Muscles Flashcards

Terms Definitions
example of lever
powerful flexor of forearm
quiet expiration is __
example of fulcrum
elbow joint
flexes and adducts thigh
elevates and retracts mandible
humerus; ulna; flex elbow
axillary nerve that supplies deltoid
may be injured in __ of shoulder joint
pronates forearm and hand
pronator quadratus
short fascicles, attaching obliquely to central tendon, which runs length of muscle, toward which fascicles insert on both sides; muscle-grain resembles feather
chief medial rotator of arm
rectus abdominis __ intraabdominal pressure
muscle w/several central tendons toward which muscle fibers converge; like many feathers situated side-by-side
humerus; radius; rotates the radius
Muscles of Forearm: Pronator Teres
pronates forearm
action of masseter works to
close jaw
tibialis anterior __ foot at ankle
adducts thigh; flexes and medially rotates leg
fibularis longus originates on
head of fibula
prime mover of forearm extension
triceps brachii
rotator cuff muscles provide __ movement
rotator cuff muscles act to
stabilize humerus
coracobrachialis originates on
coracoid process of scapula
tibialis anterior is prime mover of
masseter action
biting, chewing, & close jaw
brachioradialis originates on
supracondylar ridge of humerus
triceps brachii prime mover of
forearm extension
iliacus originates on
iliac fossa & crest
adductor magnus completes
adduction at hip joint
latissimus dorsi
posterior thoracic; humerus; compress abdomen/flex trunk
spine of the scapula; humerus; adduct/rotate the humerus
Abdominal Wall Muscle Functions:
-strengthen abdominal wall

-lateral flexion and rotation of trunk

-contain viscera

-shitting in any form (including child birth), vomiting and coughing
teres minor provides for __ rotation of humerus
teres minor originates on
axillary border of scapula
subscapularis originates
anterior side of scapula, in subscapular fossa
sartorius inserts on
medial aspect of proximal tibia
tendons of subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, & teres minor
combine at humeral head
rotator cuff__ & __ glenohumeral joint
stabilizes; reinforces
flexor digitorum superficialis
flexes proximal interphalangeal joints 2-5, metacarpalphalangeal joints, & flexion of wrist
protracts mandible and moves mandible side to side
lateral pterygoid
lateral hamstring muscle that is deep to semimembranous
is prime mover of back extension
erector spinae
divides leg into anterior, posterior, & lateral
leg fascia
teres major originates on
inferior angle of scapula
action: protrudes lips, purses lips, closes lips; kissing & whistling muscle
orbicularis oris
muscles on posterior thigh, cross hip & knee joint; NS sciatic nerve
example of 2nd class lever
standing on tip-toe
extends, adducts, and rotates arm medially
latissimus dorsi
biceps brachii & brachialis __ forearm flexors
levator scapula originates on
transverse processes of C1-4
fixed point upon which a lever moves
external intercostals
lifts the rib cage during inspiration
mid dorsal line of neck; clavicle; move pectoral girdle
Humerus Arm flexor
origin is anterior to shoulder joint
flexor carpi radialis inserts on
metacarpal 2 & 3
supraspinatus inserts on
most superior aspect of greater tubercle of humerus
brachioradialis inserts on
base of styloid process of radius
sheet like neck muscle, plays role in facial expression
tibialis anterior inserts on
1st metatarsal & medial cuneiform
leg muscles that produce inversion & eversion of foot
intertarsal joints
sartorius __ hip & __ rotates thigh
flexes; laterally
rhomboid minor muscle originates on
spinous process of C7-T1
trapezius inserts on
spinous processes of C7-T12, lateral 1/2 of clavicle, scapula spine & scapula acromion
O- transverse processes, bodies of T12 & lumbar vertebrae; I- lesser trochanter of femur by common tendon w/iliacus action: prime mover of
thigh flexion at hip joint
psoas major
O- dorsal ilium; I- greater trochanter of femur; Action: abduction & medial rotation of thigh
gluteus medius
