muscle review Flashcards

Medicine
Terms Definitions
ergonomic
human engineering.
protract
to extend or protrude.
spondylitis
inflammation of the vertebrae.
tendonitis
inflammation of a tendon.
syndactyl
having certain digits joined together.
extension
the act of straightening a limb.
synovial
a lubricating fluid resembling the white of an egg, secreted by certain membranes, as those of the joints.
tubercle
a small rounded projection or excrescence, as on a bone or on the surface of the body.
rheumatoid arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, frequently accompanied by marked deformities, and ordinarily associated with manifestations of a general, or systemic, affliction.
deltoid
a large, triangular muscle covering the joint of the shoulder, the action of which raises the arm away from the side of the body.
crepitation
to make a crackling sound; crackle.
sacral
of or pertaining to the sacrum.
strain
to impair, injure, or weaken (a muscle, tendon, etc.) by stretching or overexertion.
acetabulum
the socket in the hipbone that receives the head of the thighbone.
scoliosis
an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
rotator cuff
a bandlike structure encircling and supporting the shoulder joint, formed by four muscles attached to and merging with the joint capsule.
pubis
that part of either innominate bone that, with the corresponding part of the other, forms the front of the pelvis.
bone
one of the structures composing the skeleton of a vertebrate.
intervertebral disk
the plate of fibrocartilage between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae.
coracoid
pertaining to the bone that in reptiles, birds, and monotremes articulates with the scapula and the sternum and that in humans and other higher mammals is a reduced bony process of the scapula having no connection with the sternum.
skeletal
of, pertaining to, or like a skeleton.
kyphosis
an abnormal, convex curvature of the spine, with a resultant bulge at the upper back.
glenoid
shallow or slightly cupped, as the articular cavities of the scapula and the temporal bone.
iliac
of, pertaining to, or situated near the ilium.
scapula
either of two flat, triangular bones, each forming the back part of a shoulder in humans; shoulder blade.
sprain
to overstrain or wrench (the ligaments of an ankle, wrist, or other joint) so as to injure without fracture or dislocation.
clavicle
(in humans) either of two slender bones, each articulating with the sternum and a scapula and forming the anterior part of a shoulder; collarbone.
biceps brachii
either of two flexor muscles, one
ligament
a band of tissue, usually white and fibrous, serving to connect bones, hold organs in place, etc.
abducens
either one of the sixth pair of cranial nerves composed of motor fibers that innervate the lateral rectus muscle of the eye.
ankylosis
the union or consolidation of two or more bones or other hard tissues into one.
tendon
a cord or band of dense, tough, inelastic, white, fibrous tissue, serving to connect a muscle with a bone or part; sinew.
osteoporosis
a disorder in which the bones become increasingly porous, brittle, and subject to fracture, owing to loss of calcium and other mineral components, sometimes resulting in pain, decreased height, and skeletal deformities: common in older persons, primarily
systemic
pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.
polydactyl
having more than the normal number of fingers or toes.
cervical
of or pertaining to the cervix or neck.
eversion
a turning or being turned outward or inside out.
facial nerve
either one of the seventh pair of cranial nerves composed of motor fibers that control muscles of the face except those used in chewing.
acromion
the outward end of the spine of the scapula or shoulder blade.
trigeminal nerve
either one of the fifth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of mastication, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the head and face to the brain.
spinous process
a spinelike process of a bone, esp. the dorsal projection from the center of the arch of a vertebra.
popliteal
of or pertaining to the ham, or part of the leg back of the knee.
epicondyle
a rounded protuberance at the end of a bone, serving as a place of attachment for ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
condyle
the smooth surface area at the end of a bone, forming part of a joint.
external auditory meatus
the canal extending from the opening in the external ear to the tympanic membrane.
olfactory nerve
either one of the first pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct to the brain the impulses from the mucous membranes of the nose.
humerus
the long bone in the arm of humans extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
inversion
the turning inward of a part, as the foot.
optic nerve
either one of the second pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the retina to the brain.
ulna
the bone of the forearm on the side opposite to the thumb.
retraction
the act of retracting or the state of being retracted.
vagus nerve
either one of the tenth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, heart, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from these structures to the brain.
bursa
a pouch, sac, or vesicle, esp. a sac containing synovia, to facilitate motion, as between a tendon and a bone.
subacromial
the outward end of the spine of the scapula or shoulder blade.
plantar
of or pertaining to the sole of the foot.
glossopharyngeal nerve
either of the ninth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, the soft palate, and the parotid glands, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses to the brain from the pharynx, the middle ear, and the p
abduct
to move or draw away from the axis of the body or limb (
zygomatic arch
the bony arch at the outer border of the eye socket, formed by the union of the cheekbone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
adduct
to move or draw toward the axis of the body or one of its parts (
spinal accessory nerve
either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that innervate the pharyngeal, trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and motor fibers from the brain that join the vagus to innervate the thoracic and
carpal tunnel syndrome
a common disorder of the wrist and hand characterized by pain, tingling, and muscular weakness, caused by pressure on the median nerve in the wrist area and often associated with trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, or edema of pregnancy.
 
