carp, quibble
Stymie
To HINDER or BLOCK
Erudite
having or showing profound knowledge
sarcasm
ridicule expressed in ironic phrase
paradox
a statement that seems self-contradictory but is nevertheless true
Logical
Fallacy a mistake in reasoning
Incendiary
(adj)Deliberately setting or causing fires; designed to start fires; tending to strife or rebellion;
(n)One who deliberately sets fires, arsonist, one who causes strife
Invective
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack sing strong abusive language
imperative
absolutely necessary or required; unavoidable:
Secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
first person view
told by a character
Context
Words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning.
sedulous
marked by care and persistent effort
henchman
(n.) - a trusted follower, goon
mood
feeling resulting from tone and writer's attitude/point of view
Stoicism
Indifference to pain or pleasure, impassiveness
impervious
not permitting penetration or passage; impenetrable:
marginalization
the social process of becoming or being made marginal
refute
to prove to be false; to disprove
Calumny
an abusive attack on a person's character or good name
dimeter
a line of poetry containing two feet
apposition
placing side by side two coordinat elements, the second of which serves as an explanation or modification of the fitst.
anaphora
repetition of the same words or phrases at the beginning of successive phrases
Equivocation
Using the same term with different meaning, ambiguity
Stress
The emphasis, or accent, given a syllable in pronunciation.
diction
writer's word choices with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness
distillation
the purification or concentration of a substance, the obtaining of the essence or volatile properties contained in it, or the separation of one substance from another, by such a process.
genre
of or pertaining to a distinctive literary type.
waver
verb
the act of moving back and forth
synonym: sway
Syllogism
an argument the conclusion of which is supported by two premises
Masculine Rhyme
Rhyme ending on the final stressed syllable. (old rhyme)
encomium
(n) a formal expression of praise, a lavish tribute
Deduction
the literal or dictionary meaning of a word
acerbic
harsh or severe, as of temper or expression:
bandwagon appeal
a fallacy of argument in which a course of action is recommended on the grounds that everyone else is following it.
3rd person objective
the writer tells what happens without stating more than can be inferred from the stories action or dialogue
Transition
a word or phrase that links one idea to the next and carries the reader from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph.
to obfuscate
to make unclear, to make obscure and hard to understand, to render murky
Historical Allusion
A reference to a perosn, a place, or an event in history
foreshadowing
the use of a hint or clue to suggest a larger event that occurs later in the work
bedizening
decorated
viz.
namely
fecund
highly productive
squalid
dirty, wretched
nomenclature
taxonomy, classification
disdain
contempt, scorn
Conflagration
Distructive, expensive fire
delectable
adjective
very pleasing; delightful
scurrilous
coarsely abusive, vulgar
lucid
easily understood; clear
Aversion
N. a strong dislike
hag
a witch; a sorceress
refractory
difficult to work with
Classic
Typical or accepted masterpiece
INCESSANT
(adj.) uninterrupted; unending; non-stop
effusive
uttered with unrestrained enthusiasm
concealment
the act of concealing.
arbitrary
adj. having unlimited power, uncontrolled or unrestricted by law
Simile
comparison using like or as
accessible
adj. easy to approach; obtainable
trepidation
tremulous fear, alarm, or agitation
Genocide
the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group
confute
to prove false or incorrect
ethos
The disposition, character, or fundamental values peculiar to a specific person, people, culture, or movement
parallelism
the use of corresponding grammatical or syntactical forms
litotes
the minimalization of fact or presentation of something as less significant than it is; opposite of hyperbole.
politic
seeming sensible and judicious under the circumstances
insipid
boring and stupid,[ banal, flat, inane, jejune, vapid]
complex sentence
Emelia likes Bruce Springsteen, because he makes good music.
to pronounce distinctly; to express well in words; to connect
articulate
emanate
to issue forth from a source
interdependent
mutually dependent; depending on each other.
persona
Another word for speaker or narrator. Presents the work to the reader.