three groups of leg muscles, anterior, posterior, & medial compartment muscles, are enclosed by __ __
fascia lata
2 headed muscle deep to platysma; O- manubrium of sternum, medial part of clavicle; I- mastoid process of temporal bone
movement of forearm is summarized as
pronation & supination
extensor digitorum longus extends __ & __ joints of digits 2-5
metatarsophalangeael; interphalangeal
anterior scapular muscles include
deltoid, coracobrachialis, & biceps brachii
tendon of fibularis longus passes posterior of
sole of foot
extensor hallucis inserts on base of distal phalanx of
digit 1
abdominal wall muscles help promote
urination, defecation, childbirth, vomiting, coughing
extensor digitorum communis
lateral epicondyle of humerus; tendons on digits; extends digits
triceps brachii-lateral head
surgace of humerus; olecranon process of the ulna; extends forelimb
External and Internal Oblique of Abdominal Wall Function:
-compresses abdominal wall

-flexes the vertebral column

-aids in trunk rotation and lateral flexion
tendon of fibularis longus inserts on __ __ of metatarsal 1 & medial surface of __
lateral surface; cuneiform
damage to __ __ would interfere with quiet breathing
external intercostals
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius insert via common quadriceps tendon into patella then via
patellar ligament into tibial tuberosity
fibularis longus __ foot & assist in __ flexion of foot at ankle
everts; plantar
teres minor inserts on
greater tubercle just below insertion of infraspinatus
external occipital protuberance is
1 of origin sites for trapezius
latissimus dorsi is the larger of __ __, both anterior & posterior, that cross glenohumeral joint
axial muscles
forms bulk of buttock mass; site of I/M injections; overlies sciatic nerve; O dorsal ilium; I gluteal tuberosity; action: strong extensor of thigh
gluteus maximus
action: acting alone sternocleidomastoid rotates head so
face is turned towards opposite side
O- Ribs 1-8; I- vertebral border of scapula; action: holds scapula against chest wall & also helps to stabilize scapula; ‘Boxers muscle’
serratus anterior
heads of triceps brachii inserts on
olecranon process of ulna
long head of triceps brachii originates on
infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
brachialis inserts on
tuberosity & coronoid process of ulna
Tranversus Abdominus of Abdominal Wall Function:
1. compresses the abdominal contents
Shoulder Joint: Humerus Movers Characteristics
1. movers usually originate from pectoral girdle except for pectoralis major and latissmus dorsi
2. humerus abductor: originates from middle region of deltoid
3. humerus adductor: originates from pectoralis major and latissmus dorsi
anterior muscles of pectoral girdle include
pectoralis minor & serratus anterior
muscles of anterior compartment of lower leg are
toe extensors & ankle dorsiflexors
muscles acting on pectoral region cause posterior movements of scapula, including
trapezius muscles, levator scapulae, rhomboids
second-class levers have
great strength but are slow and have little range of motion
muscles acting on the pectoral region that cause movements of arm at shoulder joint
pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi
1 movement of scapula is __ __, or lowering of glenoid cavity
medial rotation
triceps brachii are __ __ of forearm __ at elbow
prime mover; extension
deltoid, pectoralis major, & latissimus dorsi are
considered prime movers of shoulder joint
extensor hallucis extends __ __ of the big toe & assist in __ of foot
all joints; dorsiflexion
middle portion of deltoid muscle is
prime mover of shoulder abduction
rhomboid major muscle inserts on
scapula medial border, inferior to scapula spine
levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, rhomboideus major, & trapezius
muscles that comprise posterior group of pectoral girdle
composite muscle located along the back from thoracic region to head
semispinalis capitis, cervicis, and thoracis
What does the word Contractility mean?