 
 
triceps
arm
brachioradialis
flexes forearm
Leg
Achilles Tendon
Semitendonosus
Origin:  Ischial tuberosityInsertion:  Medial surface of upper tibiaAction:  Flexes knee; medially rotates tibia on femur when knee is flexed; medially rotates femur when hip is extended; counteracts forward bending at hips
Frontalis
Origin: epichronal aponeurosisInsertion: skin of eyebrow & bridge of nose
Triceps brachii
(elbow) extension
ANTAGOIST - ROW
PECS
Rotate Scapula
Pectoralis Minor; Trapezius
Temporalis and Masseter
Closes jaw
vastus medialis
extension of leg
Femoral Triangle
Inguinal Ligament
Adductor Longus
Sartorius
Spinalis
Spinalis.
 
Erector spinae consists of lots of small fibres which are situated very close to the spine.Origin    * Nuchal Ligament    * Cervical and Thoracic Spinous processesInsertion    * Cervical and Thoracic Spinous processes    * Occipital BoneActions    * Extension of the spine    * Lateral flexion (side-bending) of the spine    * Maintains correct curvature of the spine
 
Daily uses    * Maintaining good postureSynergistExtension    * Longissimus (Bilaterally)    * Iliocostalis (Bilaterally)Lateral Flexion    * Multifidi    * Rotatores    * Semispinalis    * Quadratus LumborumAntagonistExtension    * Rectus Abdominus    * External Oblique (Bilaterally)    * Internal Oblique (Bilaterally)ShortenedDoing the bridge poseLengthenedArching back
oris
mouth; example: orbicularis oris
Types of muscle tissue
SkeletalCardiacSmooth
Innervation of Gastrocnemius
tibial nerve
adduction
movement toward midline of body
Brachioradialis (Insertion)
Styloid Process of Radius
Subscapularis
 
Action
Stabilize and rotate glenohumeral joint
Occipitolfrontalis
Origin: Occipital
Insertion: Skin of Eyebrow, Nose
Action: Elevates Brows; Moves Scalp
Intercostalis Internus
(Internal Intercostal)
retracts the ribs
instep tarsals
flexor hallucis brevis origin
rectus femoris
extends leg at knee
Supinator
Origin: upper ulnaInsertion: upper radiusAction: supinates handAntebrachium - deep to extensor carpi radialis brevis
Origin of Trapezius
occipital, spines C7-T12
Gross Microscopic Anatomy: Skeletal Muscle
1.Muscle2.Fascicles3.Muscle Fibers(cells)4.Myofibrils5.Thick and thin filaments
Gluteus Maximus
Thigh Abduction, Thigh Extension, Lateral Rotation of Thigh
Levator ani
Origin:  Inner surface of lesser pelvis from pubis through tendinous arch of obturator internus to spine of ischiumInsertion:  Coccyx via anococcygeal body; walls of urethra, vagina, and anal canalAction:  Compresses anal canal and reinforces external anal and urethral sphincters; supports uterus and other pelvic viscera; aids in the falling away of the feces; vertical movements affect pressure differences between abdominal and thoracic cavities and thus aid in breathing
Quadratus Femoris (Insertion)
Interotrochanteric Crest of Femur
Clavotrapezius (cat)
O:
I: clavicle
A: extends humerus
 
 
PECTINEUS
l12. O- superior pubic ramus
 
I- pectineal line (just below lesser trochanter)
 
A- hip flexion and adduction
Note- femoral triangle
Semispinalis Capitis
muscle deep to splenius capitis
 
O: vertebrae
I: occiptal
Semimembranosus
extends thigh; flexes knee; medially rotates leg
Sternocleidomastoid
(neck-anterior and lateral) tilts head laterally and anteriorly
intercalated discs
provides attachment sites for myofibrils between adjacent cardiac mm cells
Fulcrum
Pivot point is called a fulcrum.
Upper arm muscle located most anterior
Bicep
TERES MAJOR
located inferiorly to teres minor

action: extends, medially rotates, and adducts humerus

synergist of latissimus dorsi
medial rectus
cn iii, moves eyeball medially
The smallest functional unity of the muscle fiber is?
sarcomere
myoma
tumor staring in muscle tissue( greek, oma means tumor)
Rectus abdominis
Origin:  Pubic symphysis and superior margin of pubisInsertion:  Xiphoid process, costal cartilages 5-7Action:  Flex lumbar region of vertebral column, producing forward bending at the waist
Extensor Hallucis Longus (Origin)
Anterior surface of fibula
What innervates the Pectoralis minor?
Medial pectoral nerve
 
 
MEDIAL PTERYGOID
O-medial side of ptyergoid process (medial surface of lateral protion of pterygoid process)
 
