Muscular System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
singultus
hiccups
brady-
slow
-plegia
paralysis, stroke
-paresis
partial, incomplete paralysis
ton/o
tension, tone, stretching
contraction
tightening of muscle
depression
lowering a body part
CNS SIGNALS (?) MOTOR NEURONS?
STIMULATES
MUSCLES REQUIRE WHAT TO CONTRACT?
ATP
spasm
cramp, sudden, violent, involuntary contraction
dorsiflexion
bends foot upward at ankle
WHAT REMAINS HIGH TO RECOVER?
RESPIRATORY/HEART RATE
MUSCLE TISSUE-SKELETAL IS MADE OF?
SEVERAL FIBERS
WHAT HELPS TO REMOVE EXCESS HEAT?
SWEATING
MUSCULAR SYSTEM IS SPECIALIZED FOR WHAT?
CONTRACTION
tendons
narrow band of dense, fibrous connective tissue, attaches muscle to bone
kinesiology
study of muscular activity and movement of body parts
fibromyalgia syndrome
unknown cause characterized by widespread aching pain, tender points, and fatigue
myocele
protrusion of muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia
electromyography
records the strength of muscle contractions
CELLULAR RESPIRATION PRODUCES WHAT?
WATER,CARBON DIOXIDE, AND ATP
MUSCLE TISSUE-SMOOTH IS RESPONSIBLE FOR WHAT?
SLOWER SUSTAINED CONTRACTION
fascia
sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates muscles
muscular dystrophy
inherited disorder that causes muscle weakness without affection nervous system
muscle insertion
more moveable, end farthest from midline
neurologist
treats cause of paralysis and similar disorders
muscle origin
more fixed attachment/ end nearest midline
adhesion
band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally
muscle innervation
stimulation of muscle by an impulse
MUSCLE TISSUE -SMOOTH CAN REMAIN IN STATE OF CONTRACTION FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME, SUSTAINED RHYTHMIC CONTRACTIONS AND WHAT?
SELF EXCITING
NAME ANOTHER FUNCTION OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM NOT MOVEMENT.
PRODUCES HEAT
MOTOR NERVE ENDINGS(NUERONS) ARE FOUND WHERE?
ON EACH FIBER
NAME 3 ENERGY SOURCES FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION.
ATP,CREATINE PHOPHATE,GLYCOGEN
GLUCOSE CONVERTS TO LACTIC ACID FOR ENERGY WHICH CAUSES WHAT?
MUSCLE FATIGUE
smooth muscles
move and control flow of fluids, unstriated (not striped), involuntary (controled by nervous system), visceral (found in large internal organs)
tardive dyskinesia
late appearance caused by side effect of long term antipsychotic drugs
cervical radiculopathy
nerve pain caused by pressuer on spinal nerve roots in neck region
WHAT IS SARCOLEMMA?
MEMBRANE OF THE MUSCLE FIBER; IT CONTAINS RECEPTOR SITES FOR ACETYLCHOLINE AND CHOLINESTERASE
NAME THE TWO GENERAL TYPES OF EXERCISE?
ISOTONIC AND ISOMETRIC
WHAT IS SYNAPSE?
SMALL SPACE BETWEEN THE AXON TERMINAL AND THE MUSCLE FIBER
HOW MANY POINTS IS EACH MUSCLE ATTACHED TO?
AT LEAST 2 POINTS
WHAT IS THE FASCIA?
COVERS MUSCLE AND IS CONTINOUS WITH THE PERIOSTEUM OF THE BONES(MERGERS WITH TENDONS
WHAT DOES THE MUSCULAR ORGAN SYSTEM DO?
IT MOVES THE BONES
NAME THE FOUR ORGAN SYSTEMS INVOLVED IN MOVEMENT.
MUSCULAR, SKELETAL, NERVOUS,AND RESPIRATORY
NAME THE POINTS EACH MUSCLE IS ATTACHED TO.
ORIGIN AND INSERTION
WHAT DOES THE NERVOUS ORGAN SYSTEM DO?
IMPULSES TO MUSCLE CAUSE CONTRACTION
INA STATE OF FATIGUE MUSCLES CANNOT WHAT?
CONTRACT EFFICIENTLY AND CONTRACTON MAY BECOME PAINFUL
HOW DO MUSCLES BRING ABOUT MOVEMENT?
BY WORKING IN PAIRS OR GROUPS
HOW DO MUSCLES ATTACH TO BONES?
THROUGH EITHER TENDINOUS OR FLESHY ATTACHMENTS
MUSCLE TISSUE -SKELETAL IS CAPABLE OF SUDDEN, POWERFUL CONTRACTIONS, READILY SUBJECT TO FATIGUE CANNOT SUSTAIN WHAT?
CONTRACTION FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME
MUSCLE TONE HELPS TO MAINTAIN WHAT?
UPRIGHT POSTURE AND IS THE ABILITY OF THE MUSCLE TO MAINTAIN A CONTRACTION
my/o
muscle
-rrexis
rupture
tri-
three
tax/o
coordination, order
-ic
noun ending
radicul/o
nerve root
adduction
movement toward midline