condescend
come down voluntarily to a lower level; deal with people in a patronizing manner
quintet
five lines of poetry with no prescribed rhyme
disparity
inequality, the condition or fact of being unequal in age, rank, or degree
old english
the anglo-saxon language spoken from approximately 450 to 1150 AD in what is know the UK
Litany
n. a prayer consisting of short appeals to god recited by the leader alternating with responses from the congregation; any repetitive chant; a long list
motif
a standard theme, element, or dramatic stituation that recurs
undertone
attitude lying under the initial tone of the piece.
apostrohpe
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person abstraction, such as liberty or love and it is an address to someone or something that cannot answer
attitude
the position or posture assumed in connection with an action, feeling, mood EX. kneeling: prayer
Inductive reasoning
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
doppelganger
ghostly counterpart of a living person or an alter ego
recompense
to repay; remunerate; reward, as for service, aid, etc.
verisimilitude
the appearance or semblance of truth; likelihood; probability:
Epigraph
a saying or statement on the title page of a work, or used as a heading of a chapter or other section of a work
filch
to steal, especially in a sneaky way and in petty amounts
Connotation
The interpreive level of a word based on its associated images rather than its literal meaning
nepotism
the practice among those with power or influence of favoring relatives or friends, esp. by giving them jobs (noun) ANT: impartiality
myth
an imaginary story that has become an accepted part of the cultural or religious tradition of a group or society
Horation Satire
In general, a gentler, more good humored and sympathetic kind of satire, somewhat tolerant of human folly even while laughing at it.
free verse
verse that has no regular rhyme or regular meter
parable
a story that operates on more than one level and usually teaches a moral lesson
narrative
the telling of a story or an account of an event.
axiomatic
pertaining to or of the nature of an axiom; self-evident; obvious.
Zora Neal Hurston
"For the national welfare it is urgent to realize that the minorities do think and think about something other than race problems"
I’ d toss it yonder like a rind, and taste eternity.
love: dickinson
similie
 
situation: compares life on earth to a rind and conludes that life on earth is the outer shell (useless)
 
just as one might throw away the rind to a fruit in attempt to reach it sweetness, she too is willing away to throw away her life to spend eternity with her lover. 
 
 
debunk
disprove
euphoric
elated/uplifted
canted
sloping
Soph
Wise, Wisdom
forte
aptitude, specialty
altercation
angry dispute
pellucid
crystal clear
coterie
a clique
conundrum
riddle; difficult problem
cryptic
obscure; intentionally mysterious
Foible
a character flaw
syncopation
an accent, rhythm
claim
the ultimate conclusion, generalization, or point that a syllogism or enthymeme expresses. The point, backed up by support, of an argument
Objective
Unemotional, unbiased, without judgement
Circumlocution
talking around a topic
morbidity
(noun) Definition/Synonyms: death rate, fatality rate, mortality rate
Cacophonous
having an unpleasant sound
bucolic
adj- characteristic of the countryside, rural; relating to shepherds and cowherds, pastoral
to beguile
to charm or divert
ebullient
overflowing with enthusiasm and excitement; boiling, bubbling
heinous
utterly odious, wicked, evil, atrocious
inscrutable
incapable of being understood; impossible to see through physically
begging the question
arguer sidesteps question/conflict
alliance
union of two or more groups
accretion
slow growth in size or amount
pretext
-something that conceals a true purpose or object
-an excuse
adage
traditional saying, proverb or wise saying
propitiate
to make favorably inclined; appease; conciliate.
pendantic
describing an excessive display of learning or knowledge
litote
"This is no small problem" understatement, esp. that in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of its contrary, as in "not bad at all"
reclamation
(noun) Definition: retrieve or recover (something previously lost, given, or paid); obtain the return of land or houses. Synonyms: recoup, reclaim, improvement, restoration.
Abstract Language
Language describing ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific thing, people or places.
