Muscle Tissues Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sarcoplasm
Cytoplasm
Thin myofilaments
ActinTropomyosinTroponinTropomyosin-Troponin complex
hypertrophy
grow in size
Endomysium
Connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers
Isometric
Contraction without muscle shortening
aponeurosis
flat tendon(like galea aponeurotica)
Perimysium
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds and separates fascicles.
myosin
looks like been sprout
thick filament
head moves back and forth
The hinge portion of the tail allows vertical movement so that the head can bind to actin on the thin filament
Glycogen
starch-like carbohydrate that provides energy for the cell during heightened levels of excercise.
_________ are connected by interconnected network of ER
Myofibrils
NAMEthis protien's function include holding the thick filaments in place thus organization of the A band (2)assisting the muscle cell to spring back into shape after being stretched
titin
Axon terminals (telodendria)
Dendritessynaptic end bulbs
sarcomeres
long rows of repeating segments
average muscle tissue percentage of total body mass in men
40%
synaptic cleft
space between axon and myofiber
shin splints
-variety of lower leg problems
-medial tibial stress syndrome
periostitis
stress fractures
chronic or acute compartment syndrome 
True or false: Myofibrils are surrounded with CT
False
Ca binding site in smooth muscle
calmodulin
What do sacroplasm contain? (2)
(1)glycosomes (2)myoglobin
NAMEresemble bundles of sticks that are groups of wrapped endomysium within each skeletal muscle
fasicles
Superficial fascia
Also called "hypodermis" or "subcutaneus" tissueseparates muscle from skin
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1211/flashcards/716464/jpg/upperextrem.jpg
Upper Extremity; note pectoral girdle (delt, lat) Biceps brachii, brachiallis, brachioradialis
Skeletal Muscle
Description: Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells, obvious striations.
Epimysium
Covers the muscle. Made of dense regular CT.
myofilaments
myosin filament comes in 2 distinct isoforms. this determines if the muscle fiber is a fast twitch or a slow twitch one
Indirect Attachment
Collagen fibers of the epimysium continue as a strong fibrous tendon that merges into the periosteum of a nearby bone.
Recruitment
smooth but steady increase in musclur tension produced by increasing the the number of active motor units.
 
mental decision about how many muscles fibers are required for a task
functions of muscle
 
produce body movement
integrations of muscles, bones, and joints
 
stabilize body position
postural muscles contract continuously 
 
regulate organ volume
sphincter muscles control hollow organ emptying
 
movement of substances w/in the body
cardiac muscle moves blood, peristalsis
 
generate heat
(thermogenesis) up to 85% of body heat
What makes smooth muscle different than striated?
smooth has...
mononicleated
Spindle-shaped
no T-tubule system
Each cell surrounded by thin CT
Random arrangement of muscle fiber
3 types of filaments: thick, thin, intermediate
Acetylcholinesterase
An enzyme located in the synaptic cleft that rapidly degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In muscle cells, the immediate breakdown of acetylcholine prevents repetitive stimulation of the motor end plate in the absence of action potentials.
direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate.
creatine phosphate+ADp=creatine+ATPresult: 1 ATP per CP-only 15 secs worth.
Skeletal muscle fibers contain two sets of (1)
intracellular tubules
NAMEis a red pigment that stores oxygen
myglobin
Myosin
Looks like two golf clubs twisted togethera "motor protein" - uses ATP to push or pull molecules
In ____ ____, the muscle’s connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle either as a ropelike tendon or as a sheetlike aponeurosis
indirect attachments
isotonic contractions
.myofilaments are able to sicle past each other during contractions.the muscle shortens and movement occurs
Intrinsic Automaticity
Unique ability of cardiac muscle to generate it's own electrical activity
Thin Filaments
Filaments made of actin. Active sites on the actin subunits are covered by tropomyosin. Tropomyosin has a small calcium binding protien called troponin attached to it.
Effects of Exercise on Muscles
 
 
Aerobic exercise
 
Increase in capillaries surrounding muscles fibers
Increase in mitochondria in muscle fibers
More myoglobin synthesized
More efficient muscle metabolism
Greater endurance
Strength
Resistance to fatigue
 
Resistance Exercise
 
skeletal muscle hypertrophy (muscle gets bigger)
Increased size (not number) of individual muscle fibers
An increase in muscle fiber diameter
More myofibrils, mitochondria, SR, and other cytoplasmic structures
Results from forceful, repetitive muscular activity
 
Anaerobic makes muscles bigger
Aerobic builds endurance
Desmin
A protein present in M lines that makes them appear darker
Motor end plate
End of sarcolemma where Ach binds.
What do the prefixes, myo, mys, or sacro, refer to?
muscle
the ionic concentration of the resting state is restored by the (1)
Na K pump
define excitability.
ability to receive and respond to stimuli
) when a muscle contracts, the movable bone, the muscle’s ______, moves toward the immovable or less movable bone, the muscle’s ____
insertion,origin
i band
has actin troponin and tropomyosin, on outsides
elasticity
the ability of muscle to return to its original shape
Fuel for the body
Glucose
 
Stored as Glycogen in the muscles and liver
Thousands of glucose molecules joined together
 
Fat
used when glucose is running short
Motor neuron
A single nerve cell that extends from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland
What is myoglobin?
is a red pigment that stores oxygen
What is TnC?
is a inhibitory subunit that binds calicum ions
what are the 4 muscle functions?


1.Movement of bones or
fluids (e.g., blood) 2.Maintaining posture and
body position3.Stabilizing joints

4.Heat generation
(especially skeletal muscle)





Function: Voluntary movement/control
Location: in skeletal muscles attached to bones or occassionally skin.
the tendon of origin
is usually attached to bones that remain stationary during a desired action. these tendons tend to be short and broad
A single motor neuron axon and all the muscle fibers it supplies is called a:
motor unit
 
chemically gated Na/K channels
local voltage change @ end plate potential.depolarization.
What is myosin?
is the protien that makes of thick filaments
what is the operation of a gated channel?


•Closed when a
neurotransmitter is not bound to the extracellular receptor•Open when a
neurotransmitter is attached to the receptor





deep fascia location and type
surrounds whole muscle groups, dense irregular
What are the functions of titin?
(1)holding the thick filaments in place and thus orgainazation of the A band (2)assisting the muscle cell to spring back into shape after being stretched
Why are the connective tissue wrappings of skeletal muscle important? What is the function of the tendons?
They contain muscles and give them shape. They are attached to tendons that provide leverage. They direct muscle contraction and extension, in order to direct movement to desired places. Tendons attach muscle to bone and provide an extension of connective tissues.
What is smooth muscle tissues?
is found in the walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach, urinary bladder, and respiartory passages
What is an A band?
A bands are the dark bands of a sarcomere that contain the H zone.
describe the ion channels in the plasma membrane (chemically gated channels).
open with binding of a specific neurotransmitter
What does K+ do as it diffuses from the cell?
restores the eletrical polarity of the scarolemma
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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