-cele
hernia, tumor, swelling
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
tendons
abduction
movement away from midline
-lysis
destruction, loosening, setting free
-desis
to bind, tie together
WHAT DO TERMINAL AXONS PRODUCE?
cns
MUSCLES WORK IN ? PAIRS
OPPOSING
myasthenia
muscle weakness from any cause
rotation
circular movement around an axis
AXON TERMINAL (MOTOR END PLATE) ENLARGED TIP OF A MOTOR NEURON CONTAINS WHAT?
ACETYCHOLINE
MUSCLE TISSUE-SMOOTH IS VISCERAL AND ?
INVOLUNTARY
MUSCLE TISSUE-SKELETAL IS VOLUNTARY AND ?
STRIATED
COORDINATION OF MEOVEMENT IS CONTROLLED BY ?
THE CEREBELLUM
plantar flexion
bends food downward at ankle
cardiac muscle
myocardium, like striated in appearance but like smooth in action
cardiologist
treats disorders of the cardiac muscles
flexion
bending a limb at a joint
pronation
rotating arm/leg so palm/sole is turned downward/backward
STIMULUS IS SPREAD TO THE WHAT JUNCTION?
NEUROMUSCLAR
ISOTONIC EXERCISE DOES WHAT?
CONTRACT BRING ABOUT MOVEMENT
THE IMMOBILE POINT OF ATTACHMENT OR STATIONARY END IS THE
ORIGIN
MUSCLES THAT DECREASE THE ANGLE ARE KNOWN AS?
FLEXORS
MOVEMENT THAT DECREASES THE ANGLE OF VENTRAL SURFACES ARE KNOWN AS ?
FLEXION
TENDONS CONNECT MUSCLES TO BONES AND MERGE WITH ?
FASCIA
WHAT IS THE MOST ABUNDANT ENERGY SOURCE IN MUSCLE FIBERS?
GLYCOGEN
MUSCLE TISSUE -SMOOTH IS SPINDLE SHAPED ONE NUCLEUS AND ?
NON STRIATED
WHAT MINERAL MUST BE PRESENT FOR HEMOGLOBIN AND MYOGLOBIN?
IRON
PRIME MOVERS ARE?
THOSE MUSCLES THAT INITIATE MOVEMENT;ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MOST OF THE MOVEMENT
WHAT DOES MYOGLOBIN DO?
(WITHIN MUSCLE FIBERS)STORES O2
circumduction
circular movement of limb at far end
intermittent claudication
symptons including cramplike pain of leg muscles caused by poor circulation
orthopedic surgeon
treats injuries and disorders of bones, joints,muscles, and tendons
skeletal muscles
make body motions possible, striated (striped appearance), voluntary (conscious control)
muscle atrophy
weakness/ wasting away of muscle tissue
antagonistic
muscles work in opposition to each other to create movement
WHAT DOES HEMOGLOBIN DO?
DELIVERS O2 (RBC'S IN BLOOD)
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM?
MOVEMENT
OXYGEN STORED UP IN WHAT IS QUICKLY USED UP DURING STRENOUS EXERCISE?
MYOGLOBIN
plantar fascitis
heel spurs, bony growths on dorsal surface of heel bone
muscle tone
tonus, normal state of balanced muscle tension
WHAT IS SACROPLASMIC RETICULUM?
RESERVOIR FOR CALCIUM WHICH IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE CONTRACTION PROCESS
DEFINE ANTAGONISTS:
MUSCLES THAT OPPOSE THE ACTION OF THE PRIME MOVER AND MUST BE RELAXED SO THAT MOVEMENT MAY TAKE PLACE
DEFINE STRETCH RECEPTORS:
SEND INFORMATION TO THE PARIETAL LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM GENERAL FUNCTION IS TO DETECT CHANGE, GIVE BRAIN MENTAL PICTURE OF WHERE THE MUSCLE IS
How many muscles is in the muscular system?
over 600
WHAT IS MUSCLE TONE?
THE STATE OF SLIGHT CONTRACTION OF MUSCLES
WHAT IS ACTIN AND MYOSIN?
PROTEINS IN MUSCLE FIBERS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION MYOSIN IS THE CENTER OF THE SARCOMERE
WHAT IS A NUEROMUSCULAR JUNCTION?
WHERE MOTOR NUERON COMES IN CONTACT WITH MUSCLE FIRBER;AREA WHERE THE MOTOR NEURON TERMINATES ON THE MUSCLE FIBER
MUSCLE TISSUE -SMOOTH IS FOUND WHERE?
IN WALLS OF HOLLOW OR TUBULAR STRUCTURES
WHAT DOES THE SKELETAL ORGAN SYSTEM DO?
BONES ARE MOVED, AT JOINTS BY MUSCLES
WHAT IS THE FUNCTIONS OF TROPIN AND TROPOMYOSIN?
PREVENT THE SLIDING OG ACTIN AND MYOSIN WHEN THE MUSCLE FIBER IS RELAXED
WHAT DOES THE RESPIRATORY ORGAN SYSTEM DO?
EXCHANGES O2 AND CO2 BETWEEN AIR AND BLOOD
-clonus
turmoil
supraspinatus
abduct
gracilis
Sartorius origin
Ilium
Orbicularis Oris
teres major
actin
thin filamentprotein
Tibilis Anterior origin
Tibia
orbicularis oculi
closes eye
antagonist
opposes prime mover