The ability for muslces to shorten
Rectus Abdominus of Abdominal Wall Function:
1. flexes and rotates lumbar region
2. fixes and depresses ribs
3. stabilizes pelvis while walking
4. abs during sit ups and crunches
splenius capitis, acting unilaterally,
extends & rotates head to same side
effort is applied at one end of the lever; the load at the other; fulcrum somewhere in between
1st class lever
medial rotation of scapula results from
contraction of levator scapulae & rhomboid major/minor
rhomboid minor muscle inserts on
scapula medial border, at level of scapula spine
splenius capitis inserts on
mastoid process of temporal bone & superior nuchal line of occipital bone
muscle of anterior compartment of lower leg, tibialis anterior, originates on
lateral tibial condyle & upper 2/3 tibial shaft
medial head of triceps brachii originates on
inferior 2/3 of medial & posterior humerus, inferior to radial groove
What is the purpose of ATP.
To provided the body with a quick burst of energy for muscle contraction.
O posterior shaft of humerus I olecranon process
lateral & medial heads of triceps brachii
human engineering.
situated between the vertebrae.
to extend or protrude.
a knotlike mass of tissue:
to make a crackling sound; crackle.
rheumatoid arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, frequently accompanied by marked deformities, and ordinarily associated with manifestations of a general, or systemic, affliction.
a large, triangular muscle covering the joint of the shoulder, the action of which raises the arm away from the side of the body.
of or pertaining to a phalanx.
of or pertaining to the thorax.
the act of bending a limb.
a lubricating fluid resembling the white of an egg, secreted by certain membranes, as those of the joints.
the act of straightening a limb.
a small rounded projection or excrescence, as on a bone or on the surface of the body.
an abnormally formed part of the body.
to overstrain or wrench (the ligaments of an ankle, wrist, or other joint) so as to injure without fracture or dislocation.
the most common form of arthritis, usually occurring after middle age, marked by chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints leading to pain, stiffness, and swelling.
either of two flat, triangular bones, each forming the back part of a shoulder in humans; shoulder blade.
of, pertaining to, or situated near the hinge joint formed by the lower jaw and the temporal bone of the skull.
biceps brachii
either of two flexor muscles, one
(in humans) either of two slender bones, each articulating with the sternum and a scapula and forming the anterior part of a shoulder; collarbone.
acute or chronic inflammation of a joint, often accompanied by pain and structural changes and having diverse causes, as infection, crystal deposition, or injury.
a jointed state or formation; a joint.
of, pertaining to, or situated near the ilium.
an abnormal, convex curvature of the spine, with a resultant bulge at the upper back.
intervertebral disk
the plate of fibrocartilage between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae.
shallow or slightly cupped, as the articular cavities of the scapula and the temporal bone.
any of the bones of the wrist.
having more than the normal number of fingers or toes.
a disorder in which the bones become increasingly porous, brittle, and subject to fracture, owing to loss of calcium and other mineral components, sometimes resulting in pain, decreased height, and skeletal deformities: common in older persons, primarily
either one of the twelfth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the tongue.
any of the bones or segments composing the spinal column, consisting typically of a cylindrical body and an arch with various processes, and forming a foramen, or opening, through which the spinal cord passes.
pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.
the uppermost bone of the proximal row of bones of the tarsus; anklebone.
of or pertaining to the cervix or neck.
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the surface of the palm is facing downward or toward the back (
a band of tissue, usually white and fibrous, serving to connect bones, hold organs in place, etc.
a bone in the human leg extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body; thighbone.
a pouch, sac, or vesicle, esp. a sac containing synovia, to facilitate motion, as between a tendon and a bone.
glossopharyngeal nerve
either of the ninth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, the soft palate, and the parotid glands, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses to the brain from the pharynx, the middle ear, and the p
the bend or joint of the human arm between upper arm and forearm.
of or pertaining to the sole of the foot.
the outward end of the spine of the scapula or shoulder blade.
cranial nerve
any of the nerves arising from the brainstem and exiting to the periphery of the head through skull openings, including 10 pairs in fish and amphibians and 12 pairs in reptiles, birds, and mammals: in humans, these are the abducens nerve, accessory nerve,
oculomotor nerve
either one of the third pair of cranial nerves, consisting chiefly of motor fibers that innervate most of the muscles of the eyeball.
