Muscle Tissue 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sarcomere
IIa
"hybrid"aerbic+glycolysisred-pink color
Fibromyalgia Symptoms:
 
Stiffness
Unrefresshing sleep
tension headaches
IBS w/ recurring diarrhea and constipation
Difficulty with concentration and related cognitive functions
Depression and mood disorders
Restless leg syndrome
Vaginal pain and dryness
Painful menstrual  periods 
Irritable bladder and urinary complaints
myosin
thick myofilaments
do the pulling
myosin molecule:head,hinge,tail
Force
Muscle contraction produces this
Aponeurosis
A broad flat tendon
this muscle tissue contracts automatically
cardiac
Characteristics of muscles
Contractility, excitability, extensability, and elasticity
Strains
-Injury of muscle and/or tendon 
-traumatic or chronic use etiology
impaired contractility
adhesions
Involuntary
These muscles contract without conscious control
Treppe
increasing availability of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmSTAIRCASE EFFECT
Thick myofilaments
MyosinCross bridges (myosin heads)
The varicosities release neurotransmitter into a wide synaptic cleft in the general area of the smooth muscle cells. Such junctions are called ____ ____.
diffuse junctions.
Perimysium
Covers fascicles. Made of Fibrous CT
Skeletal muscle
Muscle responsible for voluntary movement, 40% of body's weight, contracts 100% always
neuromuscular junction
communication *synapse between motor neuron and myofiber
Proprioceptors
type of neural receptor
 
occur in skeleton muscle
tendons, joints, ligaments, connective tissue covering bones/muscles
 
advise brain about our movements
monitors degree of stretch of organs they occupy
Insertion
The most movable muscle attachment end
Epimysium
An overcoat of dense regular connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle
The banding pattern of myofibrils arises from two orderly arrangements of two structures: (1) and (2)
(1)myofilaments
What is titin?
makes of elastic filaments
describe T tubules.


•Continuous with the sarcolemma


•Penetrate the cell’s interior at each A
band–I band junction

•Associate with the paired terminal cisternae to
form triads that encircle each sarcomere






An “overcoat” of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle.
Epimysium
Neurotransmitter
Chemicals that send signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse (junction that permits a neuron to pass an electrical signal to another cell)
extensibility
the ability of the muscles to stretch
Dromatrophic affect
Speed/velocity of an impulse to contractility
Acetylcholinesterase (Ach-ase)
breaks down Ach
found in synaptic cleft and ssarcolemma
motor unit
motor neuron and all myofibrils innervated by it used for precise movements large body movements
Sarcoplasm
cytoplasm of the sarcolemma, it is occupied mainly by long protein bundles called myofibrils.
Isometric Contraction
Increasing muscle tension (muscle does not shorten during contraction)
junction at which ach is expelled
diffuse junction
Most skeletal muscles span joints and are atatched to (1) in at least two places
bones
(1)channels close and (2) channels open
(1)Na (2)K
NAMEas this ion diffuses from the cell, it restores the eletrical polarity of the scarolemma
K+
Which muscle fiber cells are the longest?
skeletal
Fasciculi(fasciles)
A group or bundle of muscle fibers
describe cardiac muscle tissue