I- angle and ramus of mandible
 
A- chewing; elevates and protracts mandible and moves it from side to side
External oblique
tenses abdominal wall & compresses content; diagnol fibers
Latissimus Dorsi
major axial muscle of the shoulder
 
broad back muscle that extends from the waist to the armpit
Fascia
Layers of fibrous tissue covering & separating muscle.
Quadriceps femoris
(anterior thigh) consists of four muscles the rectus femoris(flexion of the hip and extension of the knee), the Vastus lateralis (extension of the knee), the Vastus Intermedius ( extension of the knee), and the Vastus medialis ( extension of the knee)
Language
Language refers to a system of symbols used to communicate with others. In humans language is characterized by infinite generativity and rule systems.
Supraspinatusaction: Abducts arm
origin: posterior surface of scapulainsertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
Extensor Hallicus Longus: Action
toe extension, dorsiflexion, inversion
Origin of Flexor Digitorum Profundus
anterior medial ulna
myofibrils
-100s to 1000s of cytoskeletal fibers that fill up most of muscle cells
-composed of thick and thin protein filaments capable of contraction
sarcomere - basic contractile unit of myofibril (gives muscle striated appearance)
-thick filaments (myosin)
-thin filaments (actin)
corrugator supercilli
 
origin
arch of frontal bone above nasal bone
Extensor hallucis longus
Origin:  Anterior surface of middle of fibula, interosseous membraneInsertion:  Distal phalanx IAction:  Extends great toe, dorsiflexes foot
Rhomboid capitis (cat)
O: vertebrae
I: scapular spine
A: hold dorsal part of scapula to cat's back
pronator tares
Action: pronation and flexion of the forearm
External Intercostals
11 pairs of superficial muscles of thoracic cavity
 
lift and expand ribcage
Temporalis Functions
Starts at Temporal, ends at mandible, closes the jaw.
3 muscles of the longissimus muscle
longissimus thoracis
longissimus cervicis
longissimus capitis
ANS, hormones, local metabolites
what smooth muscle contraction(calcium uptake) is influenced by
Fix
Fix refers to hold a structure in place. To preserve a tissue by means of a fixative.
Biceps Femoris
O = Ischial tuberosity and linea aspera of femurI = Head of fibula; tibiaA = Flexes leg; extends thigh
sternocleidomastiod
paired muscles on either side of the neck that allow you to move your head.
muscle unit
bundle of fascicles which functions as a unit
When a muscle contracts the ______ and _______ filaments slide over each other shortening the sarcomere.
actin; myosin
Levator scapulae ventralis (cat)
O: occipital bone
I: vertebral border of scapula
A: elevates scapula
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
O. OUTER-LATERAL SURFACE OF UPPER 8 RIBSI. VERTEBRAL BORDER OF SCAPULA ANTERIOR SURFACE
Annular Ligaments
these are thickenings of fascia on the flexor aspect of the digits. The palmar annular ligament is a thick fibrous structure on the palmar/plantar aspect of the metacarpophalangeal (metatarsophalangeal) joint and holds the SDFT and DDFT firmly in place. the proximal annular ligament is associated w/ the first phalange and holds DDFT and SDFT in place. supports the DDFT at second phalange.
Describe a back sprain
An injury where only ligamentous tissue or the attachment of ligament to bone is involved, without dislocation or fracture
 
Results from strong contractions related to movements of the vertebral column, such as extensive extension or rotation
Calcaneal tendon
A thick tendon at the heel that attaches the triceps surae muscles to the calcaneus is a calcaneal tendon.
Zygomatic Major action
Action: runs obliquely across front of face from upper corner of mouth draws the angle of mouth upward and outward - assists in parting lips
pectoralis
either of two muscles on each side of the upper and anterior part of the thorax, the action of the larger
Muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg:GASTROCNEMIUS
O:femoral condyles; INS:calcaneus via achilles tendon; ACT:flexes leg & plantarflexes foot; INNERV:tibial nerve
Actions of Serratus Anterior
Rotates scapula so its inferior angle moves laterally and upward
Protracts and holds scapula against chest wall
abduction and raising of arm and in horizontal arm movements (punching)
CELL RESPIRATION
CELL RESPIRATION IS A SERIES OF OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT CHAMGE GLOCOSE INTO PYRUATE IN THE CYTOPLASM AND THEN PROCESS THE PYRUVATE IN MITOCHONDRIA TO MAKE ENERGY TO RECHARGE THE STORES OF ATP THIS ISWHY THE MITOCHONDRIA ARE CALLED THE POWER HOUSE OF THE CELL
Fibularis Tertius: insertion
Base of the dorsum of the 5th metatarsal bone
Smooth muscle tissue differs from other muscle tissue in that?
calcium ions interact with calmodulin to trigger muscle contraction
what is the neurotransmitter?
this chemical is released when a nerve impulse reaches the axon terminals
External intercostalsorientated as if hands going into pockets
O:Inferior border of a rib I: superior border of the next rib A: elevates the ribs
Action of Tensor Fascia Latae
Steadies the knee and trunk on thigh by making iliotibial tract taut
What is the action of the descending part of the trapezius?
Elevates the shoulder (not the joint)
THE SUB SET OF REACTIONS IN CELL RESPIRATION
THEY ARE GLYCOLISIS , CITRIC ACID CCYLE ALSO CALLED THE KREBS CYCLE AND ELECTRON TRANSPORT
/ 145
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online