 Romboideus Minor and Major
myolysis
degeneration of muscle tissue
sliding filament theory
sketal muscle contracts
Origin
Stationary bone in given movement
Rectus Femoris and Vastus Medialis
Cardiac
Pumps blood, involuntary, striated, branching, heart
Muscle Homology criteria
similar functionsimilar attachmentsimilar nerve supplysimilar embryonic origin
t tubules
continuous with the sarcolemma; conduct impulses to the deepest regions of the muscle; signals for the Ca2+ release from adjacent terminal cisternae
treppe
staircase effect. Tension peak being slightly stronger than the one before it.
concentric contraction
contract m. while it's shortened
"Sacroplasm" =
cytoplasm of a muscle cell
Impulses travel relatively slowly or rapidly through the cardiac muscle.
rapidly
conductivity
local electrical change triggers a wave of excitation that travels along the muscle fiber
Coordinated Muscle Actions- Agonist
Prime mover
 
produces most force
skeletal muscle tissue
striated and voluntary; contracts rapidly and tires easily; responsible for all locomotion; maintain posture; stabilize joints; generate heat
Poliomyelitis
Viral infection of the nerves that controls skeletal muscle movement. May be fatal.
 
Muscle Size
Terms often used in naming muscles
(maximus-largest, minimus-smallest, longus-long and brevis-short)
smooth muscle
Contractie tissue that cmpses the mucles found in the walls internal organs.
Stress-Relaxation Response
Occurs in Smooth skeletal muscleSmooth muscle fibers can stretch considerably without generating tension
extrinsix muscle
located away from the movement area
acetylcholine
the acetic acid ester of choline, C7H17NO3, released and hydrolyzed during nerve conduction and causing muscle action by transmitting nerve impulses across synapses.
What is the name of the regulatory protein that covers the attachment site on actin in resting skeletal muscle?
tropomyosin
stimulus
agent that causes a change in the activity of a structure
muscle tension
results in myalgia and stiffness in neck and back (may cause "stress headaches")
sarcolemma
cell membrane of a m. cell, encasing cytoplasm and organelles of muscle tissue
heel spur
calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneous (heel) bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fascitis
An instrument used to cut bone is called:
osteo/tom/e
what muscle is located under the shoulder?
Bicep brachii
Sarcomere
the functional unit of a muscle fiber- the area between 2 Z-lines
action potential in the muscle
propagated along the sarcolemma; travels down t tubules; triggers Ca2+ release from terminal cisternae
Adductor
Moves a part of the body toward the midline.
a molecule that stores a small amount of energy in a muscle fiber
creatine phosphate
Connective Tissues in skeletal muscle
Epimysium- surround the whole musclePerimysium- surrounds bundles of fibers (Fascicles)Endomysium- surrounds each individual muscle fiber**All three extend beyond the muscle belly to form the muscle tendon
convergent muscle
broad at origin and tapering to a narrow intersection
Nerve stimulus of skeltal muscle
stimulated by motor neurons; axon forms neuromuscular junction; neuromuscular junction formed from axon terminal (ach)and sarcolemma (contains ach receptors) and synaptic cleft (small space between axon termial and sarcolemma)
Abductor
Moves a part of the body away from the body's midline.
The diagnostic term Ankylosing Spondylitis refers to the autoimmune condition of Rheumatoid Arthritis actually means:
the abnormal condition of stiffness and fusion of vertebrae
What is the orgin?
Where muscle tendon attaches to a more stationary bone
The diagnostic term Genu Varum (knees are in the varus position) means that
knees are bent outward (bow-legged)
The diagnostic term Bunion (turnip sac) actually means
inflamed bursa of the big toe's metatarsophalangeal joint
in order to contract a skeltal muscle must
be stimulated by a nerve ending; propagate an electrical current (action potential) along its sarcolemma; have a rise in intercellular Ca2+ levels
muscul
muscle
-asthenia
no strength
Tibialis Anterior
adductor longus
Myalgia
Muscle pain
Latissimus Dorsi insertion
Humerus
endomysium
covers m. fibers
dys-
bad, difficult, painful
Extensibility
ability to be stretched
Smooth
Visceral, involuntary, nonstriated, spindle, walls of hollow internal surfaces
Fixator
prevents movement of bone
Gastrocnemius insertion
Achilles Tendon to Calcaneus
rectus femoris
flexes thigh, extends leg
Myofibrils
conctractile portion of muscle fibers.
sphincter
ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the openings of a passageway
Contractability
shortens when stimulatedthe only tissue that shortens when stimulated
Muscle Attachments- Indirect
indirect attachment to bone
 