•Only in the heart•Striated 

•Involuntary





The recruitment process is not random; instead it is dictated by the ___ principle.
size
3 types of muscle tissue
cardiac, smooth, skeletal
generating body heat
through muscle physiology to help maintain a near perfect resting 98.6 degrees fahrenheit
MD and Massage
-Sensation remains so massage is safe
-Work with health care team, especially if circulatory system is compromised
-All modalities indicated
Synaptic Cleft
The space between the axon terminal and the membrane of the target cell.
What are graded responses?
1)change of frequency of stimulation2)chnage of strength of stimulation
NAMEbear the active sites to which the myosin heads attach during contraction
G actin
NAMEthese muscles have striations and can be controled voluntary
skeletal muscle fibers
5 types of muscle contractions
1. concentric-muscle shortens2. eccentric-muscle lengthens3. isometric-muscle doesn't move4. isotonic-same speed and tension on muscle5. isokinetic-same pace of movement
The __ ___, a coin-shaped sheet composed largely of the protein alpha actinin, anchors the thin filaments.
Z disc
intercalated discs
discs between two cells that allow stuff to move between cells, have gap junctions
tendon sheaths
these are located in the foot ankle wrist and hand. these are lined by a synovial membrane which allows for the smooth operation of tendons while preventing its slipping. inflammation of these sheaths is called tendinitis or tenosynovitis. the best remedy is rest and the use of anti-inflammatory medications
axon terminals
branced ends of axon of somatic motor neuron
White Muscle Fibers
Fast twitch, fatigue prone fibers. Light in color due to reduced myoglobin. Found in sprinters.
Generation of AP along sarcolemma events:
1)Local depolarization: chemically ligand gated channels are opened by ach attachment that allows sodium in and potassium out.2)Generation and Propogation of AP: spreads in all directions, and once threshold is reached(endplatepotential) AP is spread down sarcolemma.
What holds indivdual muscle fibers together?
by connective tissue sheaths
Cross bridges (myosin heads)
the golf clubs headshave actin binding sites
A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it supplies is called a ___ ___
motor unit
Muscle tissue 1. vascularity2. number of cells3. Motion
1. Highly vascularized2. Highly cellular3. Contracts
4. characteristc of muscle
elasticity- ability of muscle fibers to spring back after contraction/extension
The 2 Types of Muscle Contractions Are:
Isometric and Isotonic contraction
What are striations?
are repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands
rigor mortis
a few hours after death ATP runs out, myosin cannot detach from actin, calcium isnt taken up my SR and their is continual muscle contraction
What happens when the muscle contracts?
the muscles insertion moves toward the orgin
define thin filaments.
run the length of the I band and partway into
the A band




What is cardiac muscle tissues?
occurs only in the heart where it constitutes the bulk of the heart walls
Steps in the Sliding Filament Mechanism
Myosin begins in a low energy form with the head bent toward the tail, bound to molecule of ATP.
 
1) (reach) Myosin hydrolyzes ATP. Energy released from ATP changes myosin to a high-energy extended shape.
 
2) (grab) High-energy myosin binds to actin – forms the myosin-actin cross-bridge.
 
3) (pull) Myosin returns to the low energy state – the power stroke – myosin bends back toward the tail, pulling actin with it.
 
4) (release) Myosin binds to new ATP causing it to releases the actin (myosin can’t release actin if there is no ATP – causes rigor mortis after death).
 
Each myosin can pull 5 times per second. Contraction continues as long as the neuron continues to signal and ATP is available.
What does the binding of Ca2+ to troponin cause? (2)
(1)the blocking of action potential (2)actin active binding sites to be exposed
What occurs when Ca is released from SR?
Ca binds to troponin, which activated tropomyosin. Then myosin attaches and crossbridge is formed.
Describe the first step of the action potential.
. First the membrane areas adjacent to the depolarized motor end plate are depolarized by local currents that spread to them from the neuromuscular junction. This opens voltage-gated sodium channels there, so Na+ enters, following its electrochemical gradient, and initiates the action potential
Contractility
Shortens
Smooth
.involuntary .no striations.uninucleated
Muscle Type


Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
isometric
muscle does not shorten
3.elasticity
can recoil after contraction
Troponin
Muscle regulatory protien, binds calcium
Contactililty
The ability to shorten forcibly
Repolirzation and delporization ocur in (1) directions
same
M line
Middle of H zone
myoblasts fuse to form
muscle fiber
types of muscle tissue
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Muscle spasms 
Involuntary and often painful contractions of muscle 
Cause still a mystery, may be one or more of:
 
muscle is overused or injured
nerve irritation (disk herniation)
stress
dehydration
alcoholism
medications
reduced amounts of calcium and magnesium
Sarcolemma
plasma membrane of a muscle fiber
Acetylcholine
The neurotransmitter released by a motor neuron at the neoromuscular junction; one of the principal neurotransmitters of the peripheral nervous system
Z discs of smooth muscle
Dense bodies
NAMEis the succesive groupings of three membraneous structures
triads
NAMEis a sheetlike tendon that anchors the muscle to the connective tissue coverings of a skeletal element
aponeurosis
Shorten
What happens to sarcomeres during muscle contraction?
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1211/flashcards/716464/jpg/posteriorthoracic.jpg
Posterior Thoracic Muscles ; Note: Thorax grp( Traps, Rhomb.) Pectoral Girdle, post. head/neck group
contraction in pregnancy begans at week
7
Myofilaments
1. thick - myosin2. thin - actin
Hemoglobin
Pigment containing iron found in red blood cells, carries 97% of oxygen in the body
Muscle Fiber
In skeletal muscle, a single multi-nuclei cell.
neuromuscular junction
NMJ
connection and  btwn nervous system and skeletal muscle fiber that occurs at specialized intercellular connection---actually little space btwn called synapse.
Muscle Energy
ATP
already in cell
used for first few second of activity
 
2 main sources of ATP Regeneration
1. Creatine Phosphate (CP)
2.Anaerobic cellular respiration
3.Aerobic cellular respiration
T Tubules
Elongated tubes that penetrate into the cell's interior where the A band and I band meet up.