innominate bone
either of the two bones forming the sides of the pelvis, each consisting of three consolidated bones, the ilium, ischium, and pubis.
acoustic nerve
either one of the eighth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the organs of hearing and from the semicircular canals to the brain.
vagus nerve
either one of the tenth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, heart, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from these structures to the brain.
the smooth surface area at the end of a bone, forming part of a joint.
the outward end of the spine of the scapula or shoulder blade.
the long bone in the arm of humans extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
the act of retracting or the state of being retracted.
optic nerve
either one of the second pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the retina to the brain.
external auditory meatus
the canal extending from the opening in the external ear to the tympanic membrane.
carpal tunnel syndrome
a common disorder of the wrist and hand characterized by pain, tingling, and muscular weakness, caused by pressure on the median nerve in the wrist area and often associated with trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, or edema of pregnancy.
a wasting away of the body or of an organ or part, as from defective nutrition or nerve damage.
pubic symphysis
the fixed joint at the front of the pelvic girdle where the halves of the pubis meet.
zygomatic arch
the bony arch at the outer border of the eye socket, formed by the union of the cheekbone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
Forearm supination
Location: Neck
abducts the arm
rotates forearm laterally
Lateral Pterygoid innervation
Trigeminal nerve
Cartilagenous Joint that's amphiarthrotic. Broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage. (exp: public symphysis or intervertebral joints)
Orbicularis oculi
ACTION: closes eye
Styloglossus action
Retracts (and elevates) tongue
Extensor Digitorum(origin)
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
counteracts the agonist (prime mover)
Fine sheath of connective tissue consisting mostly of reticular fibres that surrounds each individual muscle fibre.
Synarthrotic Fibrous Joint. "to bolt together" (exp: tooth socket with periodontal ligament
compresses abdomen and stabilizes trunk
transversus abdominus
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
The less movable attachment of a muscle.
Sternothyroid action
Pulls thyroid cartilage (plus larynx and hyoid bone) inferiorly
rhomboid minor
adducts and inferiorly rotates the scapula
Dorsal and lateral surfaces of upper 1/3 of radius
EyeRectusSuperior rectus
Action- Moves eye superiorly, elevates eye; and medially, adducts eyeInnercation- CN III (oculomotor nerve)
plasma membrane surface of a muscle fiber
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
This is the most superficial of the medial thigh muscles.
Plantaris action
Assists in knee flexion and plantar flexion of foot
biceps femoris
flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Vastus med, inter, and lat
o-body of femuri-patellar ligamenta-extend knee
effects of resistance exercise
muscle hypertrophy (increased size), -increased mitochondria, myofilaments, and glycogen stores
Digastric origin and insertion
origin: Lower margin of mandible (anterior belly) and mastoid process of the temporal bone (posterior belly); insertion: By a connective tissue loop to hyoid bone
distal skeletal muscle of arm
ORIGIN- lateral epicondyle of humerus. iINSERTION
Flexor carpi radialis
ORIGIN: Humerus, medial epicondyle. INSERTION: Metacarpals 2 & 3. ACTION: Flexes and abducts hand
Abductor Hallucis origin and insertion
origin: Tuber calcanei and flexor retinaculum; insertion: Proximal phalanx of big toe, medial side, via sesamoid bone in the tendon of flexor hallucis brevis
adducts and medially rotates thigh. extends thigh
adductor magnus/adductor longus
4 short synergists to extension and rotation of spine p 345
intertrasversarius (btwn tp;'s), rotatores longus and brevus (from tp's to sp), multifidus (lamina to sp- mostly lumbar), interspinalis (sp to sp)
Structure and Organization of a Muscle
Epimyseum - outer layer of fascia consisting of hundreds of muscle cells, Fascicle - bundle of muscle cells separated by perimysium, Muscle Fiber - multinucleate cell surrounded by endomysium (EPI, PERI, ENDO)
Muscles of Anterior Neck and Throat - 2 superficial layers
suprahyoid - above hyoid bone and infrahyoid - below hyoid bone
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