origin and insertion
 
epimysium continues as tendon or aponeurosis that merges into periosteum as perforating fibers
What type of contraction causes movement of joints?
Isotonic
Transverse abdominis
Compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates trunk
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Modified endplasmic retriculum that stores calcium ions; envelops myofibrils.
electroneuromyography
procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity
Thin Filaments
Actin, Troponin, Tropomyosin Myosin binding site is covered by the tropomyosin in a relaxed musclebind to the z-disk
fascitis
R- fasc- a bandS- itis- inflammationInflammation of the fascia
myosin
the principal contractile protein of muscle.
motor neutron
transmits nerve impulses from the brain and spinal chord to muscles and glandular epithelial tissues.
tonic contraction
special type of skeletal muscle contraction used to maintain posture
biceps brachii
flexes arm, flexes forearm, supinates hand
semimembraneous
flexes knee; medially rotates tibia on femur when knee is flexed; medially rotates femur when hip is extended; counteracts forward bending at hips.
Cardiac, Skeletal, Smooth
The three types of muscles
Excitability
Ability to respond to stimuli and produce electrical signals
The surgical term that means fusing together of the spine (vertebrae) is:
spondylosyndesis
fusiform
thick in middle and tapered at endsbiceps in brachii
Aponeurosis
a broad, flat sheet used for attachment
Athletic Injuries
* muscles and tendons *
Vulnerable to sudden and intense stress
Proper warm up and conditioning needed
common injuries: shin splints, pulled hamstrings, & tennis elbow
Treat with RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation)
 
What is the immidiate source of energy for muscle contraction?
ATP
triceps brachii
extends and adducts the arm, extends the forearm
herniplegia
total paralysis of one side of the body
muscle function: color
red muscle- highly vascularized, rich in myoglobin, resistant to fagigue, optimized for endurance.white muscle- less vascularized, low in myoglobin, optimized for quick powerful actions, contract rapidly.
Skeletal muscle Shapescircular muscles
ring around body openingorbicularis oculi
Skeletal Muscle CT- Epimysium
dense regular CT covering entire muscle and works to seperate muscles
 
continuation of each tendon
Direct muscle attachment
epimysium is fused to periosteum or perichondrium
Skeletal muscle fibers
Each is a multinucleated cell created by the fusion of several mononucleate emryonic cells. Nuclei found at periphery of the cell.
Muscles rarely act alone
stance phase- when heels strikes ground until toe is lifted from it. hamstrings, quads and prebital muscles activeswing phase- when toe lifts until heel strikes ground again- calf muscles active
The term Chiropractor literally means:
one who practices by hand
second step of muscle contraction
1. Receptors on the sarcolemma initiates a depolarization event and action potential
2. Action potential travels along the sarcolemma throughout the system of tubules
Speed-Accuracy Trade off
the faster you do something the less accurate you do itIncreased force = decreased accuracy
Shapes of Skeletal Muscle- Fusiform
thick in middle and tapered at ends
 