Associated with the paired terminal cisternae to form triads.

Conduct impulses to the deepest regions of the muscle.

These impusles signal for the relase of calcium ions from adajacent terminal cisternae.
How much of energy released from muscle contraction is converted to useful work?
40%
NAMEare myofilaments that extend the entire length of the A band
thick filaments
Muscle cell, muscle fiber or myofiber
muscle cell
skeletal muscle accounts for at least __ of body mass
40%
Intercalated Disks
Branching Cells that fit tightly together.
Muscle Relaxation
1. Stimulus stops. 2.SACh is destroyed by AchEsterase or diffuses throughout the synaptic cleft. Membrane is no longer permeable to Na+. ACh also diffuses away.3.Ca2+ transported (active, ATP used) back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.4.17. Low [Ca2+] in sarcoplasm causes Ca2+ to leave the troponin. 5.The tropomyosin shifts around to cover the myosin binding sites. The sarcomere will lengthen as the filaments slide back to their original position. or1. diffusinon of potassium ions out of the cells2. operation of the sodium potassium pump, the active transport mechanism that moves the sodium and potassium ions back to their initial positions.
Smooth muscle
Involuntary muscle found in walls of hollow organs, eyes, skin, and glands, controlled by Beta 2
power stroke
physical movement of the myosin head toward the M line after the cross bridge is fomed
the myosin is the doing the work but the actin is doing the moving
ATP is required
 
Voluntary
These muscles can contract at the will of the individual
Triad
3 unit group consisting of one T tubule lying between two adjacent terminal cisternae.
What are the voltage-gated channels that release Calcium ions from SR?
dHP and Ryanodine.
NAMEis when Na enters the cell and the resting potential is decreased
depolrization
individual muscle fibers are wrapped and held together by several different (1)
connective tissue sheaths
Ca provides the final go for (1)
muscle contraction
define H zone.
lighter midregion where filaments do not overlap 




_____ is the ability to be stretched or extended.
Extensibility
some functions of muscle(6)
movement, maintain posture, temp regulation, storing and moving materials(calcium storage) support organs, along with ligaments joint stabilization
Neuromuscular synapse
Junction between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber
What is a muscle?


Dominant tissue in hollow organs and heart
Nearly hald the body's mass made of muscle
Transforms chemical energy (ATP) into mechanical energy
Myo, mys, and sarco
Prefixes that all refer to muscle
NAMEeach of these, in general, has one nerve, an artery, and one or more veins
each muscle cell
What is aponeurosis?
is a sheetlike tendon that anchors the muscle to the connective tissue covering of a skeletal element
What are thick filaments?
are myofilaments that extend the entire length of the A band
Muscle performs four important functions for the body: what are they?
It produces movement, maintains posture, stabilizes joints, and generates heat.
study table on pg 45
Enter your back text here.
Calcium channel blockers
Help to relax muscles, lower BP, lower HR, and dialates blood vessels
MPS symptoms (mayo clinic) 
 
-Deep aching pain in a muscle
-Pain that persists or worsens
-Muscle stiffness
-Joint stiffness near the affected muscle
-Area of tension in your muscle that may feel like a knot or tight spot and may be particularly sensitive to touch
-Difficulty sleeping due to pain
What is exicability?
is the ability to receive and respond to a stimulus
define thick filaments.
run the entire length of an A band




What is a T-tubule?
An extension of the cytoplasm used to conduct nerve impulse to sarcolemma
What is the most distingusihing functionial characterisic of muscles?
is thier ability to transform chemical energy into directed mechanical energy
smooth can be found in the _____, ______, _______, and _______
digestive tract, bladder, bronchial passageways, and blood vessels
Why are indirect attachments more common?
bc of their durabilty and small size
Why muscles generating heat when they contract, so important?
bc the heat is important in mantaining normal body temp
When a nerve impulse reaches the end of an axon, voltage-gated calcium channels in its membrane open, allowing ___ to flow in from the extracellular fluid.
Ca2+ (propelled by its electrochemical gradient)
describe the ion channels in the plasma membrane (voltage-gated channels).
open and close in response to membrane potential
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