grow in size
Connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers
Contraction without muscle shortening
flat tendon(like galea aponeurotica)
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds and separates fascicles.
looks like been sprout
head moves back and forth
The hinge portion of the tail allows vertical movement so that the head can bind to actin on the thin filament
starch-like carbohydrate that provides energy for the cell during heightened levels of excercise.
|_________ are connected by interconnected network of ER||
|NAMEthis protien's function include holding the thick filaments in place thus organization of the A band (2)assisting the muscle cell to spring back into shape after being stretched||
|Axon terminals (telodendria)||
Dendritessynaptic end bulbs
long rows of repeating segments
|average muscle tissue percentage of total body mass in men||
space between axon and myofiber
-variety of lower leg problems
-medial tibial stress syndrome
chronic or acute compartment syndrome
|True or false: Myofibrils are surrounded with CT||
|Ca binding site in smooth muscle||
|What do sacroplasm contain? (2)||
|NAMEresemble bundles of sticks that are groups of wrapped endomysium within each skeletal muscle||
Also called "hypodermis" or "subcutaneus" tissueseparates muscle from skin
Upper Extremity; note pectoral girdle (delt, lat) Biceps brachii, brachiallis, brachioradialis
Description: Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells, obvious striations.
Covers the muscle. Made of dense regular CT.
myosin filament comes in 2 distinct isoforms. this determines if the muscle fiber is a fast twitch or a slow twitch one
Collagen fibers of the epimysium continue as a strong fibrous tendon that merges into the periosteum of a nearby bone.
smooth but steady increase in musclur tension produced by increasing the the number of active motor units.
mental decision about how many muscles fibers are required for a task
functions of muscle
produce body movement
integrations of muscles, bones, and joints
stabilize body position
postural muscles contract continuously
regulate organ volume
sphincter muscles control hollow organ emptying
movement of substances w/in the body
cardiac muscle moves blood, peristalsis
(thermogenesis) up to 85% of body heat
|What makes smooth muscle different than striated?||
no T-tubule system
Each cell surrounded by thin CT
Random arrangement of muscle fiber
3 types of filaments: thick, thin, intermediate
An enzyme located in the synaptic cleft that rapidly degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In muscle cells, the immediate breakdown of acetylcholine prevents repetitive stimulation of the motor end plate in the absence of action potentials.
|direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate.||
creatine phosphate+ADp=creatine+ATPresult: 1 ATP per CP-only 15 secs worth.
|Skeletal muscle fibers contain two sets of (1)||
|NAMEis a red pigment that stores oxygen||
Looks like two golf clubs twisted togethera "motor protein" - uses ATP to push or pull molecules
|In ____ ____, the muscle’s connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle either as a ropelike tendon or as a sheetlike aponeurosis||
.myofilaments are able to sicle past each other during contractions.the muscle shortens and movement occurs
Unique ability of cardiac muscle to generate it's own electrical activity
Filaments made of actin. Active sites on the actin subunits are covered by tropomyosin. Tropomyosin has a small calcium binding protien called troponin attached to it.
Effects of Exercise on Muscles
Increase in capillaries surrounding muscles fibers
Increase in mitochondria in muscle fibers
More myoglobin synthesized
More efficient muscle metabolism
Resistance to fatigue
skeletal muscle hypertrophy (muscle gets bigger)
Increased size (not number) of individual muscle fibers
An increase in muscle fiber diameter
More myofibrils, mitochondria, SR, and other cytoplasmic structures
Results from forceful, repetitive muscular activity
Anaerobic makes muscles bigger
Aerobic builds endurance
A protein present in M lines that makes them appear darker
|Motor end plate||
End of sarcolemma where Ach binds.
|What do the prefixes, myo, mys, or sacro, refer to?||
|the ionic concentration of the resting state is restored by the (1)||
Na K pump
ability to receive and respond to stimuli
|) when a muscle contracts, the movable bone, the muscle’s ______, moves toward the immovable or less movable bone, the muscle’s ____||
has actin troponin and tropomyosin, on outsides
the ability of muscle to return to its original shape
|Fuel for the body||
Stored as Glycogen in the muscles and liver
Thousands of glucose molecules joined together
used when glucose is running short
A single nerve cell that extends from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland
|What is myoglobin?||
is a red pigment that stores oxygen
|What is TnC?||
is a inhibitory subunit that binds calicum ions
|what are the 4 muscle functions?||
1.Movement of bones or fluids (e.g., blood) 2.Maintaining posture and body position3.Stabilizing joints 4.Heat generation (especially skeletal muscle)
|Function: Voluntary movement/control||
Location: in skeletal muscles attached to bones or occassionally skin.
|the tendon of origin||
is usually attached to bones that remain stationary during a desired action. these tendons tend to be short and broad
|A single motor neuron axon and all the muscle fibers it supplies is called a:||
|chemically gated Na/K channels||
local voltage change @ end plate potential.depolarization.
|What is myosin?||
is the protien that makes of thick filaments
|what is the operation of a gated channel?||
•Closed when a neurotransmitter is not bound to the extracellular receptor•Open when a neurotransmitter is attached to the receptor
|deep fascia location and type||
surrounds whole muscle groups, dense irregular
|What are the functions of titin?||
(1)holding the thick filaments in place and thus orgainazation of the A band (2)assisting the muscle cell to spring back into shape after being stretched
|Why are the connective tissue wrappings of skeletal muscle important? What is the function of the tendons?||
They contain muscles and give them shape. They are attached to tendons that provide leverage. They direct muscle contraction and extension, in order to direct movement to desired places. Tendons attach muscle to bone and provide an extension of connective tissues.
|What is smooth muscle tissues?||
is found in the walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach, urinary bladder, and respiartory passages
|What is an A band?||
A bands are the dark bands of a sarcomere that contain the H zone.
|describe the ion channels in the plasma membrane (chemically gated channels).||
open with binding of a specific neurotransmitter
|What does K+ do as it diffuses from the cell?||
restores the eletrical polarity of the scarolemma