Theme
a central idea of a work
archaic
antiqutaed, from an earlier time, outdated
Grueling
very tiring, calling for an extreme effort
adjunct
(n.) something added to something else that is helpful or useful (adj.) added or connected in a subordinate capacity (SYN) associate, addition, accessory
Enjoin
to urge or impose with authority; forbid.
Logos
The appeal based on logic or reason.
Vilify
to speak ill of; defame; slander; speak ill of
detritus
loose bits and pieces of material resulting from disintegration or wearing away; fragments that result from any destruction
Panegyric
a eulogistic oration or writing; also : formal or elaborate praise
Chiasmus
inversion in the second of two parallel phrases
consummate
adj. complete or perfect in the highest degree; v. to bring to a state of completion or perfection
Antagonist
Any force in opposition to the protagonist
symbolism
the practice of representing things by symbols, or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character.
Trifling
the deliberate act of wasting time instead of working
qualms
an uneasy feeling or pang of conscience as to conduct; compunction:
epanalepsis
device of repetition in which the same expression ( single word or phrase) is repeated both at the beginning and at the end of the line, clause, or sentence.
alliteration
the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of closely connected words
Saturnine
adj. of a gloomy or surly disposition; cold or sluggish in mood
boa constrictor
snake that "constricts" or crushes its prey in its coils
epithet
a word (noun or adjective) used to point out a meaningful characteristic
subjective
of or relating to private and personal feelings and attitudes as opposed to facts and reality
refrain
a word, phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated, for effect, several times in a poem
HUBRIS
is the fatal flaw of pride that blinds the hero to his fate
shipman
huge uncouth man who can steer a ship but flounders on his horse
Syndrome
(n) a group of symptoms or sings that collectively characterize or indicate a disease, disorder, abnormality, etc.
inverted order of a sentence
this involves constructing a sentence so the predicate comes before the subject
factitious
artificial
elated
ecstatic
affable
easy-going; friendly
Critical
Finding fault
adulation
adoration;excessive praise
fiasco(noun)
a complete failure
abated
die down or decrease
Conduplicatio
resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next
Ex:If this is the first time duty has moved him to act against his desires, he is a very weak man indeed. Duty should be cultivated and obeyed in spite of its frequent conflict with selfish wishes.
urbane
sophisticated, polished, refined, and elegant in manner
Encumber
to weigh down or burden
Imagery
figurative language; mental images produced in literary work
vivacity
liveliness, animation, quality of being vivacious
Gothic
characterized by or emphasizing a gloomy setting and grotesque or violent events; such a literary or artistic style; a type of medieval architecture.
magnum opus
great literary of artistic work
ancillary
(adj) 1. subordinate, sudsidiary; 2. auxiliary, assisting
abets
To help, urges, encourages or helps
unerring
not going astray or missing the mark
Periodic Sentence
sentence that presents central meaning in the end, see loose sentence
Rectify
to correct something, to put it right
Shakespearean Sonnet
a sonnet consisting three quatrains and a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme pattern abab cdcd efef gg
freight-train style
couples short, independant clauses to make longer sequential statements. create a sense of movement and flow
bruit
(v.) to spread a report or rumor
synecdoche
using one part of an object to represent the entire object
inductive argument
Reasoning that moves from a specific example/specific examples to a general rule.
interpose
to place or come between, to intervene or interrupt
fantasy
a story that concerns an unreal world or contains unreal characters
ad hominem arguement
argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason: may attack the messenger rather than the message
red herring
attempt to shift attention away from an important issue by introducing an issue that has no logical connection to current discussion
stultify
verb - to make someone or something appear absurd, useless, worthless
quid pro quo
equal exchange-you do something for me, I do something for you
declarative sentence
the kind of sentence that makes a statement or "declares" something: "He eats yogurt."
Elegy
A type of poem that meditates on death or mortality in a serious, thoughtful manner. Elegies often use the recent death of a noted person or loved one as a starting point. They also memorialize specific dead people.
juxtapose
to place objects next to each other to compare or contrast
in medias res
refers to opening a story in the middle of the action, requiring filling in past details by exposition or flashback
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