biceps brachii
muscle function: tonic and twitch fibers
tonic: slow contracting, low force, may sustain for long periods of time, involved in postural support. common in amphibians, reptiles, rare in mammals where found in extrinsic eye and middle ear. twitch: slow twitch--slow contraction time, very small force output, very high resistance to fatigue. found in somatic muscles of all vertebraes.
What is a motor unit?
A motor nueron, together with all the muscle fibers it stimulates
What causes burning sensation in muscles when you exercise?
lactic acid produced due to lack of ozygen which results in soreness
Platysma 
Infraspinatus
Mastication
chewing
Internal Intercostals 
summation
adding to
MG
Myasthenia gravis
Teres Major insertion
Humerus
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Extensibility (flexibility)
Able to lengthen
dorsi this is a prefix
back
What muscle moves the shoulder?
Trapezius
epimysium
covers entire m. or organ
Myoglobin
Hemoglobin-like protein, found in muscle tissue. Has a high oxygen affinity. Binds to oxygen from bloodstream, holds onto it until available oxygenis depleted. Acts as additional oxygen reserve.
myoparesis
weakness or slight muscular paralysis
Nyoplasty
plastic surgery of muscle tissue
Functions of Muscular System
 
1.Skeletal movement 
2.Maintains posture / position 
3.Supports soft tissue 
4.Controls opening / exits of body 

5.Maintains body temperature
rectus abdominus
flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal wall
Myogenic activity
Property of reflexively contracting without nervous stimulation (smooth and cardiac muscle).
hypotonia
condition of diminished tone of skeletal muscles with decreased resistance of muscle to passive stretching
H-zone
In the A-bandcontains no myosin heads
myopathy
CF- myo- muscleS- pathy- diseaseMuscle disease
Isotonic contraction
Produces small mocement in joint, muscle shortens and insertion end moves toward origin. ex: running, walking, breathing, lifting and twisting
External abdominal oblique
Compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates trunk
vastus medialis
extends knee; retains patella in groove on femur during knee movements
Tropomysosin and Troponin
Two proteins in thin filaments
impingement syndrome
occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint, common sign is discomfort when raising your arm above your head
Incomplete (unfused) Tetnus
sustained muscle contraction the permits partial relaxation between stimuli
The condition resulting in spasms of the nerves and muscles due to an abnormally low concentration of calcium in the blood is:
tetany
Muscular System
Skeletal muscle tissue is primary type of tissue
What are 3 types of muscle?
Skeletal

Cardiac

Smooth
 
Muscle Fiber Directions
muscles: some named for imaginary lines.
            : muscle fibers run parallel to that line are called rectus.
Antagonist Muscle
muscle or muscle group that directly opposes the action of a prime mover muscle or muscle group that is directly producing a desired movement
ergonomics
the study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
Concentric action
muscle shortens to produce force and movement muscle force > resistant force
Skeletal Muscle Origin
attachemtn to stationary end of muscle( bone thats not moving)
naming-shape and features
-some muscles are named after their shape or specific features 
-Bi-, tri-, and quadriceps - refer to the number of tendons of origin 
-Deltoid - triangular  
-Longus / longissimus - long muscles
MAjor functions of skeletal muscle
movement, posture, heat protection (hypothermia), fatigue
Force Production: Speed of Action
decrease force= increased velocity*The lighter the load the quicker you can shorten the muscleincrease load=decreased velocity*The heavier the load the more difficult it is to move, the slower the muscle will shorten.
The term Examination means:
the process or procedure of inspection
Functions of Muscles- Movement
movement of body parts and organ contents
Muscle cell properties that give them ability to move
Excitability (respond to stimulus)
Contractility
Extensibility
Elasticity (ability to return to resting length after movement)
The diagnostic term Hip Disarticulation (HD) also means
a surgical amputation through the joint capsule of the hip joint
naming - position
- muscles can be named based on their location in the body 
-Superficials or externus - visible at the surface 
-Internus or profundus - deeper
Parts of a twitch contraction
Latent period: Ca released from SR, binds to complex, slack is removed from elastic componentContraction: filaments slide past each otherRelaxation: active transport of Ca back into SRRefractory Period: muscle cell cannot respond, hyperpolarized
ADL DTR EMG
activities of daily livingdeep tendon reflexes electromyography
How does a muscle contraction begin?
Nerve impulse causes release of ACh by synaptic vesiclesACh binds to receptors causing Na channels to open, Na influxCell becomes more positive, AP spreads over sarcolemaCa is released from SRCa binds to troponin, complex movesmyosin binds